# S. Mallik - Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics

## Contact Details

NameS. Mallik |
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AffiliationSaha Institute of Nuclear Physics |
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CityKolkata |
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CountryIndia |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesNuclear Theory (25) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (14) Nuclear Experiment (9) Quantum Physics (4) Mathematics - Combinatorics (4) Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (2) High Energy Physics - Theory (2) Mathematical Physics (2) Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (2) Quantitative Biology - Biomolecules (2) Computer Science - Multimedia (2) High Energy Physics - Experiment (2) Physics - Physics Education (1) Physics - Classical Physics (1) Physics - Other (1) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (1) Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence (1) Physics - Biological Physics (1) Computer Science - Cryptography and Security (1) Quantitative Biology - Genomics (1) Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (1) Computer Science - Learning (1) Computer Science - Information Retrieval (1) Astrophysics of Galaxies (1) |

## Publications Authored By S. Mallik

Measurement of M, the total multiplicity, for central collision between comparable mass heavy ions can provide a signature for first order phase transition. The derivative of M with respect to E*/A where E* is the excitation energy in the centre of mass and A the total mass of the dissociating system is expected to go through maximum as a function of E*. Theoretical modelling shows that this is the energy where the specific heat C_v maximizes which typically happens at first order phase transition. Read More

Noncentral collision of heavy ions can generate large magnetic field in its neighbourhood. We describe a method to calculate the effect of this field on the dilepton emission rate from the colliding region, when it reaches thermal equilibrium. It is calculated in the real time method of thermal field theory. Read More

We consider one-loop self-energy function of $\rho$-meson due to $\pi^+\pi^-$ intermediate state in a background magnetic field. The pion propagator used in the calculation is given by Schwinger, which depends on a proper-time parameter. We expand functions in powers of the magnetic field times this parameter. Read More

The fragmentation of excited hypernuclear system formed in heavy ion collisions has been described by the canonical thermodynamical model extended to three component systems. The multiplicity distribution of the fragments has been analyzed in detail and it has been observed that the hyperons have the tendency to get attached to the heavier fragments. Another important observation is the phase coexistence of the hyperons, a phenomenon which is linked to liquid gas phase transition in strange matter. Read More

The study of liquid gas phase transition in fragmentation of nuclei in heavy ion collisions has been extended to the strangeness sector using the statistical model for multifragmentation. Helmholtz's free energy, specific heat and few other thermodynamic observables have been analyzed in order to examine the occurence of phase transition in the strange matter. The bimodal behaviour of the largest cluster formed in fragmentation also strongly indicates coexistence of both the phases. Read More

The thermodynamical cluster model is known to present a first-order liquid-gas phase transition in the idealized case of an uncharged, infinitely extended medium. However, in most practical applications of this model, the system is finite and charged. In this paper we study how the phase diagram is modified by finite size and Coulomb effects. Read More

Isoscaling and isobaric yield ratio parameters are compared from canonical and grand canonical ensembles when applied to multifragmentation of finite nuclei. Source dependence of isoscaling parameters and source and isospin dependence of isobaric yield ratio parameters are examined in the framework of the canonical and the grand canonical models. It is found that as the nucleus fragments more, results from both the ensembles converge and observables calculated from the canonical ensemble coincide more with those obtained from the formulae derived using the grand canonical ensemble. Read More

A spectral characterization of the matching number (the size of a maximum matching) of a graph is given. More precisely, it is shown that the graphs G of order n whose matching number is k are precisely those graphs with the maximum skew rank 2k such that for any given set of k distinct nonzero purely imaginary numbers there is a real skew-symmetric matrix A with graph G whose spectrum consists of the given k numbers, their conjugate pairs, and n-2k zeros. Read More

This work is a continuation of our effort [Phys. Rev. C 91, 034616 (2015)] to examine if signatures of a phase transition can be extracted from transport model calculations of heavy ion collisions at intermediate energy. Read More

For a graph G, M(G) denotes the maximum multiplicity occurring of an eigenvalue of a symmetric matrix whose zero-nonzero pattern is given by edges of G. We introduce two combinatorial graph parameters T^-(G) and T^+(G) that give a lower and an upper bound for M(G) respectively, and we show that these bounds are sharp. Read More

This paper proposes a video encryption algorithm using RSA and Pseudo Noise (PN) sequence, aimed at applications requiring sensitive video information transfers. The system is primarily designed to work with files encoded using the Audio Video Interleaved (AVI) codec, although it can be easily ported for use with Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) encoded files. The audio and video components of the source separately undergo two layers of encryption to ensure a reasonable level of security. Read More

We perform transport model calculations for central collisions of mass 120 on mass 120 at laboratory beam energy in the range 20 MeV/nucleon to 200 MeV/nucleon. A simplified yet accurate method allows calculation of fluctuations in systems much larger than what was considered feasible in a well-known and already existing model. The calculations produce clusters. Read More

