Sean N. Raymond - Universite de Bordeaux

Sean N. Raymond
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Sean N. Raymond
Universite de Bordeaux

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Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (50)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (13)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (3)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (1)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (1)

Publications Authored By Sean N. Raymond

Planets are thought to form via accretion from a remnant disk of gas and solids around a newly formed star. During this process material in the disk either remains bound to the star as part of either a planet, a smaller celestial body, or makes up part of the interplanetary medium; falls into the star; or is ejected from the system. Herein we use dynamical models to probe the abundance and properties of ejected material during late-stage planet formation and estimate their contribution to the free-floating planet population. Read More

"Hot super-Earths" (or "Mini-Neptunes") between 1 and 4 times Earth's size with period shorter than 100 days orbit 30-50\% of Sun-like type stars. Their orbital configuration -- measured as the period ratio distribution of adjacent planets in multi-planet systems -- is a strong constraint for formation models. Here we use N-body simulations with synthetic forces from an underlying evolving gaseous disk to model the formation and long-term dynamical evolution of super-Earth systems. Read More

Over the past two decades, large strides have been made in the field of planet formation. Yet fundamental questions remain. Here we review our state of understanding of five fundamental bottlenecks in planet formation. Read More

The orbital structure of the asteroid belt holds a record of the Solar System's dynamical history. The current belt only contains ${\rm \sim 10^{-3}}$ Earth masses yet the asteroids' orbits are dynamically excited, with a large spread in eccentricity and inclination. In the context of models of terrestrial planet formation, the belt may have been excited by Jupiter's orbital migration. Read More

We present the results of hydrodynamical simulations of the orbital evolution of planets undergoing runaway gas accretion in radiative discs. We consider accreting disc models with constant mass flux through the disc, and where radiative cooling balances the effect of viscous heating and stellar irradiation. We assume that 20-30 $M_\oplus$ giant planet cores are formed in the region where viscous heating dominates and migrate outward under the action of a strong corotation torque. Read More

Proxima b is a planet with a minimum mass of 1.3 MEarth orbiting within the habitable zone (HZ) of Proxima Centauri, a very low-mass, active star and the Sun's closest neighbor. Here we investigate a number of factors related to the potential habitability of Proxima b and its ability to maintain liquid water on its surface. Read More

Radial velocity monitoring has found the signature of a $M \sin i = 1.3$~M$_\oplus$ planet located within the Habitable Zone (HZ) of Proxima Centauri \citep{Anglada16}. Despite a hotter past and an active host star the planet Proxima~b could have retained enough volatiles to sustain surface habitability \citep{Ribas2016}. Read More

The Planet Formation Imager (PFI) project aims to provide a strong scientific vision for ground-based optical astronomy beyond the upcoming generation of Extremely Large Telescopes. We make the case that a breakthrough in angular resolution imaging capabilities is required in order to unravel the processes involved in planet formation. PFI will be optimised to provide a complete census of the protoplanet population at all stellocentric radii and over the age range from 0. Read More

Ultracool dwarfs (UCD; $T_{\rm eff}<\sim3000~$K) cool to settle on the main sequence after $\sim$1 Gyr. For brown dwarfs, this cooling never stops. Their habitable zone (HZ) thus sweeps inward at least during the first Gyr of their lives. Read More

We investigate the prospects for the capture of the proposed Planet 9 from other stars in the Sun's birth cluster. Any capture scenario must satisfy three conditions: the encounter must be more distant than ~150 au to avoid perturbing the Kuiper belt; the other star must have a wide-orbit planet (a>~100au); the planet must be captured onto an appropriate orbit to sculpt the orbital distribution of wide-orbit Solar System bodies. Here we use N-body simulations to show that these criteria may be simultaneously satisfied. Read More

Jupiter's core is generally assumed to have formed beyond the snow line. Here we consider an alternative scenario, that Jupiter's core may have accumulated in the innermost parts of the protoplanetary disk. A growing body of research suggests that small particles ("pebbles") continually drift inward through the disk. Read More

