Sheng Zhou

Sheng Zhou
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Sheng Zhou

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Mathematics - Information Theory (22)
Computer Science - Information Theory (22)
Computer Science - Networking and Internet Architecture (19)
Physics - Fluid Dynamics (4)
Computer Science - Distributed; Parallel; and Cluster Computing (2)
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (2)
Nonlinear Sciences - Pattern Formation and Solitons (1)
Computer Science - Learning (1)
Computer Science - Computer Science and Game Theory (1)

Publications Authored By Sheng Zhou

In this paper, we propose a learning-based low-overhead channel estimation method for coordinated beamforming in ultra-dense networks. We first show through simulation that the channel state information (CSI) of geographically separated base stations (BSs) exhibits strong non-linear correlations in terms of mutual information. This finding enables us to adopt a novel learning-based approach to remotely infer the quality of different beamforming patterns at a dense-layer BS based on the CSI of an umbrella control-layer BS. Read More

The (ultra-)dense deployment of small-cell base stations (SBSs) endowed with cloud-like computing functionalities paves the way for pervasive mobile edge computing (MEC), enabling ultra-low latency and location-awareness for a variety of emerging mobile applications and the Internet of Things. To handle spatially uneven computation workloads in the network, cooperation among SBSs via workload peer offloading is essential to avoid large computation latency at overloaded SBSs and provide high quality of service to end users. However, performing effective peer offloading faces many unique challenges in small cell networks due to limited energy resources committed by self-interested SBS owners, uncertainties in the system dynamics and co-provisioning of radio access and computing services. Read More

Breaking the fronthaul capacity limitations is vital to make cloud radio access network (C-RAN) scalable and practical. One promising way is aggregating several remote radio units (RRUs) as a cluster to share a fronthaul link, so as to enjoy the statistical multiplexing gain brought by the spatial randomness of the traffic. In this letter, a tractable model is proposed to analyze the fronthaul statistical multiplexing gain. Read More

Merging mobile edge computing with the dense deployment of small cell base stations promises enormous benefits such as a real proximity, ultra-low latency access to cloud functionalities. However, the envisioned integration creates many new challenges and one of the most significant is mobility management, which is becoming a key bottleneck to the overall system performance. Simply applying existing solutions leads to poor performance due to the highly overlapped coverage areas of multiple base stations in the proximity of the user and the co-provisioning of radio access and computing services. Read More

Merging Mobile Edge Computing (MEC), which is an emerging paradigm to meet the increasing computation demands from mobile devices, with the dense deployment of Base Stations (BSs), is foreseen as a key step towards the next generation mobile networks. However, new challenges arise for designing energy efficient networks since radio access resources and computing resources of BSs have to be jointly managed, and yet they are complexly coupled with traffic in both spatial and temporal domains. In this paper, we address the challenge of incorporating MEC into dense cellular networks, and propose an efficient online algorithm, called ENGINE (ENErgy constrained offloadINg and slEeping) which makes joint computation offloading and BS sleeping decisions in order to maximize the quality of service while keeping the energy consumption low. Read More

The rapid development of wireless network shows a trend of increasing complexity of structure and multi-dimensional network resources. At the same time, the energy efficiency of future networks attracts more and more attentions and calls for green designs. These concerns motivate us to investigate energy-efficient networking in generic wireless network for solutions over multi-dimensional resource space. Read More

Motivated by the rapid development of energy harvesting technology and content-aware communication in access networks, this paper considers the push mechanism design in small-cell base stations (SBSs) powered by renewable energy. A user request can be satisfied by either push or unicast from the SBS. If the SBS cannot handle the request, the user is blocked by the SBS and is served by the macro-cell BS (MBS) instead, which typically consumes more energy. Read More

It is expected that the number of wireless devices will grow rapidly over the next few years due to the growing proliferation of Internet-of-Things (IoT). In order to improve the energy efficiency of information transfer between small devices, we review state-of-the-art research in simultaneous wireless energy and information transfer, especially for relay based IoT systems. In particular, we analyze simultaneous information-and-energy transfer from the source node, and the design of time-switching and power-splitting operation modes, as well as the associated optimization algorithms. Read More