Experimental data for central collisions of $^{129}$Xe on $^{119}$Sn at beam energies of (a) 32 MeV/nucleon, (b) 39 MeV/nucleon, (c) 45 MeV/nucleon and (d) 50 MeV/nucleon are compared with results calculated using a hybrid model. We use a transport model (BUU) to obtain the excitation energy per nucleon in the center of mass of the multifragmenting system. The canonical thermodynamic model is then used to determine the temperature which would lead to this excitation energy. Read More

A 1989 result of Duarte asserts that for a given tree T on n vertices, a fixed vertex i, and two sets of distinct real numbers L, M of sizes n and n-1, respectively, such that M strictly interlaces L, there is a real symmetric matrix A such that graph of A is T, eigenvalues of A are given by L, and eigenvalues of A(i) are given by M. In 2013, a similar result for connected graphs was published by Hassani Monfared and Shader, using the Jacobian method. Analogues of these results are presented here for real skew-symmetric matrices whose graphs belong to a certain family of trees, and all of their supergraphs. Read More

Projectile like fragments emerging from heavy ion collision have an excitation energy which is often labeled by a temperature. This temperature was recently calculated using a geometric model. We expand the geometric model to include also dynamic effects using a transport model. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}LPCC,

^{2}LPCC

**Category:**Nuclear Theory

We explore the conditions under which the particle number conservation constraint deforms the predictions of fragmentation observables as calculated in the grand canonical ensemble. We derive an analytical formula allowing to extract canonical results from a grand canonical calculation and vice versa. This formula shows that exact canonical results can be recovered for observables varying linearly or quadratically with the number of particles, independent of the grand canonical particle number fluctuations. Read More

A model in which a projectile like fragment can be simply regarded as a remnant after removal of some part of the projectile leads to an excited fragment. This excitation energy can be calculated with a Hamiltonian that gives correct nuclear matter binding, compressibility and density distribution in finite nuclei. In heavy ion collisions the model produces a dependence of excitation energy on impact parameter which appears to be correct but the magnitude of the excitation energy falls short. Read More

The ratio of symmetry energy coefficient to temperature $C_{sym}/T$ is extracted from different prescriptions using the isotopic as well as the isobaric yield distributions obtained in different projectile fragmentation reactions. It is found that the values extracted from our theoretical calculation agree with those extracted from the experimental data but they differ very much from the input value of the symmetry energy used. The best possible way to deduce the value of the symmetry energy coefficient is to use the fragment yield at the breakup stage of the reaction and it is better to use the grand canonical model for the fragmentation analysis. Read More

Availability of high-resolution crystal structures of ribosomal subunits of different species opens a route to investigate about molecular interactions between its constituents and stabilization strategy. Structural analysis of the small ribosomal subunit shows that primary binder proteins are mainly employed in stabilizing the folded ribosomal RNA by their high negative free energy of association, where tertiary binders mainly help to stabilize protein-protein interfaces. Secondary binders perform both the functions. Read More

Transport coefficients in a hadronic gas have been calculated earlier in the imaginary time formulation of thermal field theory. The steps involved are to relate the defining retarded correlation function to the corresponding time-ordered one and to evaluate the latter in the conventional perturbation expansion. Here we carry out both the steps in the real time formulation. Read More

The simplest possible beginning of abiogenesis has been a riddle from the last century, which is most successfully solved by the Lipid World hypothesis. However, origin of the next stages of evolution starting form lipids is still in dark. We propose a 'Lipid-RNA World Scenario' based on the assumption that modern stable lipid-RNA interactions are molecular fossils of an ancient stage of evolution when RNA World originated from Lipid World. Read More

Statistical models based on canonical and grand canonical ensembles are extensively used to study intermediate energy heavy ion collisions. The underlying physical assumption behind canonical and grand canonical models is fundamentally different, and in principle agree only in the thermodynamical limit when the number of particles become infinite. Nevertheless, we show that these models are equivalent in the sense that they predict similar results if certain conditions are met even for finite nuclei. Read More

**Category:**Nuclear Theory

A model for projectile fragmentation is developed whose origin can be traced back to the Bevalac era. The model positions itself between the phenomenological EPAX parametrization and transport models like "Heavy Ion Phase Space Exploration" (HIPSE) model and antisymmetrised molecular dynamics (AMD) model. A very simple impact parameter dependence of input temperature is incorporated in the model which helps to analyze the more peripheral collisions. Read More

The aim of a Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) system, also known as Query by Image Content (QBIC), is to help users to retrieve relevant images based on their contents. CBIR technologies provide a method to find images in large databases by using unique descriptors from a trained image. The image descriptors include texture, color, intensity and shape of the object inside an image. Read More

