# S. Raghu

## Contact Details

NameS. Raghu |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesPhysics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (31) Physics - Superconductivity (25) High Energy Physics - Theory (12) Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (9) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (3) Physics - Other (2) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (2) Physics - Disordered Systems and Neural Networks (1) |

## Publications Authored By S. Raghu

The idea of statistical transmutation plays a crucial role in descriptions of the fractional quantum Hall effect. However, a recently conjectured duality between a critical boson and a massless 2-component Dirac fermion extends this notion to gapless systems. This duality may shed light on highly non-trivial problems such as the half-filled Landau level, the superconductor-insulator transition, and surface states of strongly coupled topological insulators. Read More

Metallic phases have been observed in several disordered two dimensional (2d) systems, including thin films near superconductor-insulator transitions and quantum Hall systems near plateau transitions. The existence of 2d metallic phases at zero temperature generally requires electron-electron interactions; experimental observations of such metallic behavior have largely defied explanation because the interplay between interactions and disorder remains poorly understood. We formulate a general stability criterion for strongly interacting, massless Dirac fermions against disorder, which describe metallic ground states with vanishing density of states. Read More

We address the problem of superconductivity for non-Fermi liquids using two commonly adopted, yet apparently distinct methods: 1) the renormalization group (RG) and 2) Eliashberg theory. The extent to which both methods yield consistent solutions for the low energy behavior of quantum metals has remained unclear. We show that the perturbative RG beta function for the 4-Fermi coupling can be explicitly derived from the linearized Eliashberg equations, under the assumption that quantum corrections are approximately local across energy scales. Read More

Particle-hole symmetry in the lowest Landau level of the two-dimensional electron gas requires the electrical Hall conductivity to equal $\pm e^2/2h$ at half-filling. We study the consequences of weakly broken particle-hole symmetry for magnetoresistance oscillations about half-filling in the presence of an applied periodic one-dimensional electrostatic potential using the Dirac composite fermion theory proposed by Son. At fixed electron density, the oscillation minima are asymmetrically biased towards higher magnetic fields, while at fixed magnetic field, the oscillations occur symmetrically as the electron density is varied about half-filling. Read More

The origin of superconductivity in the dilute semiconductor SrTiO3 has remained an open question for more than 50 years. The extremely low carrier densities at which superconductivity occurs requires a commensurately large pairing potential. The majority of theoretical approaches consider electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling, and indeed there is experimental evidence for polarons - quasiparticles arising from strong e-ph coupling. Read More

We provide an effective description of a particle-hole symmetric state of electrons in a half-filled Landau level, starting from the traditional approach pioneered by Halperin, Lee and Read. Specifically, we study a system consisting of alternating quasi-one-dimensional strips of composite Fermi liquid (CFL) and composite hole liquid (CHL), both of which break particle-hole symmetry. When the CFL and CHL strips are identical in size, the resulting state is manifestly invariant under the combined action of a particle-hole transformation with respect to a single Landau level (which interchanges the CFL and CHL) and translation by one unit, equal to the strip width, in the direction transverse to the strips. Read More

Previous theoretical studies [W. Cho, C. Platt, R. Read More

A variety of heavy fermion superconductors, such as UCoGe, UGe$_2$, and URhGe exhibit a striking coexistence of bulk ferromagnetism and superconductivity. In these systems, the magnetic moment decreases with pressure, and vanishes at a ferromagnetic quantum critical point (qcp). Remarkably, the superconductivity in UCoGe varies smoothly with pressure across the qcp and exists in both the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic regimes. Read More

In several two-dimensional films that exhibit a magnetic field-tuned superconductor to insulator transition (SIT), stable metallic phases have been observed. Building on the `dirty boson' description of the SIT, we suggest that the metallic region is analogous to the composite Fermi liquid observed about half-filled Landau levels of the two-dimensional electron gas. The composite fermions here are mobile vortices attached to one flux quantum of an emergent gauge field. Read More

