Savas Dimopoulos - Stanford University

Savas Dimopoulos
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Savas Dimopoulos
Stanford University
United States

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High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (47)
High Energy Physics - Theory (38)
Astrophysics (15)
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (11)
High Energy Physics - Experiment (8)
Physics - Atomic Physics (6)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (2)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (1)

Publications Authored By Savas Dimopoulos

We propose a framework in which Weinberg's anthropic explanation of the cosmological constant problem also solves the hierarchy problem. The weak scale is selected by chiral dynamics that controls the stabilization of an extra dimension. When the Higgs vacuum expectation value is close to a fermion mass scale, the radius of an extra dimension becomes large, and develops an enhanced number of vacua available to scan the cosmological constant down to its observed value. Read More

We present a model where the QCD axion is at the TeV scale and visible at a collider via its decays. Conformal dynamics and strong CP considerations account for the axion coupling strongly enough to the standard model to be produced as well as the coincidence between the weak scale and the axion mass. The model predicts additional pseudoscalar color octets whose properties are completely determined by the axion properties rendering the theory testable. Read More

In the next few years Advanced LIGO (aLIGO) may see gravitational waves (GWs) from thousands of black hole (BH) mergers. This marks the beginning of a new precision tool for physics. Here we show how to search for new physics beyond the standard model using this tool, in particular the QCD axion in the mass range ma ~ 10^-14 to 10^-10 eV. Read More

The fine-structure constant and the electron mass in string theory are determined by the values of scalar fields called moduli. If the dark matter takes on the form of such a light modulus, it oscillates with a frequency equal to its mass and an amplitude determined by the local dark-matter density. This translates into an oscillation of the size of a solid that can be observed by resonant-mass antennas. Read More

In supersymmetric (SUSY) theories with extra dimensions the visible energy in sparticle decays can be significantly reduced and its energy distribution broadened, thus significantly weakening the present collider limits on SUSY. The mechanism applies when the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is a bulk state-- e.g. Read More

We consider 4D weak scale theories arising from 5D supersymmetric (SUSY) theories with maximal Scherk-Schwarz breaking at a Kaluza-Klein (KK) scale of several TeV. Many of the problems of conventional SUSY are avoided. Apart from 3rd family sfermions the SUSY spectrum is heavy, with only ~50% tuning at a gluino mass of ~2TeV and a stop mass of ~650 GeV. Read More

The lack of evidence for new physics beyond the standard model at the LHC points to a paucity of new particles near the weak scale. This suggests that the weak scale is tuned and that supersymmetry, if present at all, is realized at higher energies. The measured Higgs mass constrains the scalar sparticles to be below 10^5 TeV, while gauge coupling unification favors Higgsinos below 100 TeV. Read More

We present a simple supersymmetric model of split families consistent with flavor limits that preserves the successful prediction of gauge coupling unification and naturally accounts for the Higgs mass. The model provides an intricate connection between the Standard Model flavor hierarchy, supersymmetric flavor problem, unification and the Higgs mass. In particular unification favors a naturally large Higgs mass from D-term corrections to the quartic couplings in the Higgs potential. Read More

We study the graviton phenomenology of TeV Little String Theory by exploiting its holographic gravity dual five-dimensional theory. This dual corresponds to a linear dilaton background with a large bulk that constrains the Standard Model fields on the boundary of space. The linear dilaton geometry produces a unique Kaluza-Klein graviton spectrum that exhibits a ~ TeV mass gap followed by a near continuum of narrow resonances that are separated from each other by only ~ 30 GeV. Read More

String theories with topologically complex compactification manifolds suggest the simultaneous presence of many unbroken U(1)'s without any light matter charged under them. The gauge bosons associated with these U(1)'s do not have direct observational consequences. However, in the presence of low energy supersymmetry the gauge fermions associated with these U(1)'s, the "photini", mix with the Bino and extend the MSSM neutralino sector. Read More

String theory suggests the simultaneous presence of many ultralight axions possibly populating each decade of mass down to the Hubble scale 10^-33eV. Conversely the presence of such a plenitude of axions (an "axiverse") would be evidence for string theory, since it arises due to the topological complexity of the extra-dimensional manifold and is ad hoc in a theory with just the four familiar dimensions. We investigate how upcoming astrophysical experiments will explore the existence of such axions over a vast mass range from 10^-33eV to 10^-10eV. Read More

In supersymmetric unified theories the dark matter particle can decay, just like the proton, through grand unified interactions with a lifetime of order of 10^{26} sec. Its decay products can be detected by several experiments -- including Fermi, HESS, PAMELA, ATIC, and IceCube -- opening our first direct window to physics at the TeV scale and simultaneously at the unification scale 10^{16} GeV. We consider possibilities for explaining the electron/positron spectra observed by HESS, PAMELA, and ATIC, and the resulting predictions for the gamma-ray, electron/positron, and neutrino spectra as will be measured, for example, by Fermi and IceCube. Read More

