Satoshi Nakahira - Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University

Satoshi Nakahira
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Satoshi Nakahira
Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University

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High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (33)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (4)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (1)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (1)

Publications Authored By Satoshi Nakahira

23 giant flares from 13 active stars (eight RS CVn systems, one Algol system, three dMe stars and one YSO) were detected during the first two years of our all-sky X-ray monitoring with the gas propotional counters (GSC) of the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI). The observed parameters of all of these MAXI/GSC flares are found to be at the upper ends for stellar flares with the luminosity of 10^(31-34) ergs s-1 in the 2-20 keV band, the emission measure of 10^(54-57) cm-3, the e-folding time of 1 hour to 1.5 days, and the total radiative energy released during the flare of 10^(34-39) ergs. Read More

We report nine long X-ray bursts from neutron stars, detected with Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI). Some of these bursts lasted for hours, and hence are qualified as superbursts, which are prolonged thermonuclear flashes on neutron stars and are relatively rare events. MAXI observes roughly 85% of the whole sky every 92 minutes in the 2-20 keV energy band, and has detected nine bursts with a long e-folding decay time, ranging from 0. Read More

How black holes accrete surrounding matter is a fundamental, yet unsolved question in astrophysics. It is generally believed that matter is absorbed into black holes via accretion disks, the state of which depends primarily on the mass-accretion rate. When this rate approaches the critical rate (the Eddington limit), thermal instability is supposed to occur in the inner disc, causing repetitive patterns of large-amplitude X-ray variability (oscillations) on timescales of minutes to hours. Read More

We present the first source catalog of the Solid-state Slit Camera (SSC) of the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) mission on the International Space Station, using the 45-month data from 2010 August to 2014 April in 0.7--7.0~keV bands. Read More

Long-term X-ray variability of the black hole binary, Cygnus X-1, was studied with five years of MAXI data from 2009 to 2014, which include substantial periods of the high/soft state, as well as the low/hard state. In each state, Normalized Power Spectrum densities (NPSDs) were calculated in three energy bands of 2-4 keV, 4-10 keV and 10-20 keV. The NPSDs in a frequency from 1e-7 Hz to 1e-4 Hz are all approximated by a power-law function with an index -1. Read More

We present the newly developed broadband transient monitor using the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the MAXI Gas Slit Camera (GSC) data. Our broadband transient monitor monitors high energy transient sources from 2 keV to 200 keV in seven energy bands by combining the BAT (15-200 keV) and the GSC (2-20 keV) data. Currently, the daily and the 90-minute (one orbit) averaged light curves are available for 106 high energy transient sources. Read More

We have observed the prompt emission of GRB100418A, from its beginning by the MAXI/SSC (0.7-7 keV) on board the International Space Station followed by the Swift/XRT (0.3-10 keV) observation. Read More

We report MAXI and Swift observations of short-term spectral softenings of the galactic black-hole X-ray binary Swift J1753.5-0127 in the low/hard state. These softening events are characterized by a simultaneous increase of soft X-rays (2-4 keV) and a decrease of hard X-rays (15-50 keV) lasting for a few tens of days. Read More

Since August 2009, MAXI experiment on the ISS has been performing all-sky X-ray monitoring. With MAXI, we detected flaring activities of some blazers, including Mrk 421, Mrk 501, and 3C 273. Recently, new X-ray flaring activities were detected from two blazers, MAXI J1930+093 = 2FGL J1931. Read More

We report the results from an X-ray and near-infrared observation of the Galactic black hole binary 4U 1630--47 in the very high state, performed with {\it Suzaku} and IRSF around the peak of the 2012 September-October outburst. The X-ray spectrum is approximated by a steep power law, with photon index of 3.2, identifying the source as being in the very high state. Read More

We report on a long-term monitoring of a newly discovered X-ray nova, MAXI J1910-057 (= Swift J1910.2-0546), by MAXI and Swift. The new X-ray transient was first detected on 2012 May 31 by MAXI Gas Slit Camera (GSC) and Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) almost simultaneously. Read More

MAXI/GSC observed 21 outbursts from Circinus X-1 between 2009 August and 2013 December. Although 14 outbursts showed ordinary gradual decays, in 7 outbursts we found sudden luminosity decrease in a time scale of a few hours around the periastron, and then the outbursts terminated. These sudden decreases started at the estimated luminosity of a few times $10^{37}$ erg s$^{-1}$ and reached to $\lesssim3\times10^{36}$ erg s$^{-1}$. Read More