We study the fate of superconductivity in the vicinity of a class of metallic quantum critical points obtained by coupling a Fermi surface to a critical boson. In such systems there is a competition between the enhanced pairing tendency due to the presence of long-range attractive interactions near criticality, and the suppression of superconductivity due to the destruction of the Landau quasiparticles. We show that there are regimes in which these two effects offset one another, resulting in a novel non-Fermi liquid fixed point with finite, scale invariant, BCS coupling. Read More

The purple bronze Li$_{0.9}$Mo$_6$O$_{17}$ is of interest due to its quasi-one-dimensional electronic structure and the possible Luttinger liquid behavior resulting from it. For sufficiently low temperatures, it is a superconductor with a pairing symmetry that is still to be determined. Read More

We propose the possible detection of broken mirror symmetries in correlated two-dimensional materials by elastotransport measurements. Using linear response theory we calculate the shearconductivity $\Gamma_{xx,xy}$, defined as the linear change of the longitudinal conductivity $\sigma_{xx}$ due to a shear strain $\epsilon_{xy}$. This quantity can only be non-vanishing when in-plane mirror symmetries are broken and we discuss how candidate states in the cuprate pseudogap regime (e. Read More

We study the dynamics of a quantum critical boson coupled to a Fermi surface in intermediate energy regimes where the Landau damping of the boson can be parametrically controlled, either via large Fermi velocity or by large N techniques. We focus on developing a systematic approach to studying the BCS instability, including careful treatment of the enhanced log^2 and log^3 singularities which appear already at 1-loop. We also treat possible instabilities to charge density wave (CDW) formation, and compare the scales Lambda_{BCS} and Lambda_{CDW} of the onset of the instabilities in different parametric regimes. Read More

Motivated by recent observations of charge order in the pseudogap regime of hole-doped cuprates, we show that {\it crisscrossed} stripe order can be stabilized by coherent, momentum-dependent interlayer tunneling, which is known to be present in several cuprate materials. We further describe how subtle variations in the couplings between layers can lead to a variety of stripe ordering arrangements, and discuss the implications of our results for recent experiments in underdoped cuprates. Read More

Measurements of the differential elastoresistance of URu$_2$Si$_2$ reveal that the fluctuations associated with the 17 K Hidden Order phase transition have a nematic component. Approaching the "Hidden Order" phase transition from above, the nematic susceptibility abruptly changes sign, indicating that while the Hidden Order phase has a nematic component, it breaks additional symmetries. Read More

Recent analysis has confirmed earlier general arguments that the Kerr response vanishes in any time-reversal invariant system which satisfies the Onsager relations. Thus, the widely cited relation between natural optical activity (gyrotropy) and the Kerr response, employed in Hosur \textit{et al}, Phys. Rev. Read More

A major challenge to the chiral $p$-wave hypothesis for the pairing symmetry of the unconventional superconductor Sr$_2$RuO$_4$ is the null result of sensitive scanning magnetometry experiments designed to detect the expected spontaneous charge currents. Motivated by junction tunneling conductance measurements which indicate the quenching of superconductivity at the surfaces of even high-purity samples, we examine the spontaneous currents in a chiral $p$-wave superconductor near a normal metal / superconductor interface using the lattice Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations and Ginzburg-Landau theory, and find that the edge current is suppressed by more than an order of magnitude compared to previous estimates. These calculations demonstrate that interface details can have a quantitatively meaningful effect on the expectations for magnetometry experiments. Read More

We study the low-energy behavior of metals coupled to gapless bosons. This problem arises in several contexts in modern condensed matter physics; we focus on the theory of metals near continuous quantum phase transitions (where the boson is the order parameter). In the vicinity of d=3 spatial dimensions, the upper critical dimension of the theory, the ratio of fermion and boson speeds, v/c, acts as an additional control parameter, enabling us to access IR fixed points where this ratio vanishes. Read More

The problem of continuous quantum phase transitions in metals involves critical bosons coupled to a Fermi surface. We solve the theory in the limit of a large number, N_B, of bosonic flavors, where the bosons transform in the adjoint representation, while the fermions are in the fundamental representation of a global SU(N_B) flavor symmetry group. The leading large N_B solution corresponds to a non-Fermi liquid coupled to Wilson-Fisher bosons. Read More

