Sandip K. Chakrabarti - Indian Centre For Space Physics, Kolkata, India

Sandip K. Chakrabarti
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Name
Sandip K. Chakrabarti
Affiliation
Indian Centre For Space Physics, Kolkata, India
City
Kolkata
Country
India

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High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (37)
 
Astrophysics of Galaxies (11)
 
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (4)
 
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (3)
 
Physics - Chemical Physics (3)
 
Physics - Space Physics (1)
 
Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (1)
 
Physics - General Physics (1)

Publications Authored By Sandip K. Chakrabarti

Study of astrophysics of black holes and neutron stars has taken a new turn in the present decade with the realization that sub-Keplerian flows and the associated centrifugal barrier near the horizon or the surface of a neutron star play a major role in deciding the nature of the emitted spectra and the formation of outflows from the accreting matter. This region may remain steady or oscillate depending on the accretion rate, specific angular momentum and specific energy of the flow. Intricacies of oscillation may depend on the degree of feedback the inflow receives from the outflow. Read More

Galactic X-ray binary black hole candidate Swift~J1753.5-0127 was discovered on June 30 2005 by Swift/BAT instrument. In this paper, we make detailed analysis of spectral and timing properties of its 2005 outburst using RXTE/PCA archival data. Read More

Propargyl alcohol (HC2CH2OH, PA) has yet to be observed in the interstellar medium (ISM) although one of its stable isomers, propenal (CH2CHCHO), has already been detected in Sagittarius B2(N) with the 100-meter Green Bank Telescope in the frequency range $18-26$ GHz. In this paper, we investigate the formation of propargyl alcohol along with one of its deuterated isotopomers, HC2CH2OD(OD-PA), in a dense molecular cloud. Various pathways for the formation of PA in the gas and on ice mantles surrounding dust particles are discussed. Read More

It has been pointed out by various astronomers that very interesting relationship exists between interstellar alcohols and the corresponding thiols (sulfur analogue of alcohols) as far as the spectroscopic properties and chemical abundances are concerned. Monohydric alcohols such as methanol and ethanol are widely observed and 1-propanol is recently claimed to have been seen in Orion KL. Among the monohydric thiols, methanethiol (chemical analogue of methanol), has been firmly detected in Orion KL and Sgr B2(N2) and ethanethiol (chemical analogue of ethanol) has been claimed to be observed in Sgr B2(N2) though the confirmation of this detection is yet to come. Read More

Nature of photon trajectories in a curved spacetime around black holes are studied without constraining their motion to any plane. Impacts of photon bending are separately scrutinized for Keplerian and CENBOL components of Two Component Advective Flow (TCAF) model. Parameters like Red shift, Bolometric Flux, temperature profile and time of arrival of photons are also computed. Read More

Two component advective flow (TCAF) successfully explains spectral and timing properties of black hole candidates. We study the nature of photon trajectories in the vicinity of a Schwarzschild black hole and incorporate this in predicting images of TCAF with a black hole at the Centre. We also compute the emitted spectra. Read More

The well known black hole candidate H~1743-322 exhibited temporal and spectral variabilities during several outbursts. Daily variation of the accretion rates and the flow geometry change on a daily basis during each of the outbursts could be understood very well using the recent implementation of two component advective flow (TCAF) solution of the viscous transonic flow equations as an additive table model in XSPEC. This has dramatically improved our understanding about the accretion flow dynamics. Read More

In the propagating oscillatory shock model, the oscillation of the post-shock region, i.e., the Compton cloud, causes the observed low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). Read More

In an effort to further our interest in understanding basic chemistry of interstellar molecules, we carry out here an extensive investigation of the stabilities of interstellar carbon chains; Cn, H2Cn, HCnN and CnX (X=N, O, Si, S, H, P, H-, N-). These sets of molecules accounts for about 20% of all the known interstellar and circumstellar molecules, their high abundances therefore demand a serious attention. High level ab initio quantum chemical calculations are employed to accurately estimate enthalpy of formation, chemical reactivity indices; global hardness and softness; and other chemical parameters of these molecules. Read More

Variation of mass supply rate from the companion can be smeared out by viscous processes inside an accretion disk. By the time the flow reaches the inner edge, the variation in X-rays needs not reflect the true variation of the rate at the outer edge. However, if the viscosity fluctuates around a mean value, one would expect the viscous time scale also to spread around a mean value. Read More

We study time evolution of rotating, axisymmetric, two dimensional inviscid accretion flows around black holes using a grid based finite difference method. We do not use reflection symmetry on the equatorial plane in order to inspect if the disk along with the centrifugal barrier oscillated vertically. In the inviscid limit, we find that the CENtrifugal pressure supported BOundary Layer (CENBOL) is oscillating vertically, more so, when the specific angular momentum is higher. Read More