Reproducing the large Earth/Mars mass ratio requires a strong mass depletion in solids within the protoplanetary disk between 1 and 3 AU. The Grand Tack model invokes a specific migration history of the giant planets to remove most of the mass initially beyond 1 AU and to dynamically excite the asteroid belt. However, one could also invoke a steep density gradient created by inward drift and pile-up of small particles induced by gas-drag, as has been proposed to explain the formation of close-in super Earths. Read More

A large proportion of observed planetary systems contain several planets in a compact orbital configuration, and often harbor at least one close-in object. These systems are then most likely tidally evolving. We investigate how the effects of planet-planet interactions influence the tidal evolution of planets. Read More

Reproducing Uranus and Neptune remains a challenge for simulations of solar system formation. The ice giants' peculiar obliquities suggest that they both suffered giant collisions during their formation. Thus, there must have been an epoch of accretion dominated by collisions among large planetary embryos in the primordial outer solar system. Read More

According to the generally accepted scenario, the last giant impact on the Earth formed the Moon and initiated the final phase of core formation by melting the Earth's mantle. A key goal of geochemistry is to date this event, but different ages have been proposed. Some argue for an early Moon-forming event, approximately 30 million years (Myr) after the condensation of the first solids in the Solar System, whereas others claim a date later than 50 Myr (and possibly as late as around 100 My) after condensation. Read More

Most of the properties of the Earth-Moon system can be explained by a collision between a planetary embryo and the growing Earth late in the accretion process. Simulations show that most of the material that eventually aggregates to form the Moon originates from the impactor. However, analysis of the terrestrial and lunar isotopic composition show them to be highly similar. Read More

Planets of 1-4 times Earth's size on orbits shorter than 100 days exist around 30-50% of all Sun-like stars. In fact, the Solar System is particularly outstanding in its lack of "hot super-Earths" (or "mini-Neptunes"). These planets -- or their building blocks -- may have formed on wider orbits and migrated inward due to interactions with the gaseous protoplanetary disk. Read More

We present N-body simulations of resonant planets with inclined orbits that show chaotically evolving eccentricities and inclinations that can persist for at least 10 Gyr. A wide range of behavior is possible, from fast, low amplitude variations to systems in which eccentricities reach 0.9999 and inclinations 179. Read More

Our knowledge of planets' orbital dynamics, which was based on Solar System studies, has been challenged by the diversity of exoplanetary systems. Around cool and ultra cool dwarfs, the influence of tides on the orbital and spin evolution of planets can strongly affect their climate and their capacity to host surface liquid water. We illustrate the role of tides and dynamics with the extreme case of planets orbiting around brown dwarfs. Read More

A large number of observed exoplanets are part of multiple planet systems. Most of these systems are sufficiently close-in to be tidally evolving. In such systems, there is a competition between the excitation caused by planet-planet interactions and tidal damping. Read More

Embedded in the gaseous protoplanetary disk, Jupiter and Saturn naturally become trapped in 3:2 resonance and migrate outward. This serves as the basis of the Grand Tack model. However, previous hydrodynamical simulations were restricted to isothermal disks, with moderate aspect ratio and viscosity. Read More

The `Grand Tack' model proposes that the inner Solar System was sculpted by the giant planets' orbital migration in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. Jupiter first migrated inward then Jupiter and Saturn migrated back outward together. If Jupiter's turnaround or "tack" point was at ~1. Read More

We present Rossiter-McLaughlin observations of the transiting super-Earth 55 Cnc e collected during six transit events between January 2012 and November 2013 with HARPS and HARPS-N. We detect no radial-velocity signal above 35 cm/s (3-sigma) and confine the stellar v sin i to 0.2 +/- 0. Read More

Super-Earths with orbital periods less than 100 days are extremely abundant around Sun-like stars. It is unlikely that these planets formed at their current locations. Rather, they likely formed at large distances from the star and subsequently migrated inward. Read More

