Shinji Watanabe

Shinji Watanabe
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Shinji Watanabe

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Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (29)
Physics - Superconductivity (10)
Physics - Statistical Mechanics (3)
Physics - Materials Science (3)
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (2)
Computer Science - Computation and Language (2)
Statistics - Machine Learning (2)
Computer Science - Learning (2)
Computer Science - Sound (2)
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (1)
Computer Science - Neural and Evolutionary Computing (1)

Publications Authored By Shinji Watanabe

The field of speech recognition is in the midst of a paradigm shift: end-to-end neural networks are challenging the dominance of hidden Markov models as a core technology. Using an attention mechanism in a recurrent encoder-decoder architecture solves the dynamic time alignment problem, allowing joint end-to-end training of the acoustic and language modeling components. In this paper we extend the end-to-end framework to encompass microphone array signal processing for noise suppression and speech enhancement within the acoustic encoding network. Read More

Unconventional quantum critical phenomena observed in Yb-based periodic crystals such as YbRh$_2$Si$_2$ and $\beta$-YbAlB$_4$ have been one of the central issues in strongly correlated electron systems. The common criticality has been discovered in quasicrystal Yb$_{15}$Au$_{51}$Al$_{34}$, which surprisingly persists under pressure at least up to $P=1.5$ GPa. Read More

Recently, there has been an increasing interest in end-to-end speech recognition that directly transcribes speech to text without any predefined alignments. One approach is the attention-based encoder-decoder framework that learns a mapping between variable-length input and output sequences in one step using a purely data-driven method. The attention model has often been shown to improve the performance over another end-to-end approach, the Connectionist Temporal Classification (CTC), mainly because it explicitly uses the history of the target character without any conditional independence assumptions. Read More

Deep clustering is a recently introduced deep learning architecture that uses discriminatively trained embeddings as the basis for clustering. It was recently applied to spectrogram segmentation, resulting in impressive results on speaker-independent multi-speaker separation. In this paper we extend the baseline system with an end-to-end signal approximation objective that greatly improves performance on a challenging speech separation. Read More

To get insight into the mechanism of emergence of unconventional quantum criticality observed in quasicrystal Yb$_{15}$Al$_{34}$Au$_{51}$, the approximant crystal Yb$_{14}$Al$_{35}$Au$_{51}$ is analyzed theoretically. By constructing a minimal model for the approximant crystal, the heavy quasiparticle band is shown to emerge near the Fermi level because of strong correlation of 4f electrons at Yb. We find that charge-transfer mode between 4f electron at Yb on the 3rd shell and 3p electron at Al on the 4th shell in Tsai-type cluster is considerably enhanced with almost flat momentum dependence. Read More

Exact formulas of diagonal conductivity $\sigma_{xx}$ and Hall conductivity $\sigma_{xy}$ are derived from the Kubo formula in hybridized two-orbital systems with arbitrary band dispersions. On the basis of the theoretical framework for the Fermi liquid based on these formulas, the ground-state properties of the periodic Anderson model with electron correlation and weak impurity scattering are studied on the square lattice. It is shown that imbalance of the mass-renormalization factors in $\sigma_{xx}$ and $\sigma_{xy}$ causes remarkable increase in the valence-fluctuation regime as the f level increases while the cancellation of the renormalization factors causes slight increase in $\sigma_{xx}$ and $\sigma_{xy}$ in the Kondo regime. Read More

We address the problem of acoustic source separation in a deep learning framework we call "deep clustering." Rather than directly estimating signals or masking functions, we train a deep network to produce spectrogram embeddings that are discriminative for partition labels given in training data. Previous deep network approaches provide great advantages in terms of learning power and speed, but previously it has been unclear how to use them to separate signals in a class-independent way. Read More

The mechanism of the emergence of robust quantum criticality in the heavy-electron quasicrystal Yb15Al34Au51 is analyzed theoretically. By constructing a minimal model for the quasicrystal and its crystalline approximant, which contain concentric shell structures with Yb and Al-Au clusters, we show that a set of quantum critical points of the first-order valence transition of Yb appears as spots in the ground-state phase diagram. Their critical regions overlap each other, giving rise to a wide quantum critical region. Read More