**Authors:**A. K. Dupree

^{1}, N. S. Brickhouse

^{2}, S. R. Cranmer

^{3}, G. J. M. Luna

^{4}, E. E. Schneider

^{5}, M. S. Bessell

^{6}, A. Bonanos

^{7}, L. A. Crause

^{8}, W. A. Lawson

^{9}, S. V. Mallik, S. C. Schuler

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA,

^{2}Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA,

^{3}Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA,

^{4}Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA,

^{5}Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA,

^{6}Australian National Observatory, Mount Stromlo Observatory, ACT, Australia,

^{7}Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, National Observatory of Athens, Athens, Greece,

^{8}South African Astronomi cal Observatory, Observatory, South Africa,

^{9}University of New South Wales, Canberra, ACT, Australia

**Category:**Solar and Stellar Astrophysics

The nearest accreting T Tauri star, TW Hya was observed with spectroscopic and photometric measurements simultaneous with a long se gmented exposure using the CHANDRA satellite. Contemporaneous optical photometry from WASP-S indicates a 4.74 day period was present during this time. Read More

The origin of fluctuations in the average number of intermediate mass fragments seen in experiments in small projectile like fragments is discussed. We argue that these can be explained on the basis of a recently proposed model of projectile fragmentation. Read More

Let $H_n$ be the cactus obtained from the star $K_{1,n-1}$ by adding $\lfloor \frac{n-1}{2}\rfloor$ independent edges between pairs of pendant vertices. Let $K_{1,n-1}^+$ be the unicyclic graph obtained from the star $K_{1,n-1}$ by appending one edge. In this paper we give alternative proofs of the following results: Among all cacti with $n$ vertices, $H_n$ is the unique cactus whose spectral radius is maximal, and among all unicyclic graphs with $n$ vertices, $K_{1,n-1}^+$ is the unique unicyclic graph whose spectral radius is maximal. Read More

In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. C 044612 (2011)] we proposed a model for calculating cross-sections of various reaction products which arise from disintegration of projectile like fragment resulting from heavy ion collisions at intermediate or higher energy. Read More

For projectile fragmentation we work out details of a model whose origin can be traced back to the Bevalac era. The model positions itself between the phenomenological EPAX parametrization and microscopic transport models like "Heavy Ion Phase Space Exploration Model" (HIPSE) and antisymmetrised molecular dynamics(AMD). We apply the model to some recent data of projectile fragmentation of Ni on Ta and Be at beam energy 140 MeV/nucleon and some older data of Xe on Al at beam energy 790 MeV/nucleon. Read More

Aims: We aim to develop a method to determine distances to molecular clouds using JHK near-infrared photometry. Methods: The method is based on a technique that aids spectral classification of stars lying towards the fields containing the clouds into main sequence and giants. In this technique, the observed (J-H) and (H-K_s) colours are dereddened simultaneously using trial values of A V and a normal interstellar extinction law. Read More

Lithium abundances are presented and discussed for 70 members of the 50 Myr old open cluster alpha Per. More than half of the abundances are from new high-resolution spectra. The Li abundance in the F-type stars is equal to its presumed initial abundance confirming previous suggestions that pre-main sequence depletion is ineffective for these stars. Read More

The projectile fragmentation reactions using $^{58}Ni$ $\&$ $^{64}Ni$ beams at 140 MeV/n on targets$^{9}Be$ $\&$ $^{181}Ta$ are studied using the canonical thermodynamical model coupled with an evaporation code. The isoscaling property of the fragments produced is studied using both the primary and the secondary fragments and it is observed that the secondary fragments also respect isoscaling though the isoscaling parameters $\alpha$ and $\beta$ changes. The temperature needed to reproduce experimental data with the secondary fragments is less than that needed with the primary ones. Read More

We present a simple calculation of the nucleon self-energy in nuclear matter at finite temperature in a relativistic framework, using the real time thermal field theory. The imaginary parts of one-loop graphs are identified with discontinuities across the unitary and the Landau cuts. We find that in general both the cuts contribute significantly to the spectral function in the region of (virtual) nucleon mass usually considered, even though the unitary cut is ignored in the literature. Read More

We analyse the structure of one-loop self-energy graphs for the rho meson in real time formulation of finite temperature field theory. We find the discontinuities of these graphs across the unitary and the Landau cuts. These contributions are identified with different sources of medium modification discussed in the literature. Read More

We consider the two-point function of nucleon current in nuclear matter and write a QCD sum rule to analyse the residue of the nucleon pole as a function of nuclear density. The nucleon self-energy needed for the sum rule is taken as input from calculations using phenomenological NN potential. Our result shows a decrease in the residue with increasing nuclear density, as is known to be the case with similar quantities. Read More