In non-centrosymmetric crystals such as MnSi, magnetic order can take the form of a skyrmion crystal (SkX) . In this phase, conduction electrons coupled to the local magnetic moments acquire a Berry's phase, leading to an emergent electromagnetism. Motivated by experimental reports of a non-Fermi liquid phase in MnSi, in which resistivity is observed to scale as $\Delta \rho \sim T^{3/2}$, here we examine the effect of coupling phonons of an incommensurate SkX to electrons. Read More

Interlayer coupling effects between high mobility two-dimensional superconductors are studied in bilayer delta-doped SrTiO3 heterostructures. By tuning the undoped SrTiO3 spacer layer between the dopant planes, clear tunable coupling is demonstrated in the variation of the sheet carrier density, Hall mobility, superconducting transition temperature, and the temperature- and angle-dependences of the superconducting upper critical field. Systematic variation is found between one effective (merged) two-dimensional superconductor to two decoupled two-dimensional superconductors. Read More

We study the problem of disorder-free metals near a continuous quantum critical point. We depart from the standard paradigm of Hertz and Millis, and treat both fermions and bosons i.e. Read More

In this paper, we study superconductivity of nonrelativistic fermions at finite-density coupled to a transverse $U(1)$ gauge field, with the effective interaction including the Landau-damping. This model, first studied by Holstein, Norton, and Pincus [Phys. Rev B, {\bf 8}, 2649 (1973)] has been known as an example of a non-Fermi liquid, {\i. Read More

We study the influence of the band structure on the symmetry and superconducting transition temperature in the (solvable) weak-coupling limit of the repulsive Hubbard model. Among other results we find: 1) As a function of increasing nematicity, starting from the square lattice (zero nematicity) limit where nodal d-wave state is strongly preferred, there is a smooth evolution to the quasi-1D limit, where a striking near-degeneracy is found between a p-wave- and a d-wave-type paired states with accidental nodes on the quasi-one-dimensional Fermi surfaces---a situation which may be relevant to the Bechgaard salts. 2) In a bilayer system, we find a phase transition as a function of increasing bilayer coupling from a d-wave to an $s_{\pm}$-wave state reminiscent of the iron-based superconductors. Read More

Hexagonal lattice systems (e.g. triangular, honeycomb, kagome) possess a multidimensional irreducible representation corresponding to $d_{x^2-y^2}$ and $d_{xy}$ symmetry. Read More

We study the problem of disorder-free metals near a continuous Ising nematic quantum critical point in $d=3+1$ dimensions. We begin with perturbation theory in the `Yukawa' coupling between the electrons and undamped bosons (nematic order parameter fluctuations) and show that the perturbation expansion breaks down below energy scales where the bosons get substantially Landau damped. Above this scale however, we find a regime in which low-energy fermions obtain an imaginary self-energy that varies linearly with frequency, realizing the `marginal Fermi liquid' phenomenology\cite{Varma}. Read More

The Kerr effect can arise in a time-reversal invariant dissipative medium that is "gyrotropic", i.e. one that breaks inversion ($\mathcal I$) and all mirror symmetries. Read More

Is the mechanism of unconventional superconductivity in Sr$_2$RuO$_4$ closer in spirit to superfluid $^3$He, or to the cuprates, pnictides, and organic superconductors? We challenge prevailing assumptions in this field and using well-controlled perturbative renormalization group calculations, we suggest that superconductivity in Sr$_2$RuO$_4$ resembles more closely the quasi-one dimensional organic superconductors. Our theory has certain phenomenological consequences that are consistent with the experimentally observed phenomena. Read More

We explore the role of charge reservoir layers (CRLs) on the superconducting transition temperature of cuprate superconductors. Specifically, we study the effect of CRLs with efficient short distance dielectric screening coupled capacitively to copper oxide metallic layers. We argue that dielectric screening at short distances and at frequencies of the order of the superconducting gap, but small compared to the Fermi energy can significantly enhance T$_c$, the transition temperature of an unconventional superconductor. Read More