This paper considers two base stations (BSs) powered by renewable energy serving two users cooperatively. With different BS energy arrival rates, a fractional joint transmission (JT) strategy is proposed, which divides each transmission frame into two subframes. In the first subframe, one BS keeps silent to store energy while the other transmits data, and then they perform zero-forcing JT (ZF-JT) in the second subframe. Read More

Cloud radio access network (C-RAN) is proposed recently to reduce network cost, enable cooperative communications, and increase system flexibility through centralized baseband processing. By pooling multiple virtual base stations (VBSs) and consolidating their stochastic computational tasks, the overall computational resource can be reduced, achieving the so-called statistical multiplexing gain. In this paper, we evaluate the statistical multiplexing gain of VBS pools using a multi-dimensional Markov model, which captures the session-level dynamics and the constraints imposed by both radio and computational resources. Read More

It is widely acknowledged that the forthcoming 5G architecture will be highly heterogeneous and deployed with a high degree of density. These changes over the current 4G bring many challenges on how to achieve an efficient operation from the network management perspective. In this article, we introduce a revolutionary vision of the future 5G wireless networks, in which the network is no longer limited by hardware or even software. Read More

With small cell base stations (SBSs) densely deployed in addition to conventional macro base stations (MBSs), the heterogeneous cellular network (HCN) architecture can effectively boost network capacity. To support the huge power demand of HCNs, renewable energy harvesting technologies can be leveraged. In this paper, we aim to make efficient use of the harvested energy for on-grid power saving while satisfying the quality of service (QoS) requirement. Read More

To meet the surging demand of increasing mobile Internet traffic from diverse applications while maintaining moderate energy cost, the radio access network (RAN) of cellular systems needs to take a green path into the future, and the key lies in providing elastic service to dynamic traffic demands. To achieve this, it is time to rethink RAN architectures and expect breakthroughs. In this article, we review the state-of-art literature which aims to renovate RANs from the perspectives of control-traffic decoupled air interface, cloud-based RANs, and software-defined RANs. Read More

With the proliferation of mobile applications, Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) has been proposed to help mobile devices save energy and improve computation performance. To further improve the quality of service (QoS) of MCC, cloud servers can be deployed locally so that the latency is decreased. However, the computational resource of the local cloud is generally limited. Read More

Accurate mobile traffic forecast is important for efficient network planning and operations. However, existing traffic forecasting models have high complexity, making the forecasting process slow and costly. In this paper, we analyze some characteristics of mobile traffic such as periodicity, spatial similarity and short term relativity. Read More

User behaviour analysis based on traffic log in wireless networks can be beneficial to many fields in real life: not only for commercial purposes, but also for improving network service quality and social management. We cluster users into groups marked by the most frequently visited websites to find their preferences. In this paper, we propose a user behaviour model based on Topic Model from document classification problems. Read More

To further improve the energy efficiency of heterogeneous networks, a separation architecture called hyper-cellular network (HCN) has been proposed, which decouples the control signaling and data transmission functions. Specifically, the control coverage is guaranteed by macro base stations (MBSs), whereas small cells (SCs) are only utilized for data transmission. Under HCN, SCs can be dynamically turned off when traffic load decreases for energy saving. Read More

Energy harvesting (EH), which explores renewable energy as a supplementary power source, is a promising 5G technology to support the huge energy demand of heterogeneous cellular networks (HCN). However, the random arrival of renewable energy brings great challenges to network management. By adjusting the distribution of traffic load in spatial domain, traffic shaping helps to balance the cell-level power demand and supply, and thus improves the utilization of renewable energy. Read More

The fronthaul (FH) is an indispensable enabler for 5G networks. However, the classical fronthauling method demands for large bandwidth, low latency, and tightly synchronized on the transport network, and only allows for point-to-point logical topology. This greatly limits the usage of FH in many 5G scenarios. Read More

