# Sandip P. Trivedi

## Contact Details

NameSandip P. Trivedi |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Physics - Theory (50) Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (7) Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (6) General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (6) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (5) Astrophysics (3) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (3) Quantum Physics (3) Physics - Fluid Dynamics (1) |

## Publications Authored By Sandip P. Trivedi

We present a proposal to measure anisotropic shear viscosity in a strongly interacting, ultra-cold, unitary Fermi gas confined in a harmonic trap. We introduce anisotropy in this setup by strongly confining the gas in one of the directions with relatively weak confinement in the remaining directions. This system has a close resemblance to anisotropic strongly coupled field theories studied recently in the context of gauge-gravity duality. Read More

We consider the entanglement entropy for a free $U(1)$ theory in $3 + 1$ dimensions in the extended Hilbert space definition. By taking the continuum limit carefully we obtain a replica trick path integral which calculates this entanglement entropy. The path integral is gauge invariant, with a gauge fixing delta function accompanied by a Faddeev-Popov determinant. Read More

The Ward identities for conformal symmetries in single field models of inflation are studied in more detail in momentum space. For a class of generalized single field models, where the inflaton action contains arbitrary powers of the scalar and its first derivative, we find that the Ward identities are valid. We also study a one-parameter family of vacua, called $\alpha$-vacua, which preserve conformal invariance in de Sitter space. Read More

We consider a system consisting of a strongly interacting, ultracold unitary Fermi gas under harmonic confinement. Our analysis suggests the possibility of experimentally studying, in this system, an anisotropic shear viscosity tensor driven by the anisotropy in the trapping potential. In particular, we suggest that this experimental setup could mimic some features of anisotropic geometries that have recently been studied for strongly coupled field theories which have a gravitational dual. Read More

A definition for the entanglement entropy in a gauge theory was given recently in arXiv:1501.02593. Working on a spatial lattice, it involves embedding the physical state in an extended Hilbert space obtained by taking the tensor product of the Hilbert space of states on each link of the lattice. Read More

We derive the general Ward identities for scale and special conformal transformations in theories of single field inflation. Our analysis is model independent and based on symmetry considerations alone. The identities we obtain are valid to all orders in the slow roll expansion. Read More

We construct anisotropic black brane solutions and analyse the behaviour of some of their metric perturbations. These solutions correspond to field theory duals in which rotational symmetry is broken due an externally applied, spatially constant, force. We find, in several examples, that when the anisotropy is sufficiently big compared to the temperature, some components of the viscosity tensor can become very small in units of the entropy density, parametrically violating the KSS bound. Read More

We propose a definition for the entanglement entropy of a gauge theory on a spatial lattice. Our definition applies to any subset of links in the lattice, and is valid for both Abelian and Non-Abelian gauge theories. For $\mathbb{Z}_N$ and $U(1)$ theories, without matter, our definition agrees with a particular case of the definition given by Casini, Huerta and Rosabal. Read More

Using symmetry considerations, we derive Ward identities which relate the three point function of scalar perturbations produced during inflation to the scalar four point function, in a particular limit. The derivation assumes approximate conformal invariance, and the conditions for the slow roll approximation, but is otherwise model independent. The Ward identities allow us to deduce that the three point function must be suppressed in general, being of the same order of magnitude as in the slow roll model. Read More

We consider a system consisting of $5$ dimensional gravity with a negative cosmological constant coupled to a massless scalar, the dilaton. We construct a black brane solution which arises when the dilaton satisfies linearly varying boundary conditions in the asymptotically $AdS_5$ region. The geometry of this black brane breaks rotational symmetry while preserving translational invariance and corresponds to an anisotropic phase of the system. Read More

We calculate the four point correlation function for scalar perturbations in the canonical model of slow-roll inflation. We work in the leading slow-roll approximation where the calculation can be done in de Sitter space. Our calculation uses techniques drawn from the AdS/CFT correspondence to find the wave function at late times and then calculate the four point function from it. Read More

We construct classes of smooth metrics which interpolate from Bianchi attractor geometries of Types II, III, VI and IX in the IR to Lifshitz or $AdS_2 \times S^3$ geometries in the UV. While we do not obtain these metrics as solutions of Einstein gravity coupled to a simple matter field theory, we show that the matter sector stress-energy required to support these geometries (via the Einstein equations) does satisfy the weak, and therefore also the null, energy condition. Since Lifshitz or $AdS_2 \times S^3$ geometries can in turn be connected to $AdS_5$ spacetime, our results show that there is no barrier, at least at the level of the energy conditions, for solutions to arise connecting these Bianchi attractor geometries to $AdS_5$ spacetime. Read More