Numerical hydrodynamic simulation of inviscid and viscous flows have shown that significant outflows could be produced from the CENtrifugal pressure supported BOundary Layer or CENBOL of an advective disk. However, this barrier is weakened in presence of viscosity, more so, if there are explicit energy dissipations at the boundary layer itself. We study effects of viscosity and energy dissipation theoretically on the outflow rate and show that as the viscosity or energy dissipation (or both) rises, the prospect of formation of outflows is greatly reduced, thereby verifying results obtained through observations and numerical simulations. Read More

The Galactic transient black hole candidate (BHC) MAXI~J1659-152 exhibited temporal and spectral evolution during its very first X-ray outburst (2010) after its discovery on 25th Sept. 2010. Our recent studies of a few transient BHCs including MAXI~J1659-152 using Chakrabarti-Titarchuk two-component advective flow (TCAF) solution as an additive table local model in XSPEC revealed details of accretion flow dynamics around the black hole (BH). Read More

We derive accretion flow properties of the transient black hole candidate (BHC) MAXI~J1543-564 using the RXTE data. We use Two-Component Advective Flow (TCAF) solution to fit the data of the very initial rising phase of outburst (from 2011 May 10 to 2011 May 15). $2. Read More

We fit spectra of galactic transient source GX~339-4 during its 2013 outburst using Two Component Advective Flow (TCAF) solution. For the first time, we are fitting combined NuSTAR and Swift observation with TCAF. We use TCAF to fit 0. Read More

An accretion flow around a black hole has a saddle type sonic point just outside the event horizon to guarantee that the flow enters the black hole supersonically. This feature exclusively present in strong gravity limit makes its marks in every observation of black hole candidates. Another physical sonic point is present (as in a Bondi flow) even in weak gravity. Read More

The Galactic transient X-ray binary MAXI~J1836-194 was discovered on 29th August 2011. Here we make a detailed study of the spectral and timing properties of its 2011 outburst using archival data of RXTE Proportional Counter Array instrument. The evolution of accretion flow dynamics of the source during the outburst through spectral analysis with Chakrabarti-Titarchuk's two-component advective flow (TCAF) solution as a local table model in XSPEC. Read More

Work on the chemical evolution of pre-biotic molecules remains incomplete since the major obstacle is the lack of adequate knowledge of rate coefficients of various reactions which take place in interstellar conditions. In this work, we study the possibility of forming three pyrimidine bases, namely, cytosine, uracil and thymine in interstellar regions. Our study reveals that the synthesis of uracil from cytosine and water is quite impossible under interstellar circumstances. Read More

We carry out Monte-Carlo simulation to study deuterium enrichment of interstellar grain mantles under various physical conditions. Based on the physical properties, various types of clouds are considered. We find that in diffuse cloud regions, very strong radiation fields persists and hardly a few layers of surface species are formed. Read More

X-rays and gamma-rays from astronomical sources such as solar flares are mostly absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere. Resulting electron-ion production rate as a function of height depends on the intensity and wavelength of the injected spectrum and therefore the effects vary from one source to another. In other words, the ion density vs. Read More

Two Component Advective Flow is the only complete solution that incorporates outcomes of actual theoretical solutions to explain spectral and timing properties of radiation emitted from the vicinity of black holes. It redefined the subject of black hole astrophysics by upgrading it from some sort of 'climatology' and making it a precision science. Today any good spectral and temporal data could be fitted with TCAF with ease using as few as four parameters, totally un-heard of by the plethora of models which are rat-racing to fit gross properties of data. Read More

Variability classes in the enigmatic black hole candidate GRS 1915+105 are known to be correlated with the variation of the Comptonizing Efficiency (CE) which is defined to be the ratio between the number of power-law (hard) photons and seed (soft) photons injected into the Compton cloud. Similarities of light curves of several variability classes of GRS 1915+105 and IGR 17091-3624, some of which are already reported in the literature, motivated us to compute CE for IGR 17091-3624 as well. We find that they are similar to what were reported earlier for GRS 1915+105, even though masses of these objects could be different. Read More

It has long been proposed that low frequency QPOs in stellar mass black holes or their equivalents in super massive black holes are results of resonances between infall and cooling time scales. We explicitly compute these two time scales in a generic situation to show that resonances are easily achieved. During an outburst of a transient black hole candidate (BHC), the accretion rate of the Keplerian disk as well as the geometry of the Comptonizing cloud change very rapidly. Read More

Methyl acetate (CH_3COOCH_3) has been recently observed by IRAM 30 m radio telescope in Orion though the presence of its deuterated isotopomers is yet to be confirmed. We therefore study the properties of various forms of methyl acetate, namely, CH_3COOCH_3, CH_2DCOOCH_3 and CH_3COOCH_2D. Our simulation reveals that these species could be produced efficiently both in gas as well as in ice phases. Read More

