# Sanjaye Ramgoolam - Princeton University

## Contact Details

NameSanjaye Ramgoolam |
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AffiliationPrinceton University |
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CityPrinceton |
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CountryUnited States |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Physics - Theory (50) Mathematics - Representation Theory (16) Mathematics - Combinatorics (9) Mathematical Physics (7) Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (7) Mathematics - Algebraic Geometry (5) Mathematics - Number Theory (4) Mathematics - Quantum Algebra (3) Mathematics - Group Theory (2) General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (2) Astrophysics (1) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (1) Computer Science - Computation and Language (1) Mathematics - Geometric Topology (1) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (1) |

## Publications Authored By Sanjaye Ramgoolam

Counting formulae for general primary fields in free four dimensional conformal field theories of scalars, vectors and matrices are derived. These are specialised to count primaries which obey extremality conditions defined in terms of the dimensions and left or right spins (i.e. Read More

We develop general counting formulae for primary fields in free four dimensional (4D) scalar conformal field theory (CFT). Using a duality map between primary operators in scalar field theory and multi-variable polynomial functions subject to differential constraints, we identify a sector of holomorphic primary fields corresponding to polynomial functions on a class of permutation orbifolds. These orbifolds have palindromic Hilbert series, which indicates they are Calabi-Yau. Read More

Recent research in computational linguistics has developed algorithms which associate matrices with adjectives and verbs, based on the distribution of words in a corpus of text. These matrices are linear operators on a vector space of context words. They are used to construct the meaning of composite expressions from that of the elementary constituents, forming part of a compositional distributional approach to semantics. Read More

Gauge-invariant operators can be specified by equivalence classes of permutations. We develop this idea concretely for the singlets of the flavour group $SO(N_f)$ in $U(N_c)$ gauge theory by using Gelfand pairs and Schur-Weyl duality. The singlet operators, when specialised at $N_f =6$, belong to the scalar sector of ${\cal N}=4$ SYM. Read More

Group algebras of permutations have proved highly useful in solving a number of problems in large N gauge theories. I review the use of permutations in classifying gauge invariants in one-matrix and multi-matrix models and computing their correlators. These methods are also applicable to tensor models and have revealed a link between tensor models and the counting of branched covers. Read More

In this paper we study the construction of holomorphic gauge invariant operators for general quiver gauge theories with flavour symmetries. Using a characterisation of the gauge invariants in terms of equivalence classes generated by permutation actions, along with representation theory results in symmetric groups and unitary groups, we give a diagonal basis for the 2-point functions of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic operators. This involves a generalisation of the previously constructed Quiver Restricted Schur operators to the flavoured case. Read More

We introduce a class of permutation centralizer algebras which underly the combinatorics of multi-matrix gauge invariant observables. One family of such non-commutative algebras is parametrised by two integers. Its Wedderburn-Artin decomposition explains the counting of restricted Schur operators, which were introduced in the physics literature to describe open strings attached to giant gravitons and were subsequently used to diagonalize the Gaussian inner product for gauge invariants of 2-matrix models. Read More

We develop an efficient procedure for counting holomorphic functions on a hyperKahler cone that has a resolution as a cotangent bundle of a homogeneous space by providing a formula for computing the corresponding Highest Weight Generating function. Read More

Brane tilings describe Lagrangians (vector multiplets, chiral multiplets, and the superpotential) of four dimensional $\mathcal{N}=1$ supersymmetric gauge theories. These theories, written in terms of a bipartite graph on a torus, correspond to worldvolume theories on $N$ D$3$-branes probing a toric Calabi-Yau threefold singularity. A pair of permutations compactly encapsulates the data necessary to specify a brane tiling. Read More

In a recent paper we showed that the correlators of free scalar field theory in four dimensions can be constructed from a two dimensional topological field theory based on so(4,2) equivariant maps (intertwiners). The free field result, along with results of Frenkel and Libine on equivariance properties of Feynman integrals, are developed further in this paper. We show that the coefficient of the log term in the 1-loop 4-point conformal integral is a projector in the tensor product of so(4,2) representations. Read More