Traditional ideas for testing unification involve searching for the decay of the proton and its branching modes. We point out that several astrophysical experiments are now reaching sensitivities that allow them to explore supersymmetric unified theories. In these theories the electroweak-mass DM particle can decay, just like the proton, through dimension six operators with lifetime ~ 10^26 sec. Read More

We propose two distinct atom interferometer gravitational wave detectors, one terrestrial and another satellite-based, utilizing the core technology of the Stanford 10 m atom interferometer presently under construction. Each configuration compares two widely separated atom interferometers run using common lasers. The signal scales with the distance between the interferometers, which can be large since only the light travels over this distance, not the atoms. Read More

Atom interferometry is now reaching sufficient precision to motivate laboratory tests of general relativity. We begin by explaining the non-relativistic calculation of the phase shift in an atom interferometer and deriving its range of validity. From this we develop a method for calculating the phase shift in general relativity. Read More

We propose two distinct atom interferometer gravitational wave detectors, one terrestrial and another satellite-based, utilizing the core technology of the Stanford $10 \text{m}$ atom interferometer presently under construction. The terrestrial experiment can operate with strain sensitivity $ \sim \frac{10^{-19}}{\sqrt{\text{Hz}}}$ in the 1 Hz - 10 Hz band, inaccessible to LIGO, and can detect gravitational waves from solar mass binaries out to megaparsec distances. The satellite experiment probes the same frequency spectrum as LISA with better strain sensitivity $ \sim \frac{10^{-20}}{\sqrt{\text{Hz}}}$. Read More

We propose an atom-interferometry experiment based on the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect which detects an atom charge at the 10^{-28}e level, and improves the current laboratory limits by 8 orders of magnitude. This setup independently probes neutron charges down to 10^{-28}e, 7 orders of magnitude below current bounds. Read More

The unprecedented precision of atom interferometry will soon lead to laboratory tests of general relativity to levels that will rival or exceed those reached by astrophysical observations. We propose such an experiment that will initially test the equivalence principle to 1 part in 10^15 (300 times better than the current limit), and 1 part in 10^17 in the future. It will also probe general relativistic effects--such as the non-linear three-graviton coupling, the gravity of an atom's kinetic energy, and the falling of light--to several decimals. Read More

The presence of many axion fields in four-dimensional string vacua can lead to a simple, radiatively stable realization of chaotic inflation. Read More

We propose that the Standard Model is coupled to a sector with an enormous landscape of vacua, where only the dimensionful parameters--the vacuum energy and Higgs masses--are finely "scanned" from one vacuum to another, while dimensionless couplings are effectively fixed. This allows us to preserve achievements of the usual unique-vacuum approach in relating dimensionless couplings while also accounting for the success of the anthropic approach to the cosmological constant problem. It can also explain the proximity of the weak scale to the geometric mean of the Planck and vacuum energy scales. Read More

The cosmological constant problem is a failure of naturalness and suggests that a fine-tuning mechanism is at work, which may also address the hierarchy problem. An example -- supported by Weinberg's successful prediction of the cosmological constant -- is the potentially vast landscape of vacua in string theory, where the existence of galaxies and atoms is promoted to a vacuum selection criterion. Then, low energy SUSY becomes unnecessary, and supersymmetry -- if present in the fundamental theory -- can be broken near the unification scale. Read More

The dark energy equation of state for theories with either a discretuum or continuum distribution of vacua is investigated. In the discretuum case the equation of state is constant $w=p/\rho=-1$. The continuum case may be realized by an action with large wave function factor $Z$ for the dark energy modulus and generic potential. Read More

We propose a technique, using interferometry of Bose-Einstein condensed alkali atoms, for the detection of sub-micron-range forces. It may extend present searches at 1 micron by 6 to 9 orders of magnitude, deep into the theoretically interesting regime of 1000 times gravity. We give several examples of both four-dimensional particles (moduli), as well as higher-dimensional particles -- vectors and scalars in a large bulk-- that could mediate forces accessible by this technique. Read More

We propose a phenomenological approach to the cosmological constant problem based on generally covariant non-local and acausal modifications of four-dimensional gravity at enormous distances. The effective Newton constant becomes very small at large length scales, so that sources with immense wavelengths and periods -- such as the vacuum energy-- produce minuscule curvature. Conventional astrophysics, cosmology and standard inflationary scenaria are unaffected, as they involve shorter length scales. Read More