Planetary embryos embedded in gaseous protoplanetary disks undergo Type I orbital migration. Migration can be inward or outward depending on the local disk properties but, in general, only planets more massive than several $M_\oplus$ can migrate outward. Here we propose that an embryo's migration history determines whether it becomes a hot super-Earth or the core of a giant planet. Read More

A new model for terrestrial planet formation (Hansen 2009, Walsh et al. 2011) has explored accretion in a truncated protoplanetary disk, and found that such a configuration is able to reproduce the distribution of mass among the planets in the Solar System, especially the Earth/Mars mass ratio, which earlier simulations have generally not been able to match. Walsh et al. Read More

Planets close to their stars are thought to form farther out and migrate inward due to angular momentum exchange with gaseous protoplanetary disks. This process can produce systems of planets in co-orbital (Trojan or 1:1) resonance, in which two planets share the same orbit, usually separated by 60 degrees. Co-orbital systems are detectable among the planetary systems found by the Kepler mission either directly or by transit timing variations. Read More

The quest for Earth-like planets represents a major focus of current exoplanet research. While planets that are Earth-sized and smaller have been detected, these planets reside in orbits that are too close to their host star to allow liquid water on their surface. We present the detection of Kepler-186f, a 1. Read More

High levels of exozodiacal dust have been observed in the inner regions of a large fraction of main sequence stars. Given the short lifetime of the observed small dust grains, these 'exozodis' are difficult to explain, especially for old (>100 Myr) stars. The exozodiacal dust may be observed as excess emission in the mid-infrared, or using interferometry. Read More

Vega has been shown to host multiple dust populations, including both hot exo-zodiacal dust at sub-AU radii and a cold debris disk extending beyond 100 AU. We use dynamical simulations to show how Vega's hot dust can be created by long-range gravitational scattering of planetesimals from its cold outer regions. Planetesimals are scattered progressively inward by a system of 5-7 planets from 30-60 AU to very close-in. Read More

Since exoplanets were detected using the radial velocity method, they have revealed a diverse distribution of orbital configurations. Amongst these are planets in highly eccentric orbits (e > 0.5). Read More

It has been proposed that the observed systems of hot super-Earths formed in situ from high-mass disks. By fitting a disk profile to the entire population of Kepler planet candidates, Chiang & Laughlin (2013) constructed a "minimum-mass extrasolar nebula" with surface density profile Sigma r^-1.6. Read More

We review the state of the field of terrestrial planet formation with the goal of understanding the formation of the inner Solar System and low-mass exoplanets. We review the dynamics and timescales of accretion from planetesimals to planetary embryos and from embryos to terrestrial planets. We discuss radial mixing and water delivery, planetary spins and the importance of parameters regarding the disk and embryo properties. Read More

This chapter concerns the long-term dynamical evolution of planetary systems from both theoretical and observational perspectives. We begin by discussing the planet-planet interactions that take place within our own Solar System. We then describe such interactions in more tightly-packed planetary systems. Read More

We present numerical simulations modeling the orbital evolution of very wide binaries, pairs of stars separated by over ~1000 AU. Due to perturbations from other passing stars and the Milky Way's tide, the orbits of very wide binary stars occasionally become extremely eccentric, which forces close encounters between the companion stars (Kaib et al. 2013). Read More

The field of exoplanetary science has experienced a recent surge of new systems that is largely due to the precision photometry provided by the Kepler mission. The latest discoveries have included compact planetary systems in which the orbits of the planets all lie relatively close to the host star, which presents interesting challenges in terms of formation and dynamical evolution. The compact exoplanetary systems are analogous to the moons orbiting the giant planets in our Solar System, in terms of their relative sizes and semi-major axes. Read More