It is long debated if pre-biotic molecules are indeed present in the interstellar medium. Despite substantial works pointing to their existence, pre-biotic molecules are yet to be discovered with a complete confidence. In this paper, our main aim is to study the chemical evolution of interstellar adenine under various circumstances. Read More

$H_2$ is the most abundant interstellar species. Its deuterated forms ($HD$ and $D_2$) are also significantly abundant. Huge abundances of these molecules could be explained by considering the chemistry occurring on the interstellar dust. Read More

Transient black hole candidates are interesting objects to study in X-rays as these sources show rapid evolutions in their spectral and temporal properties. In this paper, we study the spectral properties of the Galactic transient X-ray binary MAXI~J1659-152 during its very first outburst after discovery with the archival data of RXTE Proportional Counter Array instruments. We make a detailed study of the evolution of accretion flow dynamics during its 2010 outburst through spectral analysis using the Chakrabarti-Titarchuk two-component advective flow (TCAF) model as an additive table model in XSPEC. Read More

A black hole accretion is necessarily transonic. In presence of sufficiently high viscosity and cooling effects, a low-angular momentum transonic flow can become a standard Keplerian disc except close to the where hole where it must pass through the inner sonic point. However, if the viscosity is not high everywhere and cooling is not efficient everywhere, the flow cannot completely become a Keplerian disc. Read More

Variability classes in the enigmatic black hole candidate GRS 1915+105 are known to be correlated with the variation of the Comptonizing Efficiency (CE) which is defined to be the ratio between the number of power-law (hard) photons and seed (soft) photons injected into the Compton cloud. Similarities of light curves of several variability classes of GRS 1915+105 and IGR 17091-3624, some of which are already reported in the literature, motivated us to compute CE for IGR 17091-3624 as well. We find that they are similar to what were reported earlier for GRS 1915+105, even though masses of these objects could be different. Read More

Despite low elemental abundance of atomic deuterium in interstellar medium (ISM), observational evidences suggest that several species in gas-phase and in ices could be heavily fractionated. We explore various aspects of deuterium enrichment by constructing a chemical evolution model in gas and grain phases. Depending on various physical parameters, gas and grains are allowed to interact with each other through exchange of their chemical species. Read More

In outburst sources, quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency is known to evolve in a certain way: in the rising phase, it monotonically goes up till a soft intermediate state is achieved. In the propagating oscillatory shock model, oscillation of the Compton cloud is thought to cause QPOs. Thus, in order to increase QPO frequency, Compton cloud must collapse steadily in the rising phase. Read More

Accretion flows having positive specific energy are known to produce outflows and winds which escape to a large distance. According to Two Component Advective Flow (TCAF) model, centrifugal pressure dominated region of the flow just outside the black hole horizon, with or without shocks, acts as the base of this outflow. Electrons from this region are depleted due to the wind and consequently, energy transfer rate due to inverse Comptonization of low energy photons are affected. Read More

Two component advective flows are the most physical accretion disks which arise from theoretical consideration. Since viscosity is the determining factor, we investigate the effects of viscous stresses on accretion flows around a nonrotating black hole. As a consequence of angular momentum transfer by viscosity in an accretion flow, the angular momentum distribution is modified. Read More

Temporal and spectral variations of black hole candidates during outbursts have been reported in several publications. It is well known that during an outburst, source becomes softer in first few days, and then returns to hard states after a few weeks or months. In the present paper, we show variation of Comptonization Efficiency (CE), defined to be the ratio of number of power-law photons and number of soft photons injected to into the Compton cloud, as a function of time in several outbursts. Read More

The Galactic microquasar GRS 1915+105 exhibits various types of light curves. There is, however, no understanding of when a certain type of light curve will be exhibited and only in a handful of cases, the transitions from one type to another have actually been observed. We study the detailed spectral properties in these cases to show that that different classes have different ratio of the power-law photon and the blackbody photon. Read More

The Temporal and Spectral variations of black hole candidates during outbursts have been reported in several publications. It is well known that during an outburst, the source becomes soft in the first few days, and then returns to the hard state after a few weeks or months. In the present paper, we show the variation of Comptonization Efficiency (CE), obtained from the ratio of the black body photon number to the power-law photon number, as a function of time in several outbursts. Read More

Spectral and Temporal properties of black hole candidates can be explained reasonably well using Chakrabarti-Titarchuk solution of two component advective flow (TCAF). This model requires two accretion rates, namely, the Keplerian disk accretion rate and the halo accretion rate, the latter being composed of a sub-Keplerian, low angular momentum flow which may or may not develop a shock. In this solution, the relevant parameter is the relative importance of the halo (which creates the Compton cloud region) rate with respect to the Keplerian disk rate (soft photon source). Read More

