Shanhui Fan

Shanhui Fan
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Shanhui Fan

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Physics - Optics (38)
Quantum Physics (14)
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (9)
Physics - Materials Science (5)
Physics - Classical Physics (2)
Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (2)
Mathematical Physics (2)
Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors (1)
Physics - Computational Physics (1)
Physics - Accelerator Physics (1)

Publications Authored By Shanhui Fan

We study the radiative heat transfer between multilayer structures made by a periodic repetition of a graphene sheet and a hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) slab. Surface plasmons in a monolayer graphene can couple with a hyperbolic phonon polaritons in a single hBN film to form hybrid polaritons that can assist photon tunneling. For periodic multilayer graphene/hBN structures, the stacked metallic/dielectric array can give rise to a further effective hyperbolic behavior, in addition to the intrinsic natural hyperbolic behavior of hBN. Read More

Dielectric microstructures have generated much interest in recent years as a means of accelerating charged particles when powered by solid state lasers. The acceleration gradient (or particle energy gain per unit length) is an important figure of merit. To design structures with high acceleration gradients, we explore the adjoint variable method, a highly efficient technique used to compute the sensitivity of an objective with respect to a large number of parameters. Read More

We develop a class of supercell photonic crystals supporting complete photonic bandgaps based on breaking spatial symmetries of the underlying primitive photonic crystal. One member of this class based on a two-dimensional honeycomb structure supports a complete bandgap for an index-contrast ratio as low as $n_{high}/n_{low} = 2.1$, making this the first such 2D photonic crystal to support a complete bandgap in lossless materials at visible frequencies. Read More

We describe analytically and numerically the geometric phase arising from nonlinear frequency conversion and show that such a phase can be made non-reciprocal by momentum-dependent photonic transition. Such non-reciprocity is immune to the shortcomings imposed by dynamic reciprocity in Kerr and Kerr-like devices. We propose a simple and practical implementation, requiring only a single waveguide and one pump, while the geometric phase is controllable by the pump and promises robustness against fabrication errors. Read More

We provide an analytic solution to the coupled-mode equations describing the steady-state of a single periodically-modulated optical resonator driven by a monochromatic input. The phenomenology of this system was qualitatively understood only in the adiabatic limit, i.e. Read More

We demonstrate that the key to realizing arbitrary control over pairs of polarization states of light, i.e. transforming an arbitrarily polarized pair of input states to an arbitrarily polarized pair of output states, is the ability to generate pairs of states with orthogonal polarizations from non-orthogonal pairs of initial states. Read More

We demonstrate in this work that the use of metasurfaces provides a viable strategy to largely tune and enhance near-field radiative heat transfer between extended structures. In particular, using a rigorous coupled wave analysis, we predict that Si-based metasurfaces featuring two-dimensional periodic arrays of holes can exhibit a room-temperature near-field radiative heat conductance much larger than any unstructured material to date. We show that this enhancement, which takes place in a broad range of separations, relies on the possibility to largely tune the properties of the surface plasmon polaritons that dominate the radiative heat transfer in the near-field regime. Read More

We theoretically demonstrate non-trivial topological effects for a probe field in a Raman medium undergoing molecular modulation processes. The medium is driven by two non-collinear pump beams. We show that the angle between the pumps is related to an effective gauge potential and an effective magnetic field for the probe field in the synthetic space consisting of a synthetic frequency dimension and a spatial dimension. Read More

We present the general structure of two-photon S matrix for a waveguide coupled to a local quantum system that supports multiple ground states. The presence of the multiple ground states results in a non-commutative aspect of the system with respect to the exchange of the orders of photons. Consequently, the two-photon S matrix significantly differs from the standard form as described by the cluster decomposition principle in the quantum field theory. Read More