AdS plane waves describe simple backgrounds which are dual to anisotropically excited systems with energy fluxes. Upon dimensional reduction, they reduce to hyperscaling violating spacetimes: in particular, the $AdS_5$ plane wave is known to exhibit logarithmic behavior of the entanglement entropy. In this paper, we carry out an extensive study of the holographic entanglement entropy for strip-shaped subsystems in AdS plane wave backgrounds. Read More

Classifying the zero-temperature ground states of quantum field theories with finite charge density is a very interesting problem. Via holography, this problem is mapped to the classification of extremal charged black brane geometries with anti-de Sitter asymptotics. In a recent paper [1], we proposed a Bianchi classification of the extremal near-horizon geometries in five dimensions, in the case where they are homogeneous but, in general, anisotropic. Read More

During inflation, spacetime is approximately described by de Sitter space which is conformally invariant with the symmetry group SO(1,4). This symmetry can significantly constrain the quantum perturbations which arise in the inflationary epoch. We consider a general situation of single field inflation and show that the three point function involving two scalar modes and one tensor mode is uniquely determined, up to small corrections, by the conformal symmetries. Read More

Einstein-Maxwell theory coupled to a dilaton is known to give rise to extremal solutions with hyperscaling violation. We study the behaviour of these solutions in the presence of a small magnetic field. We find that in a region of parameter space the magnetic field is relevant in the infra-red and completely changes the behaviour of the solution which now flows to an $AdS_2\times R^2$ attractor. Read More

In this paper we discuss SU(N) Chern-Simons theories at level k with both fermionic and bosonic vector matter. In particular we present an exact calculation of the free energy of the N=2 supersymmetric model (with one chiral field) for all values of the 't Hooft coupling in the large N limit. This is done by using a generalization of the standard Hubbard-Stratanovich method because the SUSY model contains higher order polynomial interactions. Read More

Extremal black branes are of interest because they correspond to the ground states of field theories at finite charge density in gauge/gravity duality. The geometry of such a brane need not be translationally invariant in the spatial directions along which it extends. A less restrictive requirement is that of homogeneity, which still allows points along the spatial directions to be related to each other by symmetries. Read More

We study three dimensional conformal field theories described by U(N) Chern-Simons theory at level k coupled to massless fermions in the fundamental representation. By solving a Schwinger-Dyson equation in lightcone gauge, we compute the exact planar free energy of the theory at finite temperature on R^2 as a function of the 't Hooft coupling lambda=N/k. Employing a dimensional reduction regularization scheme, we find that the free energy vanishes at |lambda|=1; the conformal theory does not exist for |lambda|>1. Read More

We study the two-point function for fermionic operators in a class of strongly coupled systems using the gauge-gravity correspondence. The gravity description includes a gauge field and a dilaton which determines the gauge coupling and the potential energy. Extremal black brane solutions in this system typically have vanishing entropy. Read More

We construct a model of quintessence in string theory based on the idea of axion monodromy as discussed by McAllister, Silverstein and Westphal arXiv:0808.0706. In the model, the quintessence field is an axion whose shift symmetry is broken by the presence of 5-branes which are placed in highly warped throats. Read More

We study black branes carrying both electric and magnetic charges in Einstein-Maxwell theory coupled to a dilaton-axion in asymptotically anti de Sitter space. After reviewing and extending earlier results for the case of electrically charged branes, we characterise the thermodynamics of magnetically charged branes. We then focus on dyonic branes in theories which enjoy an $SL(2,R)$ electric-magnetic duality. Read More

We consider two infinite families of Non-Supersymmetric $AdS_4$ vacua, called Type 2) and Type 3) vacua, that arise in massive IIA supergravity with flux. We show that both families are perturbatively stable. We then examine non-perturbative decays of these vacua to other supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric $AdS_4$ vacua mediated by instantons in the thin wall approximation. Read More

We study charged dilaton black branes in $AdS_4$. Our system involves a dilaton $\phi$ coupled to a Maxwell field $F_{\mu\nu}$ with dilaton-dependent gauge coupling, ${1\over g^2} = f^2(\phi)$. First, we find the solutions for extremal and near extremal branes through a combination of analytical and numerical techniques. Read More

We consider a deformation of the $AdS_5\times S^5$ solution of IIB supergravity obtained by taking the boundary value of the dilaton to be time dependent. The time dependence is taken to be slowly varying on the AdS scale thereby introducing a small parameter $\epsilon$. The boundary dilaton has a profile which asymptotes to a constant in the far past and future and attains a minimum value at intermediate times. Read More