Earth-mass bodies are expected to undergo Type I migration directed either inward or outward depending on the thermodynamical state of the protoplanetary disc. Zones of convergent migration exist where the Type I torque cancels out. We study the evolution of multiple protoplanets of a few Earth masses embedded in a non-isothermal protoplanetary disc. Read More

If mutual gravitational scattering among exoplanets occurs, then it may produce unique orbital properties. For example, two-planet systems that lie near the boundary between circulation and libration of their periapses could result if planet-planet scattering ejected a former third planet quickly, leaving one planet on an eccentric orbit and the other on a circular orbit. We first improve upon previous work that examined the apsidal behavior of known multiplanet systems by doubling the sample size and including observational uncertainties. Read More

Using N-body simulations with planet-disk interactions, we present a mechanism capable of forming compact systems of hot super Earths such as Kepler 11. Recent studies show that outward migration is common in the inner parts of radiative disks. However we show that two processes naturally tip the balance in favor of inward migration. Read More

Given their tendency to be incorporated into the core during differentiation, the highly-siderophile elements (HSEs) in Earth's mantle are thought to have been accreted as a `late veneer' after the end of the giant impact phase. Bottke et al (2010) proposed that the large Earth-to-Moon HSE abundance ratio can be explained if the late veneer was characterized by large (D = 1000-4000km) impactors. Here we simulate the evolution of the terrestrial planets during a stochastic late veneer phase from the end of accretion until the start of the late heavy bombardment ~500 Myr later. Read More

Excess emission, associated with warm, dust belts, commonly known as exozodis, has been observed around a third of nearby stars. The high levels of dust required to explain the observations are not generally consistent with steady-state evolution. A common suggestion is that the dust results from the aftermath of a dynamical instability, an event akin to the Solar System's Late Heavy Bombardment. Read More

Exoplanetary science has reached a historic moment. The James Webb Space Telescope will be capable of probing the atmospheres of rocky planets, and perhaps even search for biologically produced gases. However this is contingent on identifying suitable targets before the end of the mission. Read More

We use the super Earth 55 Cnc e as a case study to address an observable effect of tidal heating. We investigate whether planet-planet interactions can force the eccentricity of this planet to a level affecting the eclipse depth observed with Spitzer. Using the constant time lag tidal model, we first calculate the observed planet flux as a function of albedo and eccentricity, for different tidal dissipation constants and for two extreme cases: a planet with no heat redistribution and a planet with full heat redistribution. Read More

Earth-mass planets embedded in gaseous protoplanetary disks undergo Type I orbital migration. In radiative disks an additional component of the corotation torque scaling with the entropy gradient across the horseshoe region can counteract the general inward migration, Type I migration can then be directed either inward or outward depending on the local disk properties. Thus, special locations exist in the disk toward which planets migrate in a convergent way. Read More

Given the very close proximity of their habitable zones, brown dwarfs represent high-value targets in the search for nearby transiting habitable planets that may be suitable for follow-up occultation spectroscopy. In this paper we develop search strategies to find habitable planets transiting brown dwarfs depending on their maximum habitable orbital period (PHZ out). Habitable planets with PHZ out shorter than the useful duration of a night (e. Read More

Nearly half of the exoplanets found within binary star systems reside in very wide binaries with average stellar separations beyond 1,000 AU (1 AU being the Earth-Sun distance), yet the influence of such distant binary companions on planetary evolution remains largely unstudied. Unlike their tighter counterparts, the stellar orbits of wide binaries continually change under the influence of the Galactic tide and impulses from other passing stars. Here we report numerical simulations demonstrating that the variable nature of wide binary star orbits dramatically reshapes the planetary systems they host, typically Gyrs after formation. Read More

In this chapter we review the astrophysical origins of Earth's carbon, starting from the products of the Big Bang and culminating with the Earth's formation. We review the measured compositions of different primitive objects including comets, various classes of meteorites and interstellar dust particles. We discuss the composition of the Solar Nebula, especially with regards to the distribution of volatiles such as carbon. Read More