The scaling behavior over four decades of the ratio of temperature T to magnetic field B observed in the magnetization in beta-YbAlB4 is theoretically examined. By developing a theoretical framework that exhibits the quantum critical phenomena of Yb-valence fluctuations under a magnetic field, we show that the T/B-scaling behavior can appear near the quantum critical point of the valence transition. The emergence of the T/B scaling indicates the presence of the small characteristic energy scale of critical Yb-valence fluctuations. Read More

Quantum criticality due to the valence transition in some Yb-based heavy fermion metals has gradually turned out to play a crucial role to understand the non-Fermi liquid properties that cannot be understood from the conventional quantum criticality theory due to magnetic transitions. Namely, critical exponents giving the temperature (T) dependence of the resistivity \rho(T), the Sommerfeld coefficient, C(T)/T, the magnetic susceptibility, \chi(T), and the NMR relaxation rates, 1/(T_{1}T), can be understood as the effect of the critical valence fluctuations of f electrons in Yb ion in a unified way. There also exist a series of Ce-based heavy fermion metals that exhibit anomalies in physical quantities, enhancements of the residual resistivity \rho_{0} and the superconducting critical temperature (T_c) around the pressure where the valence of Ce sharply changes. Read More

The mechanism of emergence of robust quantum criticality in Yb- and Ce-based heavy electron systems under pressure is analyzed theoretically. By constructing a minimal model for quasicrystal Yb15Al34Au51 and its approximant, we show that quantum critical points of the first-order valence transition of Yb appear in the ground-state phase diagram with their critical regimes being overlapped to be unified, giving rise to a wide quantum critical regime. This well explains the robust unconventional criticality observed in Yb15Al34Au51 under pressure. Read More

A new universality class of quantum criticality emerging in itinerant electron systems with strong local electron correlations is discussed. The quantum criticality of a Ce- or Yb-valence transition gives us a unified explanation for unconventional criticality commonly observed in heavy fermion metals such as YbRh2Si2 and \beta-YbAlB4, YbCu5-xAlx, and CeIrIn5. The key origin is due to the locality of the critical valence fluctuation mode emerging near the quantum critical end point of the first-order valence transition, which is caused by strong electron correlations for f electrons. Read More

The roles of critical valence fluctuations of Ce and Yb are discussed as a key origin of several anomalies observed in Ce- and Yb-based heavy fermion systems. Recent development of the theory has revealed that a magnetic field is an efficient control parameter to induce the critical end point of the first-order valence transition. Metamagnetism and non-Fermi liquid behavior caused by this mechanism are discussed by comparing favorably with CeIrIn5, YbAgCu4, and YbIr2Zn20. Read More

Influence of quantum critical point (QCP) of first-order valence transition (FOVT) on Ce- and Yb-based heavy fermions is discussed as a key origin of anomalies such as non-Fermi liquid, metamagnetism, and unconventional superconductivity. Even in intermediate-valence materials, the QCP of the FOVT is shown to be induced by applying a magnetic field, which creates a new characteristic energy distinct from the Kondo temperature. It is stressed that the key concept is closeness to the QCP of the FOVT by pointing out that the proximity of the QCP explains sharp contrast between X=Ag and X=Cd in YbXCu4, field-induced valence crossover in X=Au, and field-induced first order transition as well as non-Fermi-liquid critical behaviours in CeIrIn5. Read More

It is shown that unconventional critical phenomena commonly observed in paramagnetic metals YbRh2Si2, YbRh2(Si0.95Ge0.05)2, and beta-YbAlB4 is naturally explained by the quantum criticality of Yb-valence fluctuations. Read More

The drastic changes of Fermi surfaces as well as transport anomalies near P=Pc~2.35 GPa in CeRhIn5 are explained theoretically from the viewpoint of sharp valence change of Ce. It is pointed out that the key mechanism is the interplay of magnetic order and Ce-valence fluctuations. Read More

