# Sergei Dubovsky - Harvard University, Physics Dept., and Moscow, INR

## Contact Details

NameSergei Dubovsky |
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AffiliationHarvard University, Physics Dept., and Moscow, INR |
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Location |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Physics - Theory (32) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (21) General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (18) Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (8) High Energy Physics - Lattice (5) Astrophysics (5) High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (3) Nuclear Theory (2) Astrophysics of Galaxies (1) Physics - Fluid Dynamics (1) |

## Publications Authored By Sergei Dubovsky

We put forward the Axionic String Ansatz (ASA), which provides a unified description for the worldsheet dynamics of confining strings in pure Yang--Mills theory both in $D=3$ and $D=4$ space-time dimensions. The ASA is motivated by the excitation spectrum of long confining strings, as measured on a lattice, and by recently constructed integrable axionic non-critical string models. According to the ASA, pure gluodynamics in 3D is described by a non-critical bosonic string theory without any extra local worldsheet degrees of freedom. Read More

In the next few years Advanced LIGO (aLIGO) may see gravitational waves (GWs) from thousands of black hole (BH) mergers. This marks the beginning of a new precision tool for physics. Here we show how to search for new physics beyond the standard model using this tool, in particular the QCD axion in the mass range ma ~ 10^-14 to 10^-10 eV. Read More

We initiate the study of multiloop scattering amplitudes in the Nambu-Goto theory on the worldsheet of a non-critical string. We start with a brute force calculation of two loop four particle scattering. Somewhat surprisingly, even though non-trivial UV counterterms are present at this order, on-shell amplitudes remain polynomial in the momenta of colliding particles. Read More

We construct a new model of four-dimensional relativistic strings with integrable dynamics on the worldsheet. In addition to translational modes this model contains a single massless pseudoscalar worldsheet field - the worldsheet axion. The axion couples to a topological density which counts the self-intersection number of a string. Read More

We elaborate on the dynamics of ionized interstellar medium in the presence of hidden photon dark matter. Our main focus is the ultra-light regime, where the hidden photon mass is smaller than the plasma frequency in the Milky Way. We point out that as a result of the Galactic plasma shielding direct detection of ultra-light photons in this mass range is especially challenging. Read More

We investigate the possible implications of the measured value of the scalar tilt $n_s$ for the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ in slow-roll, single-field inflationary models. The measured value of the tilt satisfies $n_s -1\sim 1/N_*$, where $N_* \sim 60$ is the number of $e$-folds for observationally relevant scales. If this is not a coincidence and the scaling holds for different values of $N$, it strongly suggests that either $r$ is as big as $10^{-1}$ (a possibility in tension with the recent data), or smaller than $10^{-2}$ and exponentially dependent on $n_s$. Read More

We study restrictions on scattering amplitudes on the worldvolume of branes and strings (such as confining flux tubes in QCD) implied by the target space Poincare symmetry. We focus on exploring the conditions for the string worldsheet theory to be integrable. We prove that for a higher dimensional membrane the scattering amplitudes for the translational Goldstone modes ("branons") are double soft. Read More

We provide a detailed introduction to a method we recently proposed for calculating the spectrum of excitations of effective strings such as QCD flux tubes. The method relies on the approximate integrability of the low energy effective theory describing the flux tube excitations and is is based on the Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz (TBA). The approximate integrability is a consequence of the Lorentz symmetry of QCD. Read More

We describe a UV complete asymptotically fragile Lorentz-invariant theory exhibiting superluminal signal propagation. Its low energy effective action contains "wrong" sign higher dimensional operators. Nevertheless, the theory gives rise to an S-matrix, which is defined at all energies. Read More

The cosmological constant problem and the absence of new natural physics at the electroweak scale, if confirmed by the LHC, may either indicate that the nature is fine-tuned or that a refined notion of naturalness is required. We construct a family of toy UV complete quantum theories providing a proof of concept for the second possibility. Low energy physics is described by a tuned effective field theory, which exhibits relevant interactions not protected by any symmetries and separated by an arbitrary large mass gap from the new "gravitational" physics, represented by a set of irrelevant operators. Read More

We propose a new approach for the calculation of the spectrum of excitations of QCD flux tubes. It relies on the fact that the worldsheet theory is integrable at low energies. With this approach, energy levels can be calculated for much shorter flux tubes than was previously possible, allowing for a quantitative comparison with existing lattice data. Read More

We solve what is quite likely the simplest model of quantum gravity, the worldsheet theory of an infinitely long, free bosonic string in Minkowski space. Contrary to naive expectations, this theory is non-trivial. We illustrate this by constructing its exact factorizable S-matrix. Read More