GRB 130925A was an unusual GRB, consisting of 3 distinct episodes of high-energy emission spanning $\sim$20 ks, making it a member of the proposed category of `ultra-long' bursts. It was also unusual in that its late-time X-ray emission observed by Swift was very soft, and showed a strong hard-to-soft spectral evolution with time. This evolution, rarely seen in GRB afterglows, can be well modelled as the dust-scattered echo of the prompt emission, with stringent limits on the contribution from the normal afterglow (i. Read More

The CALET Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (CGBM) is the secondary scientific instrument of the CALET mission on the International Space Station (ISS), which is scheduled for launch by H-IIB/HTV in 2014. The CGBM provides a broadband energy coverage from 7 keV to 20 MeV, and simultaneous observations with the primary instrument Calorimeter (CAL) in the GeV - TeV gamma-ray range and Advanced Star Camera (ASC) in the optical for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and other X-gamma-ray transients. The CGBM consists of two kinds of scintillators: two LaBr$_3$(Ce) (7 keV - 1 MeV) and one BGO (100 keV - 20 MeV) each read by a single photomultiplier. Read More

We report the results from X-ray studies of the newly discovered black hole candidate MAXI J1305-704 based on Suzaku and Swift observations in the low/hard and high/soft states, respectively. The long Suzaku observation shows two types of clear absorption dips, both of which recur on a dip interval of 9.74 +- 0. Read More

We present the catalog of high Galactic-latitude ($|b|>10^{\circ}$) X-ray sources detected in the first 37-month data of Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) / Gas Slit Camera (GSC). To achieve the best sensitivity, we develop a background model of the GSC that well reproduces the data based on the detailed on-board calibration. Source detection is performed through image fit with the Poisson likelihood algorithm. Read More

We present the first results on the new black hole candidate, MAXI J1305-704, observed by MAXI/GSC. The new X-ray transient, named as MAXI J1305-704, was first detected by the MAXI-GSC all-sky survey on 2012 April 9 in the direction to the outer Galactic bulge at (l,b)=(304.2deg,-7. Read More

We analyzed the initial rising behaviors of X-ray outbursts from two transient low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) containing a neutron-star (NS), Aql X-1 and 4U 1608-52, which are continuously being monitored by MAXI/GSC in 2--20 keV, RXTE/ASM in 2--10 keV, and Swift/BAT in 15--50 keV. We found that the observed ten outbursts are classified into two types by the patterns of the relative intensity evolutions in the two energy bands below/above 15 keV. One type behaves as the 15--50 keV intensity achieves the maximum during the initial hard-state period and drops greatly at the hard-to-soft state transition. Read More

Affiliations: 1RIKEN, 2RIKEN, 3RIKEN, 4RIKEN, 5RIKEN, 6Kyoto University, 7Tokyo Institute of Technology, 8JAXA

MAXI/GSC detected a superburst from EXO 1745-248 in the globular cluster Terzan 5 on 2011 October 24. The GSC light curve shows an exponential decay with an e-folding time of 0.3 day. Read More

We report on X-ray spectral and timing results of the new black hole candidate (BHC) MAXI J1659-152 with the orbital period of 2.41 hours (shortest among BHCs) in the 2010 outburst from 65 Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations and 8 simultaneous Swift and RXTE observations. According to the definitions of the spectral states in Remillard & McClintock (2006), most of the observations have been classified into the intermediate state. Read More

We present the results of monitoring the Galactic black hole candidate GX 339-4 with the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) / Gas Slit Camera (GSC) in the high/soft state during the outburst in 2010. All the spectra throughout the 8-month period are well reproduced with a model consisting of multi-color disk (MCD) emission and its Comptonization component, whose fraction is <= 25% in the total flux. In spite of the flux variability over a factor of 3, the innermost disk radius is constant at R_in = 61 +/- 2 km for the inclination angle of i = 46 deg and the distance of d=8 kpc. Read More