Given that Sr2RuO4 is a two-component p-wave superconductor, there exists the possibility of well defined collective modes corresponding to fluctuations of the relative phase and spin-orientation of the two components of the order parameter. We demonstrate that at temperatures much below Tc, these modes have energies small compared to the pairing gap scale if the superconductivity arises primarily from the quasi 1D (dxz and dyz) bands, while it is known that their energies become comparable to the pairing gap scale if there is a substantial involvement of the quasi 2D (dxy) band. Therefore, the orbital origin of the superconductivity can be determined by measuring the energies of these collective modes. Read More

The combination of Rashba spin-orbit coupling and electron correlations can induce unusual phenomena in the metallic interface between SrTiO$_3$ and LaAlO$_3$. We consider effects of Rashba spin-orbit coupling at this interface in the context of the recent observation of anisotropic magnetism. Firstly, we show how Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a system near a band-edge can account for the observed magnetic anisotropy. Read More

We analyze the effect of the non-vanishing range of electron-electron repulsion on the mechanism of unconventional superconductivity. We present asymptotically exact weak-coupling results for dilute electrons in the continuum and for the 2D extended Hubbard model, as well as density-matrix renormalization group results for the two-leg extended Hubbard model at intermediate couplings, and approximate results for the case of realistically screened Coulomb interactions. We show that $T_c$ is generally suppressed in some pairing channels as longer range interactions increase in strength, but superconductivity is not destroyed. Read More

A one-dimensional Ising model in a transverse field can be mapped onto a system of spinless fermions with p-wave superconductivity. In the weak-coupling BCS regime, it exhibits a zero energy Majorana mode at each end of the chain. Here, we consider a variation of the model, which represents a superconductor with longer ranged kinetic energy and pairing amplitudes, as is likely to occur in more realistic systems. Read More

The behaviour of matter near zero temperature continuous phase transitions, or 'quantum critical points' (QCPs) is a central topic of study in condensed matter physics. In fermionic systems, fundamental questions remain unanswered: the nature of the quantum critical regime is unclear because of the apparent breakdown of the concept of the quasiparticle, a cornerstone of existing theories of strongly interacting metals. Even less is known experimentally about the formation of ordered phases from such a quantum critical 'soup'. Read More

By using Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) equations, we study superconducting (SC)
states in a quasi 2-dimensional system of radius $R$. It is shown that no
vortices exist in s-wave SC samples with $R

The pseudogap state of high temperature superconductors is a profound mystery. It has tantalizing evidence of a number of broken symmetry states, not necessarily conventional charge and spin density waves. Here we explore a class of more exotic density wave states characterized by topological properties observed in recently discovered topological insulators. Read More

We present a well-controlled perturbative renormalization group (RG) treatment of superconductivity from short-ranged repulsive interactions in a variety of model two dimensional electronic systems. Our analysis applies in the limit where the repulsive interactions between the electrons are small compared to their kinetic energy. Read More

Using an asymptotically exact weak coupling analysis of a multi-orbital Hubbard model of the electronic structure of \SRO, we show that the interplay between spin and charge fluctuations leads unequivocally to triplet pairing which originates in the quasi-one dimensional bands. The resulting superconducting state spontaneously breaks time-reversal symmetry and is of the form $\Delta \sim p_x + i p_y \hat{z}$ with sharp gap minima and a d-vector that is only {\it weakly} pinned. The supercondutor is topologically {\it trivial} and hence lacks robust chiral Majorana fermion modes along the boundary. Read More

We study the phase diagram of the Hubbard model in the limit where U, the onsite repulsive interaction, is much smaller than the bandwidth. We present an asymptotically exact expression for T$_c$, the superconducting transition temperature, in terms of the correlation functions of the non-interacting system which is valid for arbitrary densities so long as the interactions are sufficiently small. Our strategy for computing T$_c$ involves first integrating out all degrees of freedom having energy higher than an unphysical initial cutoff $\Omega_0$. Read More

We study low energy collective modes and transport properties of the "helical metal" on the surface of a topological insulator. At low energies, electrical transport and spin dynamics at the surface are exactly related by an operator identity equating the electric current to the in-plane components of the spin degrees of freedom. From this relation it follows that an undamped spin wave always accompanies the sound mode in the helical metal -- thus it is possible to `hear' the sound of spins. Read More