We present a $\mathbf{k} \cdot \mathbf{p}$ theory of photonic crystals containing gain and loss in which the gain and loss are added to separate primitive cells of the underlying Hermitian system, thereby creating a supercell photonic crystal. We show that the supercell bands of this system can merge outward from the degenerate contour formed from folding the bands of the underlying Hermitian system into the supercell Brillouin zone, but that other accidental degeneracies in the band structure of the underlying Hermitian system do not yield band merging behavior. Finally, we show that the modal coupling matrix in PhCs with balanced gain and loss is trace-less, and thus the imaginary components of the eigenvalues can only move relative to one another as the strength of the gain and loss is varied, without any collective motion. Read More

Loss-induced transmission in waveguides, and reversed pump dependence in lasers, are two prominent examples of counter-intuitive effects in non-Hermitian systems with patterned gain and loss. By analyzing the eigenvalue dynamics of complex symmetric matrices when a system parameter is varied, we introduce a general set of theoretical conditions for these two effects. We show that these effects arise in any irreducible system where the gain or loss is added to a subset of the elements of the system, without the need for parity-time symmetry or for the system to be near an exceptional point. Read More

We report the existence of Weyl points in a class of non-central symmetric metamaterials, which has time reversal symmetry, but does not have inversion symmetry due to chiral coupling between electric and magnetic fields. This class of metamaterial exhibits either type-I or type-II Weyl points depending on its non-local response. We also provide a physical realization of such metamaterial consisting of an array of metal wires in the shape of elliptical helixes which exhibits type-II Weyl points. Read More

We present a general input-output formalism for the few-photon transport in multiple waveguide channels coupled to a local cavity. Using this formalism, we study the effect of Fano interference in two-photon quantum transport. We show that the physics of Fano interference can manifest as an asymmetric spectral line shape in the frequency dependence of the two-photon correlation function. Read More

We consider the consequence of nonreciprocity in near-field heat transfer by studying systems consisting of magneto-optical nanoparticles.We demonstrate that, in thermal equilibrium, a nonreciprocal many-body system in heat transfer can support a persistent directional heat current, without violating the second law of thermodynamics. Such a persistent directional heat current cannot occur in reciprocal systems, and can only arise in many-body systems in heat transfer. Read More

We investigate the properties of multidimensional parity-time symmetric periodic systems whose non-Hermitian periodicity is an integer multiple of the underlying Hermitian system's periodicity. This creates a natural set of degeneracies which can undergo thresholdless $\mathcal{PT}$ transitions. We derive a $\mathbf{k} \cdot \mathbf{p}$ perturbation theory suited to the continuous eigenvalues of such systems in terms of the modes of the underlying Hermitian system. Read More

We generalize the concept of photonic gauge potential in real space, by introducing an additional "synthetic" frequency dimension in addition to the real space dimensions. As an illustration we consider a one-dimensional array of ring resonators, each supporting a set of resonant modes having a frequency comb with spacing $\Omega$, undergoing a refractive index modulation at the modulation frequency equal to $\Omega$. We show that the modulation phase provides a gauge potential in the synthetic two-dimensional space with the dimensions being the frequency and the spatial axes. Read More

Radiative heat transfer between parallel objects separated by deep sub-wavelength distances and subject to large thermal gradients (>100 K) could enable breakthrough technologies for electricity generation and thermal transport control. However, thermal transport in this regime has never been achieved experimentally due to the difficulty of maintaining large thermal gradients over nm-scale distances while avoiding other heat transfer mechanism such as conduction. Previous experimental measurement between parallel planes were limited to distances greater than 500 nm (with a 20 K thermal gradient), which is much larger than the theoretically predicted distance (<100 nm) required for most applications. Read More

We consider a system of dynamically-modulated photonic resonator lattice undergoing photonic transition, and show that in the ultra-strong coupling regime such a lattice can exhibit non-trivial topological properties, including topologically non-trivial band gaps, and the associated topologically-robust one-way edge states. Compared with the same system operating in the regime where the rotating wave approximation is valid, operating the system in the ultra-strong coupling regime results in one-way edge modes that has a larger bandwidth, and is less susceptible to loss. Also, in the ultra-strong coupling regime, the system undergoes a topological insulator-to-metal phase transition as one varies the modulation strength. Read More

