# Sandor P. Fekete

## Contact Details

NameSandor P. Fekete |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesComputer Science - Computational Geometry (27) Computer Science - Data Structures and Algorithms (26) Computer Science - Robotics (7) Computer Science - Discrete Mathematics (3) Computer Science - Distributed; Parallel; and Cluster Computing (3) Computer Science - Computational Complexity (3) Computer Science - Architecture (2) Mathematics - Optimization and Control (2) Computer Science - Networking and Internet Architecture (2) Mathematics - Combinatorics (1) Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence (1) Computer Science - Software Engineering (1) |

## Publications Authored By Sandor P. Fekete

In the presence of dynamic insertions and deletions into a partially reconfigurable FPGA, fragmentation is unavoidable. This poses the challenge of developing efficient approaches to dynamic defragmentation and reallocation. One key aspect is to develop efficient algorithms and data structures that exploit the two-dimensional geometry of a chip, instead of just one. Read More

A conflict-free k-coloring of a graph assigns one of k different colors to some of the vertices such that, for every vertex v, there is a color that is assigned to exactly one vertex among v and v's neighbors. Such colorings have applications in wireless networking, robotics, and geometry, and are well-studied in graph theory. Here we study the natural problem of the conflict-free chromatic number chi_CF (G) (the smallest k for which conflict-free k-colorings exist), with a focus on planar graphs. Read More

This paper investigates efficient techniques to collect and concentrate an under-actuated particle swarm despite obstacles. Concentrating a swarm of particles is of critical importance in health-care for targeted drug delivery, where micro-scale particles must be steered to a goal location. Individual particles must be small in order to navigate through micro-vasculature, but decreasing size brings new challenges. Read More

We provide a spectrum of results for the Universal Guard Problem, in which one is to obtain a small set of points ("guards") that are "universal" in their ability to guard any of a set of possible polygonal domains in the plane. We give upper and lower bounds on the number of universal guards that are always sufficient to guard all polygons having a given set of n vertices, or to guard all polygons in a given set of k polygons on an n-point vertex set. Our upper bound proofs include algorithms to construct universal guard sets of the respective cardinalities. Read More

We provide exact and approximation methods for solving a geometric relaxation of the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) that occurs in curve reconstruction: for a given set of vertices in the plane, the problem Minimum Perimeter Polygon (MPP) asks for a (not necessarily simply connected) polygon with shortest possible boundary length. Even though the closely related problem of finding a minimum cycle cover is polynomially solvable by matching techniques, we prove how the topological structure of a polygon leads to NP-hardness of the MPP. On the positive side, we show how to achieve a constant-factor approximation. Read More

We study several natural instances of the geometric hitting set problem for input consisting of sets of line segments (and rays, lines) having a small number of distinct slopes. These problems model path monitoring (e.g. Read More

We give lower bounds for various natural node- and edge-based local strategies for exploring a graph. We consider this problem both in the setting of an arbitrary graph as well as the abstraction of a geometric exploration of a space by a robot, both of which have been extensively studied. We consider local exploration policies that use time-of-last- visit or alternatively least-frequently-visited local greedy strategies to select the next step in the exploration path. Read More

In the relay placement problem the input is a set of sensors and a number $r \ge 1$, the communication range of a relay. In the one-tier version of the problem the objective is to place a minimum number of relays so that between every pair of sensors there is a path through sensors and/or relays such that the consecutive vertices of the path are within distance $r$ if both vertices are relays and within distance 1 otherwise. The two-tier version adds the restrictions that the path must go through relays, and not through sensors. Read More

We introduce a new model of algorithmic tile self-assembly called size-dependent assembly. In previous models, supertiles are stable when the total strength of the bonds between any two halves exceeds some constant temperature. In this model, this constant temperature requirement is replaced by an nondecreasing temperature function $\tau : \mathbb{N} \rightarrow \mathbb{N}$ that depends on the size of the smaller of the two halves. Read More

We consider staged self-assembly systems, in which square-shaped tiles can be added to bins in several stages. Within these bins, the tiles may connect to each other, depending on the glue types of their edges. Previous work by Demaine et al. Read More

We present a number of powerful local mechanisms for maintaining a dynamic swarm of robots with limited capabilities and information, in the presence of external forces and permanent node failures. We propose a set of local continuous algorithms that together produce a generalization of a Euclidean Steiner tree. At any stage, the resulting overall shape achieves a good compromise between local thickness, global connectivity, and flexibility to further continuous motion of the terminals. Read More