We present a large X-ray flare from a nearby weak-lined T Tauri star TWA-7 detected with the Gas Slit Camera (GSC) on the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI). The GSC captured X-ray flaring from TWA-7 with a flux of $3\times10^{-9}$ ergs cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ in 2--20 keV band during the scan transit starting at UT 2010-09-07 18:24:30.The estimated X-ray luminosity at the scan in the energy band is 3$\times10^{32}$ ergs s$^{-1}$,indicating that the event is among the largest X-ray flares fromT Tauri stars. Read More

We present the first unbiased source catalog of the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) mission at high Galactic latitudes ($|b| > 10^{\circ}$), produced from the first 7-month data (2009 September 1 to 2010 March 31) of the Gas Slit Camera in the 4--10 keV band. We develop an analysis procedure to detect faint sources from the MAXI data, utilizing a maximum likelihood image fitting method, where the image response, background, and detailed observational conditions are taken into account. The catalog consists of 143 X-ray sources above 7 sigma significance level with a limiting sensitivity of $\sim1. Read More

The monitor of all-sky X-ray image (MAXI) Gas Slit Camera (GSC) on the International Space Station (ISS) detected a gamma-ray burst (GRB) on 2009, September 26, GRB\,090926B. This GRB had extremely hard spectra in the X-ray energy range. Joint spectral fitting with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope shows that this burst has peculiarly narrow spectral energy distribution and is represented by Comptonized blackbody model. Read More

The Gas Slit Camera (GSC) is an X-ray instrument on the MAXI (Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image) mission on the International Space Station. It is designed to scan the entire sky every 92-minute orbital period in the 2--30 keV band and to achieve the highest sensitivity among the X-ray all-sky monitors ever flown so far. The GSC employs large-area position-sensitive proportional counters with the total detector area of 5350 cm$^2$. Read More

We report the in-orbit performance of the Gas Slit Camera (GSC) on the MAXI (Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image) mission carried on the International Space Station (ISS). Its commissioning operation started on August 8, 2009, confirmed the basic performances of the effective area in the energy band of 2--30 keV, the spatial resolution of the slit-and-slat collimator and detector with 1.5 degree FWHM, the source visibility of 40-150 seconds for each scan cycle, and the sky coverage of 85% per 92-minute orbital period and 95% per day. Read More

Strong X-ray flares from the blazar Mrk 421 were detected in 2010 January and February through the 7 month monitoring with the MAXI GSC. The maximum 2 -- 10 keV flux in the January and February flares was measured as 120 +- 10 mCrab and 164 +- 17 mCrab respectively; the latter is the highest among those reported from the object. A comparison of the MAXI and Swift BAT data suggests a convex X-ray spectrum with an approximated photon index of about 2. Read More

We present the first results on the black hole candidate XTE J1752-223 from the Gas Slit Camera (GSC) on-board the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) on the International Space Station. Including the onset of the outburst reported by the Proportional Counter Array on-board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer on 2009 October 23, the MAXI/GSC has been monitoring this source approximately 10 times per day with a high sensitivity in the 2-20 keV band. XTE J1752-223 was initially in the low/hard state during the first 3 months. Read More

Affiliations: 1ISS Science Project Office, ISAS, JAXA, 2ISS Science Project Office, ISAS, JAXA, 3ISS Science Project Office, ISAS, JAXA, 4ISS Science Project Office, ISAS, JAXA, 5ISS Science Project Office, ISAS, JAXA, 6ISS Science Project Office, ISAS, JAXA, 7ISS Science Project Office, ISAS, JAXA, 8ISS Science Project Office, ISAS, JAXA, 9Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, RIKEN, 10Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, RIKEN, 11Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, RIKEN, 12Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, RIKEN, 13Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, 14Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, 15Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 16Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 17Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 18Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 19Department of Physics, Nihon University, 20Department of Physics, Nihon University, 21Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, 22Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, RIKEN, 23Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 24Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 25Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 26Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 27Department of Physics, Nihon University, 28Department of Physics, Nihon University, 29Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, 30Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, 31Earth Observation Research Center, JAXA, 32ISAS, JAXA

The MAXI (Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image) mission is the first astronomical payload to be installed on the Japanese Experiment Module-Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) on the ISS. It is scheduled for launch in the middle of 2009 to monitor all-sky X-ray objects on every ISS orbit. MAXI will be more powerful than any previous X-ray All Sky Monitor (ASM) payloads, being able to monitor hundreds of AGN. Read More