The solid immersion lens is a powerful optical tool that allows light entering material from air or vacuum to focus to a spot much smaller than the free-space wavelength. Conventionally, however, they rely on semispherical topographies and are non-planar and bulky, which limits their integration in many applications. Recently, there has been considerable interest in using planar structures, referred to as metasurfaces, to construct flat optical components for manipulating light in unusual ways. Read More

We introduce a method to achieve three-dimensional dynamic localization of light. We consider a dynamically-modulated resonator lattice that has been previously shown to exhibit an effective gauge potential for photons. When such an effective gauge potential varies sinusoidally in time, dynamic localization of light can be achieved. Read More

We provide a systematic treatment of $N$-photon transport in a waveguide coupled to a local system, using the input-output formalism. The main result of the paper is a general connection between the $N$-photon S matrix and the Green functions of the local system. We also show that the computation can be significantly simplified, by exploiting the connectedness structure of both the S matrix and the Green function, and by computing the Green function using an effective Hamiltonian that involves only the degrees of freedom of the local system. Read More

We experimentally demonstrate single beam directional perfect absorption (to within experimental accuracy) of p-polarized light in the near-infrared using unpatterned, deep subwavelength films of indium tin oxide (ITO) on Ag. The experimental perfect absorption occurs slightly above the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) frequency of ITO where the permittivity is less than one. Remarkably, we obtain perfect absorption for films whose thickness is as low as ~1/50th of the operating free-space wavelength and whose single pass attenuation is only ~ 5%. Read More

We illustrate that the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) excitation through the prism coupling method is fundamentally limited by destructive interference of spatial light components. We propose that the destructive interference can be canceled out by tailoring the relative phase for the different spatial components. As a numerical demonstration, we show that through the phase modulation the excited SPP field is concentrated to a hot energy spot, and the SPP field intensity is dramatically enhanced about three folds in comparison with a conventional Gaussian beam illumination. Read More

We show that the effective gauge field for photons provides a versatile platform for controlling the flow of light. As an example we consider a photonic resonator lattice where the coupling strength between nearest neighbor resonators are harmonically modulated. By choosing different spatial distributions of the modulation phases, and hence imposing different inhomogeneous effective magnetic field configurations, we numerically demonstrate a wide variety of propagation effects including negative refraction, one-way mirror, and on and off-axis focusing. Read More

Based on the recently proposed concept of effective gauge potential and magnetic field for photons, we numerically demonstrate a photonic de Haas-van Alphen effect. We show that in a dynamically modulated photonic resonator lattice exhibiting an effect magnetic field, the trajectories of the light beam at a given frequency have the same shape as the constant energy contour for the photonic band structure of the lattice in the absence of the effective magnetic field. Read More

Photons are neutral particles that do not interact directly with a magnetic field. However, recent theoretical work has shown that an effective magnetic field for photons can exist if the phase of light would change with its propagating direction. This direction-dependent phase indicates the presence of an effective magnetic field as shown for electrons experimentally in the Aharonov-Bohm experiment. Read More

Optical systems combining balanced loss and gain profiles provide a unique platform to implement classical analogues of quantum systems described by non-Hermitian parity-time- (PT-) symmetric Hamiltonians and to originate new synthetic materials with novel properties. To date, experimental works on PT-symmetric optical systems have been limited to waveguides in which resonances do not play a role. Here we report the first demonstration of PT-symmetry breaking in optical resonator systems by using two directly coupled on-chip optical whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microtoroid silica resonators. Read More

We consider the lateral optical force between resonator and waveguide, and study the possibility of an equilibrium that occurs solely from the optical force. We prove analytically that a single- resonance system cannot give such an equilibrium in resonator-waveguide force. We then show that two-resonance systems can provide such an equilibrium. Read More

Wang et al. [1] demonstrated different power transmission coefficients for forward and backward propagation in simulation and experiment. From such a demonstration, the central claim of their paper is that "the spatial inversion symmetry breaking diode can construct an optical isolator in no conflict with any reciprocal principle". Read More