We consider the problem of organizing a scattered group of $n$ robots in two-dimensional space, with geometric maximum distance $D$ between robots. The communication graph of the swarm is connected, but there is no central authority for organizing it. We want to arrange them into a sorted and equally-spaced array between the robots with lowest and highest label, while maintaining a connected communication network. Read More

We present and analyze methods for patrolling an environment with a distributed swarm of robots. Our approach uses a physical data structure - a distributed triangulation of the workspace. A large number of stationary "mapping" robots cover and triangulate the environment and a smaller number of mobile "patrolling" robots move amongst them. Read More

In this paper we explore the power of geometry to overcome the limitations of non-cooperative self-assembly. We define a generalization of the abstract Tile Assembly Model (aTAM), such that a tile system consists of a collection of polyomino tiles, the Polyomino Tile Assembly Model (polyTAM), and investigate the computational powers of polyTAM systems at temperature 1, where attachment among tiles occurs without glue cooperation. Systems composed of the unit-square tiles of the aTAM at temperature 1 are believed to be incapable of Turing universal computation (while cooperative systems, with temperature > 1, are able). Read More

Can folding a piece of paper flat make it larger? We explore whether a shape $S$ must be scaled to cover a flat-folded copy of itself. We consider both single folds and arbitrary folds (continuous piecewise isometries $S\rightarrow R^2$). The underlying problem is motivated by computational origami, and is related to other covering and fixturing problems, such as Lebesgue's universal cover problem and force closure grasps. Read More

Databases need to allocate and free blocks of storage on disk. Freed blocks introduce holes where no data is stored. Allocation systems attempt to reuse such deallocated regions in order to minimize the footprint on disk. Read More

In 1967, Moon and Moser proved a tight bound on the critical density of squares in squares: any set of squares with a total area of at most 1/2 can be packed into a unit square, which is tight. The proof requires full knowledge of the set, as the algorithmic solution consists in sorting the objects by decreasing size, and packing them greedily into shelves. Since then, the online version of the problem has remained open; the best upper bound is still 1/2, while the currently best lower bound is 1/3, due to Han et al. Read More

In the original Art Gallery Problem (AGP), one seeks the minimum number of guards required to cover a polygon $P$. We consider the Chromatic AGP (CAGP), where the guards are colored. As long as $P$ is completely covered, the number of guards does not matter, but guards with overlapping visibility regions must have different colors. Read More

Micro- and nanorobots are often controlled by global input signals, such as an electromagnetic or gravitational field. These fields move each robot maximally until it hits a stationary obstacle or another stationary robot. This paper investigates 2D motion-planning complexity for large swarms of simple mobile robots (such as bacteria, sensors, or smart building material). Read More

This paper presents a distributed approach for exploring and triangulating an unknown region using a multi- robot system. The objective is to produce a covering of an unknown workspace by a fixed number of robots such that the covered region is maximized, solving the Maximum Area Triangulation Problem (MATP). The resulting triangulation is a physical data structure that is a compact representation of the workspace; it contains distributed knowledge of each triangle, adjacent triangles, and the dual graph of the workspace. Read More

The Art Gallery Problem (AGP) asks for placing a minimum number of stationary guards in a polygonal region P, such that all points in P are guarded. The problem is known to be NP-hard, and its inherent continuous structure (with both the set of points that need to be guarded and the set of points that can be used for guarding being uncountably infinite) makes it difficult to apply a straightforward formulation as an Integer Linear Program. We use an iterative primal-dual relaxation approach for solving AGP instances to optimality. Read More

In traditional on-line problems, such as scheduling, requests arrive over time, demanding available resources. As each request arrives, some resources may have to be irrevocably committed to servicing that request. In many situations, however, it may be possible or even necessary to reallocate previously allocated resources in order to satisfy a new request. Read More

We consider the following online allocation problem: Given a unit square S, and a sequence of numbers n_i between 0 and 1, with partial sum bounded by 1; at each step i, select a region C_i of previously unassigned area n_i in S. The objective is to make these regions compact in a distance-aware sense: minimize the maximum (normalized) average Manhattan distance between points from the same set C_i. Related location problems have received a considerable amount of attention; in particular, the problem of determining the "optimal shape of a city", i. Read More