In an externally applied magnetic field, ultra-pure crystals of the bilayer compound Sr$_3$Ru$_2$O$_7$ undergo a metamagnetic transition below a critical temperature, $T^*$, which varies as a function of the angle between the magnetic field $H$ and the Ru-O planes. Moreover, $T^*$ approaches zero when $H$ is perpendicular to the planes. This putative "metamagnetic quantum critical point", however, is preempted by a nematic fluid phase with order one resistive anisotropy in the {\it ab} plane. Read More

Using an RPA approximation, we have calculated the strengths of the singlet and triplet pairing interactions which arise from the exchange of spin and orbital fluctuations for a 2-orbital model of the Fe-pnictide superconductors. When the system is doped with F, the electron pockets become dominant and we find that the strongest pairing occurs in the singlet d-wave pairing and the triplet p-wave pairing channels, which compete closely. The pairing structure in the singlet d-wave channel corresponds to a superposition of near neighbor intra-orbital singlets with a minus sign phase difference between the $d_{xz}$ and $d_{yz}$ pairs. Read More

Following the discovery of the Fe-pnictide superconductors, LDA band structure calculations showed that the dominant contributions to the spectral weight near the Fermi energy came from the Fe 3d orbitals. The Fermi surface is characterized by two hole surfaces around the $\Gamma$ point and two electron surfaces around the M point of the 2 Fe/cell Brillouin zone. Here, we describe a 2-band model that reproduces the topology of the LDA Fermi surface and exhibits both ferromagnetic and $q=(\pi,0)$ spin density wave (SDW) fluctuations. Read More

We construct time reversal invariant topological superconductors and superfluids in two and three dimensions which are analogous to the recently discovered quantum spin Hall and three-d $Z_2$ topological insulators respectively. These states have a full pairing gap in the bulk, gapless counter-propagating Majorana states at the boundary, and a pair of Majorana zero modes associated with each vortex. We show that the time reversal symmetry naturally emerges as a supersymmetry, which changes the parity of the fermion number associated with each time-reversal invariant vortex. Read More

We present a new method to study the Nernst effect and diamagetism of an extreme type-II superconductor dominated by phase fluctuations. We work directly with vortex variables and our method allows us to tune vortex parameters (e.g. Read More

We consider extended Hubbard models with repulsive interactions on a Honeycomb lattice and the transitions from the semi-metal phase at half-filling to Mott insulating phases. In particular, due to the frustrating nature of the second-neighbor repulsive interactions, topological Mott phases displaying the quantum Hall and the quantum spin Hall effects are found for spinless and spinful fermion models, respectively. We present the mean-field phase diagram and consider the effects of fluctuations within the random phase approximation (RPA). Read More

We predict the existence of a three dimensional quantum Hall effect plateau in a graphite crystal subject to a magnetic field. The plateau has a Hall conductivity quantized at $\frac{4e^2}{\hbar} \frac{1}{c_0} $ with $c_0$ the c-axis lattice constant. We analyze the three-dimensional Hofstadter problem of a realistic tight-binding Hamiltonian for graphite, find the gaps in the spectrum, and estimate the critical value of the magnetic field above which the Hall plateau appears. Read More

When a superconductor is warmed above its critical temperature $T_c$, long range order is destroyed by fluctuations in the order parameter. These fluctuations can be probed by measurements of conductivity, diamagnetism, and of the Nernst effect. Here, we study a regime where superconductivity is destroyed by phase fluctuations arising from a dilute liquid of mobile vortices. Read More

"Photonic crystals" built with time-reversal-symmetry-breaking Faraday-effect media can exhibit "chiral" edge modes that propagate unidirectionally along boundaries across which the Faraday axis reverses. These modes are precise analogs of the electronic edge states of quantum Hall effect (QHE) systems, and are also immune to backscattering and localization by disorder. The "Berry curvature" of the photonic bands plays a role analogous to that of the magnetic field in the QHE. Read More

We show how in principle to construct analogs of quantum Hall edge states in "photonic crystals" made with non-reciprocal (Faraday-effect) media. These form "one-way waveguides" that allow electromagnetic energy to flow in one direction only. Read More