We revisit the effective field theory of long relativistic strings such as confining flux tubes in QCD. We derive the Polchinski-Strominger interaction by a calculation in static gauge. This interaction implies that a non-critical string which initially oscillates in one direction gets excited in orthogonal directions as well. Read More

It has recently been shown that in single field slow-roll inflation the total volume cannot grow by a factor larger than e^(S_dS/2) without becoming infinite. The bound is saturated exactly at the phase transition to eternal inflation where the probability to produce infinite volume becomes non zero. We show that the bound holds sharply also in any space-time dimensions, when arbitrary higher-dimensional operators are included and in the multi-field inflationary case. Read More

We study renormalizable Lorentz invariant stable quantum field theories in two space-time dimensions with instantaneous causal structure (causal ordering induced by the light "cone" time ordering). These models provide a candidate UV-completion of the two-dimensional ghost condensate. They exhibit a peculiar UV/IR mixing - energies of all excitations become arbitrarily small at high spatial momenta. Read More

We consider the low-energy effective field theory describing the infrared dynamics of non-dissipative fluids. We extend previous work to accommodate conserved charges, and we clarify the matching between field theory variables and thermodynamical ones. We discuss the systematics of the derivative expansion, for which field theory offers a conceptually clear and technically neat scheme. Read More

We develop the formalism that incorporates quantum anomalies in the effective field theory of non-dissipative fluids. We consider the effect of adding a Wess-Zumino-like term to the low-energy effective action to account for anomalies. In this paper we restrict to two spacetime dimensions. Read More

The low energy field theory for N type IIA D4-branes at strong 't Hooft coupling, wrapped on a circle with antiperiodic boundary conditions for fermions, is known to have a vacuum energy which depends on the $\theta$ angle for the gauge fields, and which is a multivalued function of this angle. This gives a field-theoretic realization of "axion monodromy" for a nondynamical axion. We construct the supergravity solution dual to the field theory in the metastable state which is the adiabatic continuation of the vacuum to large values of $\theta$. Read More

Superradiant instability turns rotating astrophysical black holes into unique probes of light axions. We consider what happens when a light axion is coupled to a strongly coupled hidden gauge sector. In this case superradiance results in an adiabatic increase of a hidden sector CP-violating $\theta$-parameter in a near horizon region. Read More

It has recently been suggested that the presence of a plenitude of light axions, an Axiverse, is evidence for the extra dimensions of string theory. We discuss the observational consequences of these axions on astrophysical black holes through the Penrose superradiance process. When an axion Compton wavelength is comparable to the size of a black hole, the axion binds to the black hole "nucleus" forming a gravitational atom in the sky. Read More

String theories with topologically complex compactification manifolds suggest the simultaneous presence of many unbroken U(1)'s without any light matter charged under them. The gauge bosons associated with these U(1)'s do not have direct observational consequences. However, in the presence of low energy supersymmetry the gauge fermions associated with these U(1)'s, the "photini", mix with the Bino and extend the MSSM neutralino sector. Read More

There exist consistent low energy effective field theories describing gravity in the Higgs phase that allow the coexistence of massive gravitons and the conventional 1/r potential of gravity. In an effort to constrain the value of the graviton mass in these theories, we study the tensor contribution to the CMB temperature anisotropy and polarization spectra in the presence of a non-vanishing graviton mass. We find that the observation of a B-mode signal consistent with the spectrum predicted by inflationary models would provide the strongest limit yet on the mass of an elementary particle -- a graviton -- at a level of m\lesssim 10^(-30) eV\approx(10 Mpc)^(-1). Read More

String theory suggests the simultaneous presence of many ultralight axions possibly populating each decade of mass down to the Hubble scale 10^-33eV. Conversely the presence of such a plenitude of axions (an "axiverse") would be evidence for string theory, since it arises due to the topological complexity of the extra-dimensional manifold and is ad hoc in a theory with just the four familiar dimensions. We investigate how upcoming astrophysical experiments will explore the existence of such axions over a vast mass range from 10^-33eV to 10^-10eV. Read More

In supersymmetric unified theories the dark matter particle can decay, just like the proton, through grand unified interactions with a lifetime of order of 10^{26} sec. Its decay products can be detected by several experiments -- including Fermi, HESS, PAMELA, ATIC, and IceCube -- opening our first direct window to physics at the TeV scale and simultaneously at the unification scale 10^{16} GeV. We consider possibilities for explaining the electron/positron spectra observed by HESS, PAMELA, and ATIC, and the resulting predictions for the gamma-ray, electron/positron, and neutrino spectra as will be measured, for example, by Fermi and IceCube. Read More