We construct a large class of non-supersymmetric AdS-like throat geometries in string theory by taking non-supersymmetric orbifolds of supersymmetric backgrounds. The scale of SUSY breaking is the AdS radius, and the dual field theory has explicitly broken supersymmetry. The large hierarchy of energy scales in these geometries is stable. Read More

We consider the N=4 SYM theory in flat 3+1 dimensional spacetime with a time dependent coupling constant which vanishes at $t=0$, like $g_{YM}^2=t^p$. In an analogous quantum mechanics toy model we find that the response is singular. The energy diverges at $t=0$, for a generic state. Read More

We generalise the computations of arXiv:0712.2456 to generate long wavelength, asymptotically locally AdS_5 solutions to the Einstein-dilaton system with a slowly varying boundary dilaton field and a weakly curved boundary metric. Upon demanding regularity, our solutions are dual, under the AdS/CFT correspondence, to arbitrary fluid flows in the boundary theory formulated on a weakly curved manifold with a prescribed slowly varying coupling constant. Read More

We study supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric extremal black holes obtained in Type IIA string theory compactified on K3 X T^2, with duality group O(6,22,Z) X SL(2,Z). In the Cardy limit an internal circle combines with the AdS_2 component in the near horizon geometry to give a BTZ black hole whose entropy is given by the Cardy formula. We study black holes carrying D0-D4 and D0-D6 brane charges. Read More

We revisit Type IIB supergravity backgrounds with null and spacelike singularities with natural gauge theory duals proposed in {\tt hep-th/0602107} and {\tt hep-th/0610053}. We show that for these backgrounds there are always choices of the boundaries of these deformed $AdS_5 \times S^5$ space-times, such that the dual gauge theories live on {\it flat} metrics and have space-time dependent couplings. We present a new time dependent solution of this kind where the effective string coupling is always bounded and vanishes at a spacelike singularity in the bulk, and the space-time becomes $AdS_5 \times S^5$ at early and late times. Read More

We study non-supersymmetric attractors obtained in Type IIA compactifications on Calabi Yau manifolds. Determining if an attractor is stable or unstable requires an algebraically complicated analysis in general. We show using group theoretic techniques that this analysis can be considerably simplified and can be reduced to solving a simple example like the STU model. Read More

Due to the attractor mechanism, the entropy of an extremal black hole does not vary continuously as we vary the asymptotic values of various moduli fields. Using this fact we argue that the entropy of an extremal black hole in string theory, calculated for a range of values of the asymptotic moduli for which the microscopic theory is strongly coupled, should match the statistical entropy of the same system calculated for a range of values of the asymptotic moduli for which the microscopic theory is weakly coupled. This argument does not rely on supersymmetry and applies equally well to nonsupersymmetric extremal black holes. Read More

We investigate backgrounds of Type IIB string theory with null singularities and their duals proposed in hep-th/0602107. The dual theory is a deformed N=4 Yang-Mills theory in 3+1 dimensions with couplings dependent on a light-like direction. We concentrate on backgrounds which become AdS_5 x S^5 at early and late times and where the string coupling is bounded, vanishing at the singularity. Read More

We prove that, in a general higher derivative theory of gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields and neutral scalar fields, the entropy and the near horizon background of a rotating extremal black hole is obtained by extremizing an entropy function which depends only on the parameters labeling the near horizon background and the electric and magnetic charges and angular momentum carried by the black hole. If the entropy function has a unique extremum then this extremum must be independent of the asymptotic values of the moduli scalar fields and the solution exhibits attractor behaviour. If the entropy function has flat directions then the near horizon background is not uniquely determined by the extremization equations and could depend on the asymptotic data on the moduli fields, but the value of the entropy is still independent of this asymptotic data. Read More

We construct a family of solutions in IIB supergravity theory. These are time dependent or depend on a light-like coordinate and can be thought of as deformations of AdS_5 x S^5. Several of the solutions have singularities. Read More

We present a c-function for spherically symmetric, static and asymptotically flat solutions in theories of four-dimensional gravity coupled to gauge fields and moduli. The c-function is valid for both extremal and non-extremal black holes. It monotonically decreases from infinity and in the static region acquires its minimum value at the horizon, where it equals the entropy of the black hole. Read More

We find examples of non-supersymmetric attractors in Type II string theory compactified on a Calabi Yau three-fold. For a non-supersymmetric attractor the fixed values to which the moduli are drawn at the horizon must minimise an effective potential. For Type IIA at large volume, we consider a configuration carrying D0, D2, D4 and D6 brane charge. Read More