The understanding of far-field thermal radiation had directly led to the discovery of quantum mechanics a century ago, and is of great current practical importance for applications in energy conversions, radiative cooling, and thermal control. It is commonly assumed that for any macroscopic thermal emitter, its maximal emitted power within any given frequency range cannot exceed that of a blackbody with the same surface area. In contrast to such conventional wisdom, here we propose, and experimentally demonstrate, that the emitted power from a finite size macroscopic blackbody to far field vacuum can be significantly enhanced, within the constraint of the second law of thermodynamics. Read More

The Jaynes-Cummings (JC) system, which describes the interaction between a cavity and a two-level atom, is one of the most important systems in quantum optics. We obtain analytic solutions for the one- and two-photon transport in a waveguide side-coupled to the JC system using input-output formalism in Fock space. With these results, we discuss the conditions under which the JC system functions as a photon switch for waveguide photons in both the strong and weak coupling regimes Read More

We investigate the two-photon transport through a waveguide side-coupling to a whispering-gallery-atom system. Using the Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann (LSZ) reduction approach, we present the general formula for the two-photon processes including the two-photon scattering matrices, the wavefunctions and the second order correlation functions of the out-going photons. Based on the exact results of the second order correlation functions, we analyze the quantum statistics behaviors of the out-going photons for two different cases: (a) the ideal case without the inter-modal coupling in the whispering gallery resonator; (b) the case in the presence of the inter-modal coupling which leads to more complex nonlinear behavior. Read More

We study stimulated emission from an excited two-level atom coupled to a waveguide containing an incident single-photon pulse. We show that the strong photon correlation, as induced by the atom, plays a very important role in stimulated emission. Additionally, the temporal duration of the incident photon pulse is shown to have a marked effect on stimulated emission and atomic lifetime. Read More

We calculate the one- and two-photon scattering matrices of a pair of collocated non-identical two-level atoms coupled to a waveguide. We show that by proper choice of a two-photon input, the background fluorescence by the atoms may be completely quenched, as a result of quantum interference, and that when the atoms' detuning is smaller than their linewidths, extremely narrow fluorescence features emerge. Furthermore, the system emits a two-photon bound state which can display spatial oscillations/quantum beats, and can be tuned from bunched to anti-bunched statistics as the total photon energy is varied. Read More

We show how to calculate the first- and second-order statistics of the scattered fields for an arbitrary intensity coherent state light field interacting with a two-level system in a waveguide geometry. Specifically, we calculate the resonance fluorescence from the qubit, using input-output formalism. We derive the transmission and reflection coefficients, and illustrate the bunching and anti-bunching of light that is scattered in the forward and backward directions, respectively. Read More

We create a non-magnetic CMOS-compatible optical isolator on a silicon chip. The isolator is based on indirect interband photonic transition, induced by electrically-driven dynamic refractive index modulation. We demonstrate an electrically-induced non-reciprocity: the transmission coefficients between two single-mode waveguides become dependent on the propagation directions only in the presence of the electrical drive. Read More

We show that the novel one-way photonic modal conversion effect, as demonstrated by Feng et al (Reports, 11 August, 2011, p. 729), is insufficient in itself to enable optical isolation, since the underlying dielectric structure possesses a symmetric scattering matrix. Moreover, one cannot construct an optical isolator, by enclosing this structure with a system containing any combination of components or signal processing elements, as long as the overall system is linear, and is described by a static scalar dielectric function. Read More

Near-field electromagnetic heat transfer holds great potential for the advancement of nanotechnology. Whereas far-field electromagnetic heat transfer is constrained by Planck's blackbody limit, the increased density of states in the near-field enhances heat transfer rates by orders of magnitude relative to the conventional limit. Such enhancement opens new possibilities in numerous applications, including thermal-photo-voltaics, nano-patterning, and imaging. Read More

We extend the input-output formalism of quantum optics to analyze few-photon transport in waveguides with an embedded qubit. We provide explicit analytical derivations for one and two-photon scattering matrix elements based on operator equations in the Heisenberg picture. Read More