In this paper we explore the power of tile self-assembly models that extend the well-studied abstract Tile Assembly Model (aTAM) by permitting tiles of shapes beyond unit squares. Our main result shows the surprising fact that any aTAM system, consisting of many different tile types, can be simulated by a single tile type of a general shape. As a consequence, we obtain a single universal tile type of a single (constant-size) shape that serves as a "universal tile machine": the single universal tile type can simulate any desired aTAM system when given a single seed assembly that encodes the desired aTAM system. Read More

In 1991, Edelsbrunner and Tan gave an O(n^2) algorithm for finding the MinMax Length triangulation of a set of points in the plane. In this paper we resolve one of the open problems stated in that paper, by showing that finding a MaxMin Length triangulation is an NP-complete problem. The proof implies that (unless P=NP), there is no polynomial-time approximation algorithm that can approximate the problem within any polynomial factor. Read More

We consider the problem of assigning radii to a given set of points in the plane, such that the resulting set of circles is connected, and the sum of radii is minimized. We show that the problem is polynomially solvable if a connectivity tree is given. If the connectivity tree is unknown, the problem is NP-hard if there are upper bounds on the radii and open otherwise. Read More

In this paper we consider methods for dynamically storing a set of different objects ("modules") in a physical array. Each module requires one free contiguous subinterval in order to be placed. Items are inserted or removed, resulting in a fragmented layout that makes it harder to insert further modules. Read More

One unfortunate consequence of the success story of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in separate research communities is an ever-growing gap between theory and practice. Even though there is a increasing number of algorithmic methods for WSNs, the vast majority has never been tried in practice; conversely, many practical challenges are still awaiting efficient algorithmic solutions. The main cause for this discrepancy is the fact that programming sensor nodes still happens at a very technical level. Read More

Given a polygon and a visibility range, the Myopic Watchman Problem with Discrete Vision (MWPDV) asks for a closed path P and a set of scan points S, such that (i) every point of the polygon is within visibility range of a scan point; and (ii) path length plus weighted sum of scan number along the tour is minimized. Alternatively, the bicriteria problem (ii') aims at minimizing both scan number and tour length. We consider both lawn mowing (in which tour and scan points may leave P) and milling (in which tour, scan points and visibility must stay within P) variants for the MWPDV; even for simple special cases, these problems are NP-hard. Read More

This paper introduces a combined approach for the recovery of a timetable by rescheduling trips and vehicle circulations for a rail-based transportation system subject to disruptions. We propose a novel event-based integer programming (IP) model. Features include shifting and canceling of trips as well as modifying the vehicle schedules by changing or truncating the circulations. Read More

We propose a new method for defragmenting the module layout of a reconfigurable device, enabled by a novel approach for dealing with communication needs between relocated modules and with inhomogeneities found in commonly used FPGAs. Our method is based on dynamic relocation of module positions during runtime, with only very little reconfiguration overhead; the objective is to maximize the length of contiguous free space that is available for new modules. We describe a number of algorithmic aspects of good defragmentation, and present an optimization method based on tabu search. Read More

A problem studied in Systems Biology is how to find shortest paths in metabolic networks. Unfortunately, simple (i.e. Read More

In this work we present a protocol for self-synchronized duty-cycling in wireless sensor networks with energy harvesting capabilities. The protocol is implemented in Wiselib, a library of generic algorithms for sensor networks. Simulations are conducted with the sensor network simulator Shawn. Read More

We analyze the problem of packing squares in an online fashion: Given a semi-infinite strip of width 1 and an unknown sequence of squares of side length in [0,1] that arrive from above, one at a time. The objective is to pack these items as they arrive, minimizing the resulting height. Just like in the classical game of Tetris, each square must be moved along a collision-free path to its final destination. Read More

We present a synchronization algorithm to let nodes in a sensor network simultaneously execute a task at a given point in time. In contrast to other time synchronization algorithms we do not provide a global time basis that is shared on all nodes. Instead, any node in the network can spontaneously initiate a process that allows the simultaneous execution of arbitrary tasks. Read More

An n-town, for a natural number n, is a group of n buildings, each occupying a distinct position on a 2-dimensional integer grid. If we measure the distance between two buildings along the axis-parallel street grid, then an n-town has optimal shape if the sum of all pairwise Manhattan distances is minimized. This problem has been studied for cities, i. Read More