The mechanism of drastic change of Fermi surfaces as well as transport anomalies near P=Pc=2.35 GPa in CeRhIn5 is explained theoretically. The key mechanism is pointed out to be the interplay of magnetic order and Ce-valence fluctuations. Read More

The mechanism of how critical end points of the first-order valence transitions (FOVT) are controlled by a magnetic field is discussed. We demonstrate that the critical temperature is suppressed to be a quantum critical point (QCP) by a magnetic field. This results explain the field dependence of the isostructural FOVT observed in Ce metal and YbInCu_4. Read More

We show theoretically that the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (T_1T)^{-1} and the spin susceptibility exhibit divergent behaviors toward zero temperature at the quantum critical point (QCP) of the first-order valence transition. Remarkable enhancement in (T_1T)^{-1} and the spin susceptibility is induced by valence fluctuations even at the valence-crossover temperature far away from the QCP. This mechanism well explains peculiar behaviors observed recently in YbAuCu_4 and also gives a systematic explanation for YbXCu_4 for X=In, Au, Ag, Tl, and Pd from the viewpoint of the closeness to the QCP. Read More

We show that the phase boundary between the paramagnetic metal and the nonmagnetic Mott insulator for the Hubbard model on a triangular lattice obtained by Yoshioka et al. in arXiv:0811.1575 does not correctly represent that of the thermodynamic limit but is an artifact of the 6 by 6 lattice they rely on. Read More

We theoretically study the stability of the solidified second-layer 3He at 4/7 of the first-layer density adsorbed on graphite, which exhibits quantum spin liquid. We construct a lattice model for the second-layer 3He by taking account of density fluctuations on the third layer together by employing the refined configuration recently found by path integral Monte Carlo simulations. When holes are doped into the 4/7 solid, within the mean-field approximation, the density-ordered fluid emerges. Read More

Using standard nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique and a well-fabricated sample, we have succeeded in directly observing local magnetic field generated by a micro-magnet Ni45Fe55 (the thickness of 400-nm) which was sputtered on an Al layer of 20-nm thickness. Improved sensitivity of our NMR technique enabled us to clearly observe Al-NMR signals, which are confirmed to come from Al nuclei in the 20-nm layers. From the analysis of the Al-NMR spectra, the local magnetic field was found to be +0. Read More

We study the mechanism how critical end points of first-order valence transitions are controlled by a magnetic field. We show that the critical temperature is suppressed to be a quantum critical point (QCP) by a magnetic field and unexpectedly the QCP exhibits nonmonotonic field dependence in the ground-state phase diagram, giving rise to emergence of metamagnetism even in the intermediate valence-crossover regime. The driving force of the field-induced QCP is clarified to be cooperative phenomena of Zeeman effect and Kondo effect, which create a distinct energy scale from the Kondo temperature. Read More

We show theoretically that the second layer of 3He adsorbed on graphite and solidified at 4/7 of the first-layer density is close to the fluid-solid boundary with substantial density fluctuations on the third layer. The solid shows a translational symmetry breaking as in charge-ordered insulators of electronic systems. We construct a minimal model beyond the multiple-exchange Heisenberg model. Read More

The nature of the quantum valence transition is studied in the one-dimensional periodic Anderson model with Coulomb repulsion between f and conduction electrons by the density-matrix renormalization group method. It is found that the first-order valence transition emerges with the quantum critical point and the crossover from the Kondo to the mixed-valence states is strongly stabilized by quantum fluctuation and electron correlation. It is found that the superconducting correlation is developed in the Kondo regime near the sharp valence increase. Read More

Several useful thermodynamic relations are derived for metal-insulator transitions, as generalizations of the Clausius-Clapeyron and Eherenfest theorems. These relations hold in any spatial dimensions and at any temperatures. First, they relate several thermodynamic quantities to the slope of the metal-insulator phase boundary drawn in the plane of the chemical potential and the Coulomb interaction in the phase diagram of the Hubbard model. Read More