We consider the worldvolume theory of N D3-branes transverse to various non-compact Calabi-Yau spaces, and describe subtleties in the counting of chiral primary operators in such theories due to the presence of multiple branches of moduli space. Extra branches, beyond those directly related to the transverse geometry, result in additional terms in the generating functions for single- and multi-trace operators. Ideals in the N=1 chiral ring correspond to various branches and, in the large N limit, the operator counting reveals a product of Fock spaces, including the Fock space of bosons on the space transverse to the branes. Read More

The moduli space of Riemann surfaces with at least two punctures can be decomposed into a cell complex by using a particular family of ribbon graphs called Nakamura graphs. We distinguish the moduli space with all punctures labelled from that with a single labelled puncture. In both cases, we describe a cell decomposition where the cells are parametrised by graphs or equivalence classes of finite sequences (tuples) of permutations. Read More

A systematic study of holomorphic gauge invariant operators in general $\mathcal{N}=1$ quiver gauge theories, with unitary gauge groups and bifundamental matter fields, was recently presented in [1]. For large ranks a simple counting formula in terms of an infinite product was given. We extend this study to quiver gauge theories with fundamental matter fields, deriving an infinite product form for the refined counting in these cases. Read More

Light-cone string diagrams have been used to reproduce the orbifold Euler characteristic of moduli spaces of punctured Riemann surfaces at low genus and with few punctures. Nakamura studied the meromorphic differential introduced by Giddings and Wolpert to characterise light-cone diagrams and introduced a class of graphs related to this differential. These Nakamura graphs were used to parametrise the cells in a light-cone cell decomposition of moduli space. Read More

We show that correlators of local operators in four dimensional free scalar field theory can be expressed in terms of amplitudes in a two dimensional topological field theory (TFT2). We describe the state space of the TFT2, which has $SO(4,2)$ as a global symmetry, and includes both positive and negative energy representations. Invariant amplitudes in the TFT2 correspond to surfaces interpolating from multiple circles to the vacuum. Read More

Large $N$ factorization ensures that, for low-dimension gauge-invariant operators in the half-BPS sector of ${\cal N}=4$ SYM, products of holomorphic traces have vanishing correlators with single anti-holomorphic traces. This vanishing is necessary to consistently map trace operators in the CFT$_4$ to a Fock space of graviton oscillations in the dual AdS$_5$. We investigate the regimes at which the CFT correlators do not vanish but become of order one in the large $N$ limit, which we call a factorization threshold. Read More

Lattice gauge theories of permutation groups with a simple topological action (henceforth permutation-TFTs) have recently found several applications in the combinatorics of quantum field theories (QFTs). They have been used to solve counting problems of Feynman graphs in QFTs and ribbon graphs of large $N$, often revealing inter-relations between different counting problems. In another recent development, tensor theories generalizing matrix theories have been actively developed as models of random geometry in three or more dimensions. Read More

The Gaussian Hermitian matrix model was recently proposed to have a dual string description with worldsheets mapping to a sphere target space. The correlators were written as sums over holomorphic (Belyi) maps from worldsheets to the two-dimensional sphere, branched over three points. We express the matrix model correlators by using the fuzzy sphere construction of matrix algebras, which can be interpreted as a string field theory description of the Belyi strings. Read More

The spectrum of chiral operators in supersymmetric quiver gauge theories is typically much larger in the free limit, where the superpotential terms vanish. We find that the finite N counting of operators in any free quiver theory, with a product of unitary gauge groups, can be described by associating Young diagrams and Littlewood-Richardson multiplicities to a simple modification of the quiver, which we call the split-node quiver. The large N limit leads to a surprisingly simple infinite product formula for counting gauge invariant operators, valid for any quiver with bifundamental fields. Read More

Ribbon graphs embedded on a Riemann surface provide a useful way to describe the double line Feynman diagrams of large N computations and a variety of other QFT correlator and scattering amplitude calculations, e.g in MHV rules for scattering amplitudes, as well as in ordinary QED. Their counting is a special case of the counting of bi-partite embedded graphs. Read More

We give a proof that the expected counting of strings attached to giant graviton branes in AdS_5 x S^5, as constrained by the Gauss Law, matches the dimension spanned by the expected dual operators in the gauge theory. The counting of string-brane configurations is formulated as a graph counting problem, which can be expressed as the number of points on a double coset involving permutation groups. Fourier transformation on the double coset suggests an ansatz for the diagonalization of the one-loop dilatation operator in this sector of strings attached to giant graviton branes. Read More

