# Sarah Croke

## Publications Authored By Sarah Croke

Probabilities enter quantum mechanics via Born's rule, the uniqueness of which was proven by Gleason. Busch subsequently relaxed the assumptions of this proof, expanding its domain of applicability in the process. Extending this work to sequential measurement processes is the aim of this paper. Read More

State discrimination is a useful test problem with which to clarify the power and limitations of different classes of measurement. We consider the problem of discriminating between given states of a bi-partite quantum system via sequential measurement of the subsystems, with classical feed-forward of measurement results. Our aim is to understand when sequential measurements, which are relatively easy to implement experimentally, perform as well, or almost as well as optimal joint measurements, which are in general more technologically challenging. Read More

We consider the problem of minimum-error quantum state discrimination for single-qubit mixed states. We present a method which uses the Helstrom conditions constructively and analytically; this algebraic approach is complementary to existing geometric methods, and solves the problem for any number of arbitrary signal states with arbitrary prior probabilities. Read More

The four-qubit states $\lvert\chi^{ij}\rangle$, exhibiting genuinely multi-partite entanglement have been shown to have many interesting properties and have been suggested for novel applications in quantum information processing. In this work we propose a simple quantum circuit and its corresponding optical embodiment with which to prepare photon pairs in the $\lvert\chi^{ij}\rangle$ states. Our approach uses hyper-entangled photon pairs, produced by the type-I spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) process in two contiguous nonlinear crystals, together with a set of simple linear-optical transformations. Read More

Non-locality without entanglement is a rather counter-intuitive phenomenon in which information may be encoded entirely in product (unentangled) states of composite quantum systems in such a way that local measurement of the subsystems is not enough for optimal decoding. For simple examples of pure product states, the gap in performance is known to be rather small when arbitrary local strategies are allowed. Here we restrict to local strategies readily achievable with current technology; those requiring neither a quantum memory nor joint operations. Read More

Two particle interference phenomena, such as the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect, are a direct manifestation of the nature of the symmetry properties of indistinguishable particles as described by quantum mechanics. The Hong-Ou-Mandel effect has recently been applied as a tool for pure state tomography of a single photon. In this article, we generalise the method to extract additional information for a pure state and extend this to the full tomography of mixed states as well. Read More

We analyse the properties of a strongly-damped quantum harmonic oscillator by means of an exact diagonalisation of the full Hamiltonian, including both the oscillator and the reservoir degrees of freedom to which it is coupled. Many of the properties of the oscillator, including its steady-state properties and entanglement with the reservoir can be understood and quantified in terms of a simple probability density, which we may associate with the ground-state frequency spectrum of the oscillator. Read More

We spell out details of a simple argument for a security bound for the secure relativistic quantum bit commitment protocol of Ref. [1]. Read More

We show how to optimally discriminate between K distinct quantum states, of which N copies are available, using one-at-a-time interactions with each of the N copies. While this task (famously) requires joint measurements on all N copies, we show that it can be solved with one-at-a-time "coherent measurements" performed by an apparatus with log(K) qubits of quantum memory. We apply the same technique to optimal discrimination between K distinct N-particle matrix product states of bond dimension D, using a coherent measurement apparatus with log(K) + log(D) qubits of memory. Read More

We present an approach to building interferometric telescopes using ideas of quantum information. Current optical interferometers have limited baseline lengths, and thus limited resolution, because of noise and loss of signal due to the transmission of photons between the telescopes. The technology of quantum repeaters has the potential to eliminate this limit, allowing in principle interferometers with arbitrarily long baselines. Read More

Strategies to optimally discriminate between quantum states are critical in quantum technologies. We present an experimental demonstration of minimum error discrimination between entangled states, encoded in the polarization of pairs of photons. Although the optimal measurement involves projecting onto entangled states, we use a result of Walgate et al. Read More

This paper presents a streaming (sequential) protocol for universal entanglement concentration at the Shannon bound. Alice and Bob begin with N identical (but unknown) two-qubit pure states, each containing E ebits of entanglement. They each run a reversible algorithm on their qubits, and end up with Y perfect EPR pairs, where Y = NE +- O(\sqrt N). Read More

We discuss the recently introduced concept of non-deterministic noiseless linear amplification, demonstrating that such an operation can only be performed perfectly with vanishing probability of success. We show that a weak measurement, which imprints the weak value of an observable of a pre-selected and post-selected system onto a probe system, can be used to approximate probabilistic noiseless amplification. This result may be applied to various tasks in continuous variable quantum information, including entanglement concentration, probabilistic cloning, and in quantum repeaters. Read More

We provide a simple proof for the necessity of conditions for discriminating with minimum error between a known set of quantum states. Read More

It is a fundamental consequence of the superposition principle for quantum states that there must exist non-orthogonal states, that is states that, although different, have a non-zero overlap. This finite overlap means that there is no way of determining with certainty in which of two such states a given physical system has been prepared. We review the various strategies that have been devised to discriminate optimally between non-orthogonal states and some of the optical experiments that have been performed to realise these. Read More

Quantum correlations do not allow signalling, and any operation which may be performed on one system of an entangled pair cannot be detected by measurement of the other system alone. This no-signalling condition limits allowed operations and, in the context of quantum communication, may be used to put bounds on quantum state discrimination. We find that the natural figure of merit to consider is the confidence in identifying a state, which is optimised by the maximum confidence strategy. Read More

We present the first experimental demonstration of the maximum confidence measurement strategy for quantum state discrimination. Applying this strategy to an arbitrary set of states assigns to each input state a measurement outcome which, when realized, gives the highest possible confidence that the state was indeed present. The theoretically optimal measurement for discriminating between three equiprobable symmetric qubit states is implemented in a polarization-based free-space interferometer. Read More

We consider the problem of discriminating between states of a specified set with maximum confidence. For a set of linearly independent states unambiguous discrimination is possible if we allow for the possibility of an inconclusive result. For linearly dependent sets an analogous measurement is one which allows us to be as confident as possible that when a given state is identified on the basis of the measurement result, it is indeed the correct state. Read More