Light trapping for solar cells can reduce production cost and improve energy conversion efficiency. Understanding some of the basic theoretical constraints on light trapping is therefore of fundamental importance. Here, we develop a general angular constraint on the absorption enhancement in light trapping. Read More

We consider a system where a waveguide is coupled to a cavity embedded with a two-level system (TLS), and study the effects when a two-photon quantum state is injected into the waveguide. The wave function of two outgoing photons is exactly solved using the Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann (LSZ) reduction formalism. Our results explicitly exhibit the photon blockade effects in the strong atom-cavity coupling regime. Read More

We develop a general perturbation theory to treat small parameter changes in dispersive plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials. We specifically apply it to dielectric refractive index, and metallic plasma frequency modulation in metal- dielectric nanostructures. As a numerical demonstration, we verify the theory's accu- racy against direct calculations, for a system of plasmonic rods in air where the metal is defined by a two-pole fit of silver's dielectric function. Read More

We consider coherent thermal conductance through multilayer photonic crystal heterostructures, consisting of a series of cascaded non-identical photonic crystals. We show that thermal conductance can be suppressed exponentially with the number of cascaded crystals, due to the mismatch between photonic bands of all crystals in the heterostructure. Read More

We use a rigorous electromagnetic approach to analyze the fundamental limit of light-trapping enhancement in grating structures. This limit can exceed the bulk limit of 4n^2, but has significant angular dependency. We explicitly show that 2D gratings provide more enhancement than 1D gratings. Read More

Establishing the fundamental limit of nanophotonic light-trapping schemes is of paramount importance and is becoming increasingly urgent for current solar cell research. The standard theory of light trapping demonstrated that absorption enhancement in a medium cannot exceed a factor of 4n^2/ sin^2(\theta), where n is the refractive index of the active layer, and \theta is the angle of the emission cone in the medium surrounding the cell. This theory, however, is not applicable in the nanophotonic regime. Read More

Relativistic electrons in a structured medium generate radiative losses such as Cherenkov and transition radiation that act as a virtual light source, coupling to the photonic densities of states. The effect is most pronounced when the imaginary part of the dielectric function is zero, a regime where in a non-retarded treatment no loss or coupling can occur. Maps of the resultant energy losses as a sub-5nm electron probe scans across finite waveguide structures reveal spatial distributions of optical modes in a spectral domain ranging from near-infrared to far ultraviolet. Read More

We present a theory for Fano interference in light scattering by individual obstacle, based on a temporal coupled-mode formalism. This theory is applicable for obstacles that are much smaller than the incident wavelength, or for systems with two-dimensional cylindrical or three-dimensional spherical symmetry. We show that for each angle momentum channel, the Fano interference effect can be modeled by a simple temporal coupled-mode equation, which provides a line shape formula for scattering and absorption cross-section. Read More

The single-photon transport in a single-mode waveguide, coupled to a cavity embedded with a two-leval atom is analyzed. The single-photon transmission and reflection amplitudes, as well as the cavity and the atom excitation amplitudes, are solved exactly via a real-space approach. It is shown that the dissipation of the cavity and of the atom respectively affects distinctively on the transport properties of the photons, and on the relative phase between the excitation amplitudes of the cavity mode and the atom. Read More

We analyze the single-photon transport in a single-mode waveguide coupled to a whispering-gallery-type resonator interacting with a two-level atom. The single-photon transport properties such as the transmission and reflection amplitudes, as well as the resonator and the atom responses, are solved exactly via a real-space approach. The treatment includes the inter-mode backscattering between the two degenerate whispering gallery modes of the resonator, and the dissipations of the resonator and the atom. Read More

This paper shows how to analyze plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguides using the full modal structure of these guides. The analysis applies to all frequencies, particularly including the near infrared and visible spectrum, and to a wide range of sizes, including nanometallic structures. We use the approach here specifically to analyze waveguide junctions. Read More