Wireless communication networks rely heavily on channel state information (CSI) to make informed decision for signal processing and network operations. However, the traditional CSI acquisition methods is facing many difficulties: pilot-aided channel training consumes a great deal of channel resources and reduces the opportunities for energy saving, while location-aided channel estimation suffers from inaccurate and insufficient location information. In this paper, we propose a novel channel learning framework, which can tackle these difficulties by inferring unobservable CSI from the observable one. Read More

The radio access networks (RANs) need to support massive and diverse data traffic with limited spectrum and energy. To cope with this challenge, software-defined radio access network (SDRAN) architectures have been proposed to renovate the RANs. However, current researches lack the design and evaluation of network protocols. Read More

The explosive growth of mobile multimedia traffic calls for scalable wireless access with high quality of service and low energy cost. Motivated by the emerging energy harvesting communications, and the trend of caching multimedia contents at the access edge and user terminals, we propose a paradigm-shift framework, namely GreenDelivery, enabling efficient content delivery with energy harvesting based small cells. To resolve the two-dimensional randomness of energy harvesting and content request arrivals, proactive caching and push are jointly optimized, with respect to the content popularity distribution and battery states. Read More

This paper studies online power control policies for outage minimization in a fading wireless link with energy harvesting transmitter and receiver. The outage occurs when either the transmitter or the receiver does not have enough energy, or the channel is in outage, where the transmitter only has the channel distribution information. Under infinite battery capacity and without retransmission, we prove that threshold-based power control policies are optimal. Read More

Motivated by the recent development of energy harvesting communications, and the trend of multimedia contents caching and push at the access edge and user terminals, this paper considers how to design an effective push mechanism of energy harvesting powered small-cell base stations (SBSs) in heterogeneous networks. The problem is formulated as a Markov decision process by optimizing the push policy based on the battery energy, user request and content popularity state to maximize the service capability of SBSs. We extensively analyze the problem and propose an effective policy iteration algorithm to find the optimal policy. Read More

The baseband-up centralization architecture of radio access networks (C-RAN) has recently been proposed to support efficient cooperative communications and reduce deployment and operational costs. However, the massive fronthaul bandwidth required to aggregate baseband samples from remote radio heads (RRHs) to the central office incurs huge fronthauling cost, and existing baseband compression algorithms can hardly solve this issue. In this paper, we propose a graphbased framework to effectively reduce fronthauling cost through properly splitting and placing baseband processing functions in the network. Read More

Multiuser multiple-input-multiple-output (MU-MIMO) systems are known to be hindered by dimensionality loss due to channel state information (CSI) acquisition overhead. In this paper, we investigate user-scheduling in MU-MIMO systems on account of CSI acquisition overhead, where a base station dynamically acquires user channels to avoid choking the system with CSI overhead. The genie-aided optimization problem (GAP) is first formulated to maximize the Lyapunov-drift every scheduling step, incorporating user queue information and taking channel fluctuations into consideration. Read More

Cellular networks are one of the corner stones of our information-driven society. However, existing cellular systems have been seriously challenged by the explosion of mobile data traffic, the emergence of machine-type communications and the flourish of mobile Internet services. In this article, we propose CONCERT (CONvergence of Cloud and cEllulaR sysTems), a converged edge infrastructure for future cellular communications and mobile computing services. Read More

In the present paper we study the geodesic structure of the Janis-Newman-Winicour(JNW) space-time which contains a strong curvature naked singularity. This metric is an extension of the Schwarzschild geometry when a massless scalar field is included. We find that the strength parameter $\mu$ of the scalar field effects on the geodesic structure of the JNW space-time. Read More

Facing the explosion of mobile data traffic, cloud radio access network (C-RAN) is proposed recently to overcome the efficiency and flexibility problems with the traditional RAN architecture by centralizing baseband processing. However, there lacks a mathematical model to analyze the statistical multiplexing gain from the pooling of virtual base stations (VBSs) so that the expenditure on fronthaul networks can be justified. In this paper, we address this problem by capturing the session-level dynamics of VBS pools with a multi-dimensional Markov model. Read More