We calculate the probability distribution for the volume of the Universe after slow-roll inflation both in the eternal and in the non-eternal regime. Far from the eternal regime the probability distribution for the number of e-foldings, defined as one third of the logarithm of the volume, is sharply peaked around the number of e-foldings of the classical inflaton trajectory. At the transition to the eternal regime this probability is still peaked (with the width of order one e-folding) around the average, which gets twice larger at the transition point. Read More

Traditional ideas for testing unification involve searching for the decay of the proton and its branching modes. We point out that several astrophysical experiments are now reaching sensitivities that allow them to explore supersymmetric unified theories. In these theories the electroweak-mass DM particle can decay, just like the proton, through dimension six operators with lifetime ~ 10^26 sec. Read More

We argue that superluminal signal propagation is possible in consistent Poincare invariant quantum field theories in two space-time dimensions, provided spatial parity is broken. This happens due to existence of the ``instantaneous'' causal structure, with one of the light cone variables being a global time. In two dimensions this causal structure is invariant under the Poincare group if one gives up the spatial parity. Read More

**Authors:**Paolo Creminelli

^{1}, Sergei Dubovsky

^{2}, Alberto Nicolis

^{3}, Leonardo Senatore

^{4}, Matias Zaldarriaga

^{5}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}ICTP, Trieste,

^{2}Harvard U., Physics Dept., and Moscow, INR,

^{3}Columbia U.,

^{4}Harvard U., Physics Dept.,

^{5}Harvard U., Physics Dept., and Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

For slow-roll inflation we study the phase transition to the eternal regime. Starting from a finite inflationary volume, we consider the volume of the universe at reheating as order parameter. We show that there exists a critical value for the classical inflaton speed, \dot\phi^2/H^4 = 3/(2 \pi^2), where the probability distribution for the reheating volume undergoes a sharp transition. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Princeton, Inst. Advanced Studies,

^{2}Harvard U. and Moscow, INR,

^{3}Harvard U.,

^{4}Harvard U.

Even if nothing but a light Higgs is observed at the LHC, suggesting that the Standard Model is unmodified up to scales far above the weak scale, Higgs physics can yield surprises of fundamental significance for cosmology. As has long been known, the Standard Model vacuum may be metastable for low enough Higgs mass, but a specific value of the decay rate holds special significance: for a very narrow window of parameters, our Universe has not yet decayed but the current inflationary period can not be future eternal. Determining whether we are in this window requires exquisite but achievable experimental precision, with a measurement of the Higgs mass to 0. Read More

It is well known that in Lorentz invariant quantum field theories in flat space the commutator of space-like separated local operators vanishes (microcausality). We provide two different arguments showing that this is a consequence of the causal structure of the classical theory, rather than of Lorentz invariance. In particular, microcausality holds in arbitrary curved space-times, where Lorentz invariance is explicitly broken by the background metric. Read More

We consider black holes in Lorentz violating theories of massive gravity. We argue that in these theories black hole solutions are no longer universal and exhibit a large number of hairs. If they exist, these hairs probe the singularity inside the black hole providing a window into quantum gravity. Read More

We show that in any model of non-eternal inflation satisfying the null energy condition, the area of the de Sitter horizon increases by at least one Planck unit in each inflationary e-folding. This observation gives an operational meaning to the finiteness of the entropy S_dS of an inflationary de Sitter space eventually exiting into an asymptotically flat region: the asymptotic observer is never able to measure more than e^(S_dS) independent inflationary modes. This suggests a limitation on the amount of de Sitter space outside the horizon that can be consistently described at the semiclassical level, fitting well with other examples of the breakdown of locality in quantum gravity, such as in black hole evaporation. Read More

The long-distance effective field theory of our Universe--the Standard Model coupled to gravity--has a unique 4D vacuum, but we show that it also has a landscape of lower-dimensional vacua, with the potential for moduli arising from vacuum and Casimir energies. For minimal Majorana neutrino masses, we find a near-continuous infinity of AdS3xS1 vacua, with circumference ~20 microns and AdS3 length 4x10^25 m. By AdS/CFT, there is a CFT2 of central charge c~10^90 which contains the Standard Model (and beyond) coupled to quantum gravity in this vacuum. Read More

We argue that certain apparently consistent low-energy effective field theories described by local, Lorentz-invariant Lagrangians, secretly exhibit macroscopic non-locality and cannot be embedded in any UV theory whose S-matrix satisfies canonical analyticity constraints. The obstruction involves the signs of a set of leading irrelevant operators, which must be strictly positive to ensure UV analyticity. An IR manifestation of this restriction is that the "wrong" signs lead to superluminal fluctuations around non-trivial backgrounds, making it impossible to define local, causal evolution, and implying a surprising IR breakdown of the effective theory. Read More