Eighth-BPS local operators in N=4 SYM are dual to quantum states arising from the quantization of a moduli space of giant gravitons in AdS5xS5. Earlier results on the quantization of this moduli space give a Hilbert space of multiple harmonic oscillators in 3 dimensions. We use these results, along with techniques from fuzzy geometry, to develop a map between quantum states and brane geometries. Read More

A well-known connection between n strings winding around a circle and permutations of n objects plays a fundamental role in the string theory of large N two dimensional Yang Mills theory and elsewhere in topological and physical string theories. Basic questions in the enumeration of Feynman graphs can be expressed elegantly in terms of permutation groups. We show that these permutation techniques for Feynman graph enumeration, along with the Burnside counting lemma, lead to equalities between counting problems of Feynman graphs in scalar field theories and Quantum Electrodynamics with the counting of amplitudes in a string theory with torus or cylinder target space. Read More

Three-branes at a given toric Calabi-Yau singularity lead to different phases of the conformal field theory related by toric (Seiberg) duality. Using the dimer model/brane tiling description in terms of bipartite graphs on a torus, we find a new invariant under Seiberg duality, namely the Klein j-invariant of the complex structure parameter in the distinguished isoradial embedding of the dimer, determined by the physical R-charges. Additional number theoretic invariants are described in terms of the algebraic number field of the R-charges. Read More

The theory of coverings of the two-dimensional torus is a standard part of algebraic topology and has applications in several topics in string theory, for example, in topological strings. This paper initiates applications of this theory to the counting of orbifolds of toric Calabi-Yau singularities, with particular attention to Abelian orbifolds of C^D. By doing so, the work introduces a novel analytical method for counting Abelian orbifolds, verifying previous algorithm results. Read More

Brane tilings, sometimes called dimer models, are a class of bipartite graphs on a torus which encode the gauge theory data of four-dimensional SCFTs dual to D3-branes probing toric Calabi--Yau threefolds. An efficient way of encoding this information exploits the theory of dessin d'enfants, expressing the structure in terms of a permutation triple, which is in turn related to a Belyi pair, namely a holomorphic map from a torus to a P^1 with three marked points. The procedure of a-maximization, in the context of isoradial embeddings of the dimer, also associates a complex structure to the torus, determined by the R-charges in the SCFT, which can be compared with the Belyi complex structure. Read More

Four-dimensional CFTs dual to branes transverse to toric Calabi-Yau threefolds have been described by bipartite graphs on a torus (dimer models). We use the theory of dessins d'enfants to describe these in terms of triples of permutations which multiply to one. These permutations yield an elegant description of zig-zag paths, which have appeared in characterizing the toroidal dimers that lead to consistent SCFTs. Read More

We describe a universal element in the group algebra of symmetric groups, whose characters provides the counting of quarter and eighth BPS states at weak coupling in N=4 SYM, refined according to representations of the global symmetry group. A related projector acting on the Hilbert space of the free theory is used to construct the matrix of two-point functions of the states annihilated by the one-loop dilatation operator, at finite N or in the large N limit. The matrix is given simply in terms of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of symmetric groups and dimensions of U(N) representations. Read More

We show that correlators of the hermitian one-Matrix model with a general potential can be mapped to the counting of certain triples of permutations and hence to counting of holomorphic maps from world-sheet to sphere target with three branch points on the target. This allows the use of old matrix model results to derive new explicit formulae for a class of Hurwitz numbers. Holomorphic maps with three branch points are related, by Belyi's theorem, to curves and maps defined over algebraic numbers $\bmQ$. Read More

The gauge invariant degrees of freedom of matrix models based on an N x N complex matrix, with U(N) gauge symmetry, contain hidden free particle structures. These are exhibited using triangular matrix variables via the Schur decomposition. The Brauer algebra basis for complex matrix models developed earlier is useful in projecting to a sector which matches the state counting of N free fermions on a circle. Read More

We analyse the fluctuations of the ground-state/funnel solutions proposed to describe M2-M5 systems in the level-k mass-deformed/pure Chern-Simons-matter ABJM theory of multiple membranes. We show that in the large N limit the fluctuations approach the space of functions on the 2-sphere rather than the naively expected 3-sphere. This is a novel realisation of the fuzzy 2-sphere in the context of Matrix Theories, which uses bifundamental instead of adjoint scalars. Read More