We present a sensor network testbed that monitors a hallway. It consists of 120 load sensors and 29 passive infrared sensors (PIRs), connected to 30 wireless sensor nodes. There are also 29 LEDs and speakers installed, operating as actuators, and enabling a direct interaction between the testbed and passers-by. Read More

We study connectivity relations among points, where the precise location of each input point lies in a region of uncertainty. We distinguish two fundamental scenarios under which uncertainty arises. In the favorable Best-Case Uncertainty (BU), each input point can be chosen from a given set to yield the best possible objective value. Read More

We investigate the problem of creating fast evacuation plans for buildings that are modeled as grid polygons, possibly containing exponentially many cells. We study this problem in two contexts: the ``confluent'' context in which the routes to exits remain fixed over time, and the ``non-confluent'' context in which routes may change. Confluent evacuation plans are simpler to carry out, as they allocate contiguous regions to exits; non-confluent allocation can possibly create faster evacuation plans. Read More

We show that deciding whether a given set of circles can be packed into a rectangle, an equilateral triangle, or a unit square are NP-hard problems, settling the complexity of these natural packing problems. On the positive side, we show that any set of circles of total area 1 can be packed into a square of size 4/\sqrt{pi}=2.2567. Read More

In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in understanding the dynamics of vehicle traffic flow and traffic congestion by interpreting traffic as a multi-particle system. This helps to explain the onset and persistence of many undesired phenomena, e.g. Read More

Every year, the computing resources available on dynamically partially reconfigurable devices increase enormously. In the near future, we expect many applications to run on a single reconfigurable device. In this paper, we present a concept for multitasking on dynamically partially reconfigurable systems called virtual area management. Read More

With the advent of autonomous robots with two- and three-dimensional scanning capabilities, classical visibility-based exploration methods from computational geometry have gained in practical importance. However, real-life laser scanning of useful accuracy does not allow the robot to scan continuously while in motion; instead, it has to stop each time it surveys its environment. This requirement was studied by Fekete, Klein and Nuechter for the subproblem of looking around a corner, but until now has not been considered in an online setting for whole polygonal regions. Read More

We study the minimum backlog problem (MBP). This online problem arises, e.g. Read More

We introduce staged self-assembly of Wang tiles, where tiles can be added dynamically in sequence and where intermediate constructions can be stored for later mixing. This model and its various constraints and performance measures are motivated by a practical nanofabrication scenario through protein-based bioengineering. Staging allows us to break through the traditional lower bounds in tile self-assembly by encoding the shape in the staging algorithm instead of the tiles. Read More

Higher-dimensional orthogonal packing problems have a wide range of practical applications, including packing, cutting, and scheduling. Combining the use of our data structure for characterizing feasible packings with our new classes of lower bounds, and other heuristics, we develop a two-level tree search algorithm for solving higher-dimensional packing problems to optimality. Computational results are reported, including optimal solutions for all two--dimensional test problems from recent literature. Read More

We extend linkage unfolding results from the well-studied case of polygonal linkages to the more general case of linkages of polygons. More precisely, we consider chains of nonoverlapping rigid planar shapes (Jordan regions) that are hinged together sequentially at rotatable joints. Our goal is to characterize the families of planar shapes that admit locked chains, where some configurations cannot be reached by continuous reconfiguration without self-intersection, and which families of planar shapes guarantee universal foldability, where every chain is guaranteed to have a connected configuration space. Read More

We consider a class of geometric facility location problems in which the goal is to determine a set X of disks given by their centers (t_j) and radii (r_j) that cover a given set of demand points Y in the plane at the smallest possible cost. We consider cost functions of the form sum_j f(r_j), where f(r)=r^alpha is the cost of transmission to radius r. Special cases arise for alpha=1 (sum of radii) and alpha=2 (total area); power consumption models in wireless network design often use an exponent alpha>2. Read More

We present a new framework for the crucial challenge of self-organization of a large sensor network. The basic scenario can be described as follows: Given a large swarm of immobile sensor nodes that have been scattered in a polygonal region, such as a street network. Nodes have no knowledge of size or shape of the environment or the position of other nodes. Read More

A new paradigm to support the communication among modules dynamically placed on a reconfigurable device at run-time is presented. Based on the network on chip (NoC) infrastructure, we developed a dynamic communication infrastructure as well as routing methodologies capable to handle routing in a NoC with obstacles created by dynamically placed components. We prove the unrestricted reachability of components and pins, the deadlock-freeness and we finally show the feasibility of our approach by means on real life example applications. Read More