We derive a form of spectral representations for all bosonic and fermionic propagators in the real-time formulation of field theory at finite temperature and chemical potential. Besides being simple and symmetrical between the bosonic and the fermionic types, these representations depend explicitly on analytic functions only. This last property allows a simple evaluation of loop integrals in the energy variables over propagators in this form, even in presence of chemical potentials, which is not possible over their conventional form. Read More

We calculate the equation of state of nuclear matter based on the general analysis of the grand canonical partition function in the $S$-matrix framework. In addition to the low mass stable particles and their two-body scattering channels considered earlier, the calculation includes systematically all the higher mass particles and their exited states as well as the scattering channels formed by any number of these species. We estimate the latter contribution by resonances in all the channels. Read More

We treat the propagation of nucleon in nuclear matter by evaluating the ensemble average of the two-point function of nucleon currents in the framework of the chiral effective field theory. We first derive the effective parameters of nucleon to one loop. The resulting formula for the effective mass was known previously and gives an absurd value at normal nuclear density. Read More

The vector and the axial-vector meson couplings with the vector and the axial-vector currents respectively at finite temperature have been obtained in Ref. \cite{Mallik} by calculating all the relevant one-loop Feynman graphs with vertices obtained from the effective chiral Lagrangian. On the other hand, the same couplings were also derived in Ref. Read More

We describe how the thermal counterpart of a vacuum two-point function may be obtained in the real time formalism in a simple way by using directly the $2\times 2$ matrices that different elements acquire in this formalism. Using this procedure we calculate the analytic (single component) thermal amplitude for the pion pole term in the ensemble average of two axial-vector currents to two loops in chiral perturbation theory. The general expressions obtained for the effective mass and decay constants of the pion are evaluated in the chiral and the nonrelativistic limits. Read More

In a box of size $L$, a spatially antisymmetric square-well potential of a purely imaginary strength ${\rm i}g$ and size $l < L$ is interpreted as an initial element of the SUSY hierarchy of solvable Hamiltonians, the energies of which are all real for $g < g_c(l)$. The first partner potential is constructed in closed form and discussed. Read More

The simplest purely imaginary and piecewise constant $\cal PT$-symmetric potential located inside a larger box is studied. Unless its strength exceeds a certain critical value, all the spectrum of its bound states remains real and discrete. We interpret such a model as an initial element of the generalized non-Hermitian Witten's hierarchy of solvable Hamiltonians and construct its first supersymmetric (SUSY) partner in closed form. Read More

We derive QCD sum rules from the nucleon two-point function in nuclear medium, calculating its specral function in chiral perturbation theory to one loop. Our calculation shows the inadequacy of the commonly used ansatz to represent the two-point function as the sum of a nucleon pole term and a spectral integral over the high energy continuum. We also point out that it is the energy variable and not its square that must be used in writing the dispersion integrals. Read More

We consider the nucleon self-energy in nuclear matter in the absence of Pauli blocking. It is evaluated using the partial-wave analysis of $NN$ scattering data. Our results are compared with that of a realistic calculation to estimate the effect of this blocking. Read More

We study the discrete Gierer-Meinhardt model of reaction-diffusion on three different types of networks: regular, random and scale-free. The model dynamics lead to the formation of stationary Turing patterns in the steady state in certain parameter regions. Some general features of the patterns are studied through numerical simulation. Read More

We consider two methods to find the effective parameters of the pion traversing a nuclear medium. One is the first order chiral perturbation theoretic evaluation of the pion pole contribution to the two-point function of the axial-vector current. The other is the exact, first order virial expansion of the pion self-energy. Read More

We examine the classical problem of an infinite square well by considering Hamilton's equations in one dimension and Hamilton-Jacobi equation for motion in two dimensions. We illustrate, by means of suitable examples, the nature of the periodic motion of a particle trapped inside the well. Read More

A recently proposed scheme is used to saturate the spectral side of the QCD sum rules derived from the thermal, two-point correlation functions of the vector and the axial-vector currents. At low temperature, it constructs the spectral representation from all the one-loop Feynman diagrams for the two-point functions. The old saturation scheme treats incorrectly some of these contributions. Read More

The PT-symmetric square well problem is considered in a SUSY framework. When the coupling strength $Z$ lies below the critical value $Z_0^{\rm (crit)}$ where PT symmetry becomes spontaneously broken, we find a hierarchy of SUSY partner potentials, depicting an unbroken SUSY situation and reducing to the family of $\sec^2$-like potentials in the $Z \to 0$ limit. For $Z$ above $Z_0^{\rm (crit)}$, there is a rich diversity of SUSY hierarchies, including some with PT-symmetry breaking and some with partial PT-symmetry restoration. Read More

We consider the thermal correlation functions of vector and axial-vector currents and evaluate corrections to the vector and axial-vector meson pole terms to one loop in chiral perturbation theory. As expected, the pole positions do not shift to leading order in temperature. But the residues decrease with temperature. Read More