A new numerical algorithm for interacting fermion systems to treat the grand-canonical ensemble is proposed and examined by extending the path-integral renormalization group method. To treat the grand-canonical ensemble, the particle-hole transformation is applied to the Hamiltonian and basis states. In the interaction-term projection, the Stratonovich-Hubbard transformation which hybridizes up and down spin electrons is introduced. Read More

We report on the 29Si nuclear spin decoherence time at room temperature for a pure (99.99999%, 7N) and carrier-less (p-type, doping level of 10^15cm-3) silicon in which 29Si nuclei are naturally abundant (4.7%). Read More

Correlated electrons often crystalize to the Mott insulator usually with some magnetic orders, whereas the "quantum spin liquid" has been a long-sought issue. We report numerical evidences that a nonmagnetic insulating (NMI) phase gets stabilized near the Mott transition with remarkable properties: The 2D Mott insulators on geometrically frustrated lattices contain a phase with gapless spin excitations and degeneracy of the ground state in the whole Brillouin zone of the total momentum. It has an interpretation for an unexplored type of a quantum liquid. Read More

The ground-state properties of the two-dimensional Hubbard model with nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor hoppings at half filling are studied by the path-integral-renormalization-group method. The nonmagnetic-insulator phase sandwiched by the the paramagnetic-metal phase and the antiferromagnetic-insulator phase shows evidence against translational symmetry breaking of the dimerized state, plaquette singlet state, staggered flux state, and charge ordered state. These results support that the genuine Mott insulator which cannot be adiabatically continued to the band insulator is realized generically by Umklapp scattering through the effects of geometrical frustration and quantum fluctuation in the two-dimensional system. Read More

We study phase diagrams of the Hubbard model on anisotropic triangular lattices, which also represents a model for $\kappa$-type BEDT-TTF compounds. In contrast with mean-field predictions, path-integral renormalization group calculations show a universal presence of nonmagnetic insulator sandwitched by antiferromagnetic insulator and paramagnetic metals. The nonmagnetic phase does not show a simple translational symmetry breakings such as flux phases, implying a genuine Mott insulator. Read More

It is shown that anomalous properties of UGe_2 can be understood in a unified way on the basis of a single assumption that the superconductivity is mediated by the coupled SDW and CDW fluctuations induced by the imperfect nesting of the Fermi surface with majority spins at T=T_x(P) deep in the ferromagnetic phase. Excess growth of uniform magnetization is shown to develop in the temperature range TRead More

The magnetization process in the one-dimensional Kondo lattice model for the doped (n_{c}<1) case is studied by the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. A rapid increase of the magnetization is caused by the collapse of the intersite incommensurate correlation of f spins. On the contrary, the intrasite f-c singlet correlation survives in the larger magnetic field. Read More

We examine the possibility of detecting effects of leptonic CP violation by precise measurement of the solar neutrinos within the framework of standard electroweak theory minimally extended to include neutrino masses and mixing. We prove a ``no-go theorem'' which states that effects of CP violating phase disappear in the nu_e survival probability to the leading order in electroweak interaction. The effects due to the next-to-leading order correction is estimated to be extremely small, effectively closing the door to the possibility we intended to pursue. Read More

The bulk properties and impurity effect in the one-dimensional S=1/2 Heisenberg model with dimerization and next-nearest-neighbor exchange are studied by the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) and exact diagonalization methods. This model widely covers the S=1 Heisenberg model, two-leg ladders, bond-alternating chains and the S=1/2 Heisenberg model. Almost the whole parameter space belongs to the Haldane phase. Read More

A new kind of phase transition is proposed for lattice fermion systems with simplified f^2 configurations at each site. The free energy of the model is computed in the mean-field approximation for both the itinerant state with the Kondo screening, and a localized state with the crystalline electric field (CEF) singlet at each site. The presence of a first-order phase transition is demonstrated in which the itinerant state changes into the localized state toward lower temperatures. Read More