Enhanced global non-abelian symmetries at zero coupling in Yang Mills theory play an important role in diagonalising the two-point functions of multi-matrix operators. Generalised Casimirs constructed from the iterated commutator action of these enhanced symmetries resolve all the multiplicity labels of the bases of matrix operators which diagonalise the two-point function. For the case of U (N) gauge theory with a single complex matrix in the adjoint of the gauge group we have a U(N)^{\times 4} global symmetry of the scaling operator at zero coupling. Read More

A class of mathematical dualities have played a central role in mapping states in gauge theory to states in the spacetime string theory dual. This includes the classical Schur-Weyl duality between symmetric groups and Unitary groups, as well as generalisations involving Brauer and Hecke algebras. The physical string dualities involved include examples from the AdS/CFT correspondence as well as the string dual of two-dimensional Yang Mills. Read More

We give a description of the complete 1/N expansion of SU(N) 2D Yang Mills theory in terms of the moduli space of holomorphic maps from non-singular worldsheets. This is related to the Gross-Taylor coupled 1/N expansion through a map from Brauer algebras to symmetric groups. These results point to an equality between Euler characters of moduli spaces of holomorphic maps from non-singular worldsheets with a target Riemann surface equipped with markings on the one hand and Euler characters of another moduli space involving worldsheets with double points (nodes). Read More

We propose gauge theory operators built using a complex Matrix scalar which are dual to brane-anti-brane systems in $AdS_5 \times S^5 $, in the zero coupling limit of the dual Yang-Mills. The branes involved are half-BPS giant gravitons. The proposed operators dual to giant-anti-giant configurations satisfy the appropriate orthogonality properties. Read More

We derive the q-deformation of the chiral Gross-Taylor holomorphic string large N expansion of two dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills theory. Delta functions on symmetric group algebras are replaced by the corresponding objects (canonical trace functions) for Hecke algebras. The role of the Schur-Weyl duality between unitary groups and symmetric groups is now played by q-deformed Schur-Weyl duality of quantum groups. Read More

We compute $e^{-AN}$ corrections to the Gross-Taylor 1/N expansion of the paritition function of two-dimensional SU(N) and U(N) Yang Mills theory. We find a very similar structure of mixing between holomorphic and anti-holomorphic sectors as that described by Vafa for the 1/N expansion. Some of the non-perturbative terms are suggestive of D-strings wrapping the $T^2$ of the 2dYM but blowing up into a fuzzy geometry by the Myers effect in the directions transverse to the $T^2$. Read More

We give a framework to describe gauge theory on a certain class of commutative but non-associative fuzzy spaces. Our description is in terms of an Abelian gauge connection valued in the algebra of functions on the cotangent bundle of the fuzzy space. The structure of such a gauge theory has many formal similarities with that of Yang-Mills theory. Read More

We discuss gauge theories for commutative but non-associative algebras related to the $ SO(2k+1)$ covariant finite dimensional fuzzy $2k$-sphere algebras. A consequence of non-associativity is that gauge fields and gauge parameters have to be generalized to be functions of coordinates as well as derivatives. The usual gauge fields depending on coordinates only are recovered after a partial gauge fixing. Read More

We propose a Matrix Theory approach to Romans' massive Type IIA supergravity. It is obtained by applying the procedure of Matrix Theory compactifications to Hull's proposal of the Massive Type IIA String Theory as M-Theory on a twisted torus. The resulting Matrix Theory is a super-Yang Mills theory on large N three-branes with a space dependent non-commutativity parameter, which is also independently derived by a T-duality approach. Read More

We show that the BMN operators in D=4 N=4 super Yang Mills theory proposed as duals of stringy oscillators in a plane wave background have a natural quantum group construction in terms of the quantum deformation of the SO(6) $R$ symmetry. We describe in detail how a q-deformed U(2) subalgebra generates BMN operators, with $ q \sim e^{2 i \pi \over J}$. The standard quantum co-product as well as generalized traces which use $q$-cyclic operators acting on tensor products of Higgs fields are the ingredients in this construction. Read More