We apply a recently proposed mechanism -- in which an SU(3) symmetry predicts the weak mixing angle -- to construct realistic theories with composite quarks and leptons at a TeV. Although the models are strongly coupled, they are reliably analyzed using complementarity and 't Hooft's anomaly matching. In the simplest models the right-handed fermions are composite, while the left-handed are elementary. Read More

We apply a recently proposed mechanism for predicting the weak mixing angle to theories with TeV-size dimensions. "Reconstruction" of the associated moose (or quiver) leads to theories which unify the electroweak forces into a five dimensional SU(3) symmetry. Quarks live at an orbifold fixed point where SU(3) breaks to the electroweak group. Read More

The measured values of two electroweak gauge couplings appear to obey an approximate 5% SU(3) relation. Unless this is an accident caused by fortuitous Planck-scale physics, it suggests the presence of an SU(3) symmetry near the electroweak scale. We propose this to be a local SU(3) which spontaneously ``mixes'' with SU(2) x U(1) near a TeV. Read More

In string theory, black holes have a minimum mass below which they transition into highly excited long and jagged strings --- ``string balls''. These are the stringy progenitors of black holes; because they are lighter, in theories of TeV-gravity, they may be more accessible to the LHC or the VLHC. They share some of the characteristics of black holes, such as large production cross sections. Read More

If the scale of quantum gravity is near a TeV, the LHC will be producing one black hole (BH) about every second. The BH decays into prompt, hard photons and charged leptons is a clean signature with low background. The absence of significant missing energy allows the reconstruction of the mass of the decaying BH. Read More

We recall how the idea of Softly Broken Supersymmetry led to the construction of the Supersymmetric Standard Model in 1981. Its first prediction, the supersymmetric unification of gauge couplings, was conclusively verified by the LEP and SLC experiments 10 years later. Its other predictions include: the existence of superparticles at the electroweak scale; a stable lightest superparticle (LSP) with a mass of $\sim 100$ GeV, anticipated to be a neutral electroweak gaugino; the universality of scalar and gaugino masses at the unification scale. Read More

We propose a framework where the string scale as well as all compact dimensions are at the electroweak scale $\sim$ TeV$^{-1}$. The weakness of gravity is attributed to the small value of the string coupling $g_s \sim 10^{-16}$, presumably a remnant of the dilaton's runaway behavior, suggesting the possibility of a common solution to the hierarchy and dilaton-runaway problems. In spite of the small $g_s$, in type II string theories with gauge interactions localized in the vicinity of NS5-branes, the standard model gauge couplings are of order one and are associated with the sizes of compact dimensions. Read More

We propose a new approach to the Cosmological Constant Problem which makes essential use of an extra dimension. A model is presented in which the Standard Model vacuum energy ``warps'' the higher-dimensional spacetime while preserving 4D flatness. We argue that the strong curvature region of our solutions may effectively cut off the size of the extra dimension, thereby giving rise to macroscopic 4D gravity without a cosmological constant. Read More

We propose that our world is a brane folded many times inside the sub-millimeter extra dimensions. The folding produces many connected parallel branes or folds with identical microphysics - a Manyfold. Nearby matter on other folds can be detected gravitationally as dark matter since the light it emits takes a long time to reach us traveling around the fold. Read More

In theories with TeV string scale and sub-millimeter extra dimensions the attractive picture of logarithmic gauge coupling unification at $10^{16}$ GeV is seemingly destroyed. In this paper we argue to the contrary that logarithmic unification {\it can} occur in such theories. The rationale for unification is no longer that a gauge symmetry is restored at short distances, but rather that a geometric symmetry is restored at large distances in the bulk away from our 3-brane. Read More

We construct intersecting brane configurations in Anti-de-Sitter space localizing gravity to the intersection region, with any number $n$ of extra dimensions. This allows us to construct two kinds of theories with infinitely large new dimensions, TeV scale quantum gravity and sub-millimeter deviations from Newton's Law. The effective 4D Planck scale $M_{Pl}$ is determined in terms of the fundamental Planck scale $M_*$ and the $AdS$ radius of curvature $L$ via the familiar relation $M_{Pl}^2 \sim M_{*}^{2+n} L^n$; $L$ acts as an effective radius of compactification for gravity on the intersection. Read More

We discuss early cosmology in theories where the fundamental Planck mass is close to the TeV scale. In such theories the standard model fields are localized to a (3+1)-dimensional wall with n new transverse sub-millimeter sized spatial dimensions. The topic touched upon include: early inflation that occurs while the size of the new dimensions are still small, the spectrum and magnitude of density perturbations, the post-inflation era of contraction of our world while the internal dimensions evolve to their final ``large'' radius, and the production of gravitons in the bulk during these two eras. Read More