We study accretion flow dynamics of Galactic transient black hole candidate (BHC) H 1743-322 during its 2010 outburst by analyzing spectral data using Two Component (Keplerian and sub-Keplerian) Advective Flow (TCAF) solution, after its inclusion in XSPEC as a local model. We compare our TCAF solution fitted results with combined disk black body and power-law model fitted results and find a similar smooth variation of thermal (Keplerian or disk black body) and non-thermal (power-law or sub-Keplerian) fluxes/rates in two types of model fits. For a spectral analysis, 2. Read More

Main focus of this paper is to explore the possibility of findings two deuterated isotopomers of H2Cl+ (Chloronium) in and around the Interstellar Medium (ISM). Presence of Chloronium ion has recently been confirmed by Herschel Space Observatory's Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (Neufeld et al., 2012). Read More

It has long been suggested that CH2CN- might be a carrier of one of the many poorly characterized diffuse interstellar bands. In this paper, our aim is to study various forms of CH2CN in the interstellar medium. Aim of this paper is to predict spectroscopic characteristics of various forms of CH2CN and its deuterated derivatives. Read More

We study the spectral and timing properties of a two component advective flow (TCAF) around a black hole by numerical simulation. Several cases have been simulated by varying the Keplerian disk rate and the resulting spectra and lightcurves have been produced for all the cases. The dependence of the spectral states and quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequencies on the flow parameters is discussed. Read More

Low and intermediate frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in black hole candidates are believed to be due to oscillations of the Comptonizing regions in an accretion flow. Assuming that the general structure of an accretion disk is a Two Component Advective Flow (TCAF), we numerically simulate the light curves emitted from an accretion disk for different accretion rates and find how the QPO frequencies vary. We use a standard Keplerian disk residing at the equatorial plane as a source of soft photons. Read More

Fifty years have just passed since the first discovery of the extra-solar X-ray sources by Giacconi and his team which we know today to be some stellar mass black holes. By 1973, not only a catalog of these enigmatic objects were made, and their spectra were obtained. Today, forty years have passed since the revolutionary idea of the thin, axisymmetric, Keplerian, disk model by Shakura and Sunyaev was published. Read More

We carry out numerical simulation of accretion flows around a black hole in presence of both viscous and cooling effects. Instead of using a constant $\alpha$ parameter throughout the simulation grid, we assume that $\alpha$ is maximum on the equatorial plane and gradually goes down in the perpendicular direction We show that when the injected sub-Keplerian flow angular momentum is high enough and/or the viscosity and also cooling is high enough, Two Component {\bf Accretion} Flow (TCAF) would be formed, otherwise the sub-Keplerian flow would remain sub-Keplerian. We see that a Keplerian disk is produced on the equatorial plane. Read More

We studied the outflow behaviour from accretion discs around black holes taking into account the vertical equilibrium accretion flow model. The outflow rate is found to depend crucially on flow composition. Our approach is to study the outflow behaviour as function of inflow around black holes with an equation of state which allows flow to be thermally relativistic close to black holes and non relativistic far away from black holes. Read More

We study the properties of a steady, multi-species, low angular momentum accretion flow around a Schwarzschild black hole. Each species is described by a relativistic equation of state. We find that the transonic properties depend strongly on the composition of the flow. Read More

Excess solar X-ray radiation during solar flares causes an enhancement of ionization in the ionospheric D-region and hence affects sub-ionospherically propagating VLF signal amplitude and phase. In first part of the work, using the well known LWPC technique, we simulated the flare induced excess lower ionospheric electron density by amplitude perturbation method. Unperturbed D-region electron density is also obtained from simulation and compared with IRI-model results. Read More

The Galactic black hole candidate (BHC) H~1743-322 recently exhibited two outbursts in X-rays in August 2010 & April 2011. The nature (outburst profile, evolution of quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency and spectral states, etc.) of these two successive outbursts, which continued for around two months each, are very similar. Read More

In our study of the timing properties of few Galactic black hole candidates evolutions of the low and intermediate frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (LIFQPOs) are observed. In 2005, for explaining evolution of QPO frequency during rising phase of 2005 GRO J1655-40 outburst, Chakrabarti and his students introduced a new model, namely propagating oscillatory shock (POS) model. Here we present the results obtained from the same POS model fitted QPO evolutions during both the rising and declining phases of the outbursts of 2005 GRO J165540, 2010-11 GX 339-4, and 2010 & 2011 H 1743-322. Read More

We study the spectral properties of Galactic transient black hole candidate H 1743-322 during its early phase of 2010 outburst with Two Component Advective Flow (TCAF) model, after its inclusion in spectral analysis software package XSPEC as a local model. For the analysis, spectral data from RXTE/PCA instrument in 2.5-25 keV energy band are used. Read More