We study $SO(m)$ covariant Matrix realizations of $ \sum_{i=1}^{m} X_i^2 = 1 $ for even $m$ as candidate fuzzy odd spheres following hep-th/0101001. As for the fuzzy four sphere, these Matrix algebras contain more degrees of freedom than the sphere itself and the full set of variables has a geometrical description in terms of a higher dimensional coset. The fuzzy $S^{2k-1} $ is related to a higher dimensional coset $ {SO(2k) \over U(1) \times U(k-1)}$. Read More

A class of exact non-renormalized extremal correlators of half-BPS operators in N=4 SYM, with U(N) gauge group, is shown to satisfy finite factorization equations reminiscent of topological gauge theories. The finite factorization equations can be generalized, beyond the extremal case, to a class of correlators involving observables with a simple pattern of SO(6) charges. The simple group theoretic form of the correlators allows equalities between ratios of correlators in N=4 SYM and Wilson loops in Chern-Simons theories at k=\infty, correlators of appropriate observables in topological G/G models and Wilson loops in two-dimensional Yang-Mills theories. Read More

Matrix descriptions of even dimensional fuzzy spherical branes $S^{2k} $ in Matrix Theory and other contexts in Type II superstring theory reveal, in the large $N$ limit, higher dimensional geometries $SO(2k+1)/U(k)$, which have an interesting spectrum of $SO(2k+1)$ harmonics and can be up to 20 dimensional, while the spheres are restricted to be of dimension less than 10. In the case $k=2$, the matrix description has two dual field theory formulations. One involves a field theory living on the non-commutative coset $SO(5)/U(2)$ which is a fuzzy $S^2$ fibre bundle over a fuzzy $S^4$. Read More

A class of correlation functions of half-BPS composite operators are computed exactly (at finite $N$) in the zero coupling limit of N=4 SYM theory. These have a simple dependence on the four-dimensional spacetime coordinates and are related to correlators in a one-dimensional Matrix Model with complex Matrices obtained by dimensional reduction of N=4 SYM on a three-sphere. A key technical tool is Frobenius-Schur duality between symmetric and Unitary groups and the results are expressed simply in terms of U(N) group integrals or equivalently in terms of Littlewood-Richardson coefficients. Read More

We find new closed string couplings on Dp-branes for the bosonic string. These couplings are quadratic in derivatives and therefore take the form of induced kinetic terms on the brane. For the graviton in particular we find the induced Einstein-Hilbert term as well as terms quadratic in the second fundamental tensor. Read More

We construct spherical harmonics for fuzzy spheres of even and odd dimensions, generalizing the correspondence between finite matrix algebras and fuzzy two-spheres. The finite matrix algebras associated with the various fuzzy spheres have a natural basis which falls in correspondence with tensor constructions of irreducible representations of orthogonal groups SO(n). This basis is useful in describing fluctuations around various D-brane constructions of fuzzy spherical objects. Read More

In this paper we point out that the spacetime uncertainty relation proposed for string theory has strong cosmological implications that can solve the flatness problem and the horizon problem without the need of inflation. We make minimal assumptions about the very early universe. Read More

Projector equivalences used in the definition of the K-theory of operator algebras are shown to lead to generalizations of the solution generating technique for solitons in NC field theories, which has recently been used in the construction of branes from other branes in B-field backgrounds and in the construction of fluxon solutions of gauge theories. The generalizations involve families of static solutions as well as solutions which depend on euclidean time and interpolate between different configurations. We investigate the physics of these generalizations in the brane-construction as well as the fluxon context. Read More

We study relations between different kinds of non-commutative spheres which have appeared in the context of ADS/CFT correspondences recently, emphasizing the connections between spaces that have manifest quantum group symmetry and spaces that have manifest classical symmetry. In particular we consider the quotient $SU_q(2)/U(1)$ at roots of unity, and find its relations with the fuzzy sphere with manifest classical SU(2) symmetry. Deformation maps between classical and quantum symmetry, the $U_q(SU(2))$ module structure of quantum spheres and the structure of indecomposable representations of $U_q(SU(2))$ at roots of unity conspire in an interesting way to allow the relation between manifestly $U_q(SU(2)$ symmetric spheres and manifestly U(SU(2)) symmetric spheres. Read More