We consider theories with gravity, gauge fields and scalars in four-dimensional asymptotically flat space-time. By studying the equations of motion directly we show that the attractor mechanism can work for non-supersymmetric extremal black holes. Two conditions are sufficient for this, they are conveniently stated in terms of an effective potential involving the scalars and the charges carried by the black hole. Read More

We derive the fermion bilinear terms in the world volume action for a D3 brane in the presence of background flux. In six-dimensional compactifications non-perturbative corrections to the superpotential can arise from an Euclidean D3-brane instanton wrapping a divisor in the internal space. The bilinear terms give rise to fermion masses and are important in determining these corrections. Read More

There are two known sources of nonperturbative superpotentials for K\"ahler moduli in type IIB orientifolds, or F-theory compactifications on Calabi-Yau fourfolds, with flux: Euclidean brane instantons and low-energy dynamics in D7 brane gauge theories. The first class of effects, Euclidean D3 branes which lift in M-theory to M5 branes wrapping divisors of arithmetic genus 1 in the fourfold, is relatively well understood. The second class has been less explored. Read More

We construct a model of inflation in string theory after carefully taking into account moduli stabilization. The setting is a warped compactification of Type IIB string theory in the presence of D3 and anti-D3-branes. The inflaton is the position of a D3-brane in the internal space. Read More

The presence of RR and NS three-form fluxes in type IIB string compactification on a Calabi-Yau orientifold gives rise to a nontrivial superpotential W for the dilaton and complex structure moduli. This superpotential is computable in terms of the period integrals of the Calabi-Yau manifold. In this paper, we present explicit examples of both supersymmetric and nonsupersymmetric solutions to the resulting 4d N=1 supersymmetric no-scale supergravity, including some nonsupersymmetric solutions with relatively small values of W. Read More

We investigate the embedding of brane inflation into stable compactifications of string theory. At first sight a warped compactification geometry seems to produce a naturally flat inflaton potential, evading one well-known difficulty of brane-antibrane scenarios. Careful consideration of the closed string moduli reveals a further obstacle: superpotential stabilization of the compactification volume typically modifies the inflaton potential and renders it too steep for inflation. Read More

We outline the construction of metastable de Sitter vacua of type IIB string theory. Our starting point is highly warped IIB compactifications with nontrivial NS and RR three-form fluxes. By incorporating known corrections to the superpotential from Euclidean D-brane instantons or gaugino condensation, one can make models with all moduli fixed, yielding a supersymmetric AdS vacuum. Read More

We study compactifications of Type IIB string theory on a K3 \times T^2/Z_2 orientifold in the presence of RR and NS flux. We find the most general supersymmetry preserving, Poincare invariant, vacua in this model. All the complex structure moduli and some of the Kahler moduli are stabilised in these vacua. Read More

We describe a new class of supersymmetric string compactifications to 4d Minkowski space. These solutions involve type II strings propagating on (orientifolds of) non Calabi-Yau spaces in the presence of background NS and RR fluxes. The simplest examples have descriptions as cosets, generalizing the three-dimensional nilmanifold. Read More

We study novel type IIB compactifications on the T^6/Z_2 orientifold. This geometry arises in the T-dual description of Type I theory on T^6, and one normally introduces 16 space-filling D3-branes to cancel the RR tadpoles. Here, we cancel the RR tadpoles either partially or fully by turning on three-form flux in the compact geometry. Read More

Dp-branes placed in a certain external RR (p+4)-form field expand into a transverse fuzzy two-sphere, as shown by Myers. We find that by changing the (p+4)-form background other fuzzy cosets can be obtained. Three new examples, S^2 X S^2, CP^2 and SU(3)/(U(1) X U(1)) are constructed. Read More

We investigate Yang-Mills theory on a spatial torus at finite temperature in the presence of discrete electric and magnetic fluxes using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We calculate the leading dependence of the partition function on the fluxes using the dual supergravity theory and comment upon the interpretation of these fluxes as discrete quantum hair for black holes in AdS spacetime. Read More

At zero temperature the Coulomb Branch of ${\cal N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory is described in supergravity by multi-center solutions with D3-brane charge. At finite temperature and chemical potential the vacuum degeneracy is lifted, and minima of the free energy are shown to have a supergravity description as rotating black D3-branes. In the extreme limit these solutions single out preferred points on the moduli space that can be interpreted as simple distributions of branes --- for instance, a uniformly charged planar disc. Read More