It was recently pointed out that the fundamental Planck mass could be close to the TeV scale with the observed weakness of gravity at long distances being due the existence of new sub-millimeter spatial dimensions. In this picture the standard model fields are localized to a $(3+1)$-dimensional wall or ``3-brane''. We show that in such theories there exist attractive models of inflation that occur while the size of the new dimensions are still small. Read More

Recently it was proposed that the standard model (SM) degrees of freedom reside on a $(3+1)$-dimensional wall or ``3-brane'' embedded in a higher-dimensional spacetime. Furthermore, in this picture it is possible for the fundamental Planck mass $\mst$ to be as small as the weak scale $\mst\simeq O(\tev)$ and the observed weakness of gravity at long distances is due the existence of new sub-millimeter spatial dimensions. We show that in this picture it is natural to expect neutrino masses to occur in the $10^{-1} - 10^{-4}\ev$ range, despite the lack of any fundamental scale higher than $\mst$. Read More

The recently proposed theories with TeV-scale quantum gravity remove the usual ultraviolet desert between $\sim 10^{3} - 10^{19}$ GeV where effective field theory ideas apply. Consequently, the success of the desert in explaining approximate symmetries is lost, and theories of flavor, neutrino masses, proton longevity or supersymmetry breaking, lose their usual habitat. In this paper we show that these ideas can find a new home in an infrared desert: the large space in the extra dimensions. Read More

A new framework for solving the hierarchy problem was recently proposed which does not rely on low energy supersymmetry or technicolor. The fundamental Planck mass is at a $\tev$ and the observed weakness of gravity at long distances is due the existence of new sub-millimeter spatial dimensions. In this picture the standard model fields are localized to a $(3+1)$-dimensional wall or ``3-brane''. Read More

Recently, a new framework for solving the hierarchy problem was proposed which does not rely on low energy supersymmetry or technicolor. The fundamental Planck mass is at a TeV and the observed weakness of gravity at long distances is due the existence of new sub-millimeter spatial dimensions. In this letter, we study how the properties of black holes are altered in these theories. Read More

We recently proposed a solution to the hierarchy problem not relying on low-energy supersymmetry or technicolor. Instead, the problem is nullified by bringing quantum gravity down to the TeV scale. This is accomplished by the presence of $n \geq 2$ new dimensions of sub-millimeter size, with the SM fields localised on a 3-brane in the higher dimensional space. Read More

We propose a new framework for solving the hierarchy problem which does not rely on either supersymmetry or technicolor. In this framework, the gravitational and gauge interactions become united at the weak scale, which we take as the only fundamental short distance scale in nature. The observed weakness of gravity on distances $\gsim$ 1 mm is due to the existence of $n \geq 2$ new compact spatial dimensions large compared to the weak scale. Read More

In this paper two things are done. First, we propose a simple model of dynamical gauge-mediated SUSY breaking. This model incorporates a dynamical relaxation mechanism which solves the \mu-problem with no light fields beyond those of the MSSM. Read More

We show that simple strongly coupled supersymmetric gauge theories with quantum moduli spaces can naturally lead to hybrid inflation. These theories contain no input dimensionful or small parameters. The effective superpotential is linear in the inflaton field; this ensures that supergravity corrections do not spoil the slow roll conditions for inflation. Read More

We construct a class of simple and calculable theories for the supersymmetry breaking soft terms. They are based on quantum modified moduli spaces. These theories do not break supersymmetry in their ground state; instead we postulate that we live in a supersymmetry breaking plateau of false vacua. Read More

The phenomenology associated with gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking is presented. A renormalization group analysis of the minimal model is performed in which the constraints of radiative electroweak symmetry breaking are imposed. The resulting superpartner and Higgs boson spectra are highly correlated and depend on only a few parameters. Read More

The experimental signatures for low energy supersymmetry breaking are presented. The lightest standard model superpartner is unstable and decays to its partner plus a Goldstino, $G$. For a supersymmetry breaking scale below a few 1000 TeV this decay can take place within a detector, leading to very distinctive signatures. Read More

The signatures for low energy supersymmetry breaking at the Tevatron are investigated. It is natural that the lightest standard model superpartner is an electroweak neutralino, which decays to an essentially massless Goldstino and photon, possibly within the detector. In the simplest models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking, the production of right-handed sleptons, neutralinos, and charginos leads to a pair of hard photons accompanied by leptons and/or jets with missing transverse energy. Read More

The experimental signatures for gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking are presented. The phenomenology associated with this class of models is distinctive since the gravitino is naturally the LSP. The next lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP) can be a gaugino, Higgsino, or right handed slepton. Read More