The combination of energy harvesting and large-scale multiple antenna technologies provides a promising solution for improving the energy efficiency (EE) by exploiting renewable energy sources and reducing the transmission power per user and per antenna. However, the introduction of energy harvesting capabilities into large-scale multiple antenna systems poses many new challenges for energy-efficient system design due to the intermittent characteristics of renewable energy sources and limited battery capacity. Furthermore, the total manufacture cost and the sum power of a large number of radio frequency (RF) chains can not be ignored, and it would be impractical to use all the antennas for transmission. Read More

The next generation (5G) cellular network faces the challenges of efficiency, flexibility, and sustainability to support data traffic in the mobile Internet era. To tackle these challenges, cloud-based cellular architectures have been proposed where virtual base stations (VBSs) play a key role. VBSs bring further energy savings but also demands a new energy consumption model as well as the optimization of computational resources. Read More

This paper presents the design and implementation of signaling splitting scheme in hyper-cellular network on a software defined radio platform. Hyper-cellular network is a novel architecture of future mobile communication systems in which signaling and data are decoupled at the air interface to mitigate the signaling overhead and allow energy efficient operation of base stations. On an open source software defined radio platform, OpenBTS, we investigate the feasibility of signaling splitting for GSM protocol and implement a novel system which can prove the proposed concept. Read More

We consider energy-efficient wireless resource management in cellular networks where BSs are equipped with energy harvesting devices, using statistical information for traffic intensity and harvested energy. The problem is formulated as adapting BSs' on-off states, active resource blocks (e.g. Read More

This paper considers the power allocation of a single-link wireless communication with joint energy harvesting and grid power supply. We formulate the problem as minimizing the grid power consumption with random energy and data arrival, and analyze the structure of the optimal power allocation policy in some special cases. For the case that all the packets are arrived before transmission, it is a dual problem of throughput maximization, and the optimal solution is found by the two-stage water filling (WF) policy, which allocates the harvested energy in the first stage, and then allocates the power grid energy in the second stage. Read More

The Bardeen model describes a regular space-time, i.e. a singularity-free black hole space-time. Read More

We analyze the reversals of the large scale flow in Rayleigh-B\'enard convection both through particle image velocimetry flow visualization and direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the underlying Boussinesq equations in a (quasi) two-dimensional, rectangular geometry of aspect ratio 1. For medium Prandtl number there is a diagonal large scale convection roll and two smaller secondary rolls in the two remaining corners diagonally opposing each other. These corner flow rolls play a crucial role for the large scale wind reversal: They grow in kinetic energy and thus also in size thanks to plume detachments from the boundary layers up to the time that they take over the main, large scale diagonal flow, thus leading to reversal. Read More

We report an experimental study of the large-scale circulation (LSC) in a turbulent Rayleigh-B\'{e}nard convection cell with aspect ratio unity. The temperature-extremum-extraction (TEE) method for obtaining the dynamic information of the LSC is presented. With this method, the azimuthal angular positions of the hot ascending and cold descending flows along the sidewall are identified from the measured instantaneous azimuthal temperature profile. Read More

We report an experimental study of the three-dimensional spatial structure of the low frequency temperature oscillations in a cylindrical Rayleigh-B\'{e}nard convection cell. It is found that thermal plumes are not emitted periodically, but randomly and continuously, from the top and bottom plates. We further found that the oscillation of the temperature field does not originate from the boundary layers, but rather is a result of the horizontal motion of the hot ascending and cold descending fluids being modulated by the twisting and sloshing motion of the bulk flow field. Read More

Temperature and velocity oscillations have been found in a rectangular Rayleigh-B\'{e}nard convection cell, in which one large scale convection roll exists. At $Ra=8.9 \times 10^{11}$ and $Pr=4$, temperature oscillation can be observed in most part of the system and the oscillation period remains almost constant, $t_T = 74 \pm 2$ seconds. Read More

We determined the refractive-index structure-factor $S_n(\bf k)$ from shadowgraphs of fluctuations in a layer of a homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy in the presence of an ac voltage of amplitude $V_0$ applied orthogonal to the layer. $S_n(\bf k)$ had rotational symmetry. Its integral $P(V_0)$ and amplitude $B(V_0)$ increased smoothly through the Fr\'eedericksz transition at $V_0 = V_F$. Read More