# S. Liuti - University Virginia

## Contact Details

NameS. Liuti |
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AffiliationUniversity Virginia |
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CityCharlottesville |
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CountryUnited States |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Physics - Phenomenology (49) Nuclear Experiment (2) High Energy Physics - Experiment (2) Computer Science - Computational Engineering; Finance; and Science (1) Nuclear Theory (1) Nonlinear Sciences - Adaptation and Self-Organizing Systems (1) Physics - Data Analysis; Statistics and Probability (1) |

## Publications Authored By S. Liuti

**Authors:**S. Ali, L. Allison, M. Amaryan, R. Benimiwattha, A. Camsonne, D. Day, P. Degtiarenko, D. Dutta, R. Ent, J. L. Goity, D. Hamilton, O. Hen, T. Horn, C. Hyde, G. Kalicy, D. Keller, C. Keppel, C. Kim, E. Kinney, P. Kroll, A. Larionov, S. Liuti, M. Mai, A. Mkrtchyan, H. Mkrtchyan, C. Munoz-Camacho, J. Napolitano, G. Niculescu, M. Patsyuk, G. Perera, H. Rashad, J. Roche, M. Sargsian, S. Sirca, I. Strakovsky, M. Strikman, V. Tadevosyan, R. Trotta, R. Uniyal, A. H. Vargas, B. Wojtsekhowski, J. Zhang

**Category:**Nuclear Experiment

This workshop aimed at producing an optimized photon source concept with potential increase of scientific output at Jefferson Lab, and at refining the science for hadron physics experiments benefitting from such a high-intensity photon source. The workshop brought together the communities directly using such sources for photo-production experiments, or for conversion into $K_L$ beams. The combination of high precision calorimetry and high intensity photon sources greatly enhances scientific benefit to (deep) exclusive processes like wide-angle and time-like Compton scattering. Read More

We review the phenomenological framework for accessing Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) using measurements of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) from a proton target. We describe various GPD models and fitting procedures, emphasizing specific challenges posed both by the internal structure and properties of the GPD functions and by their relation to observables. Bearing in mind forthcoming data of unprecedented accuracy, we give a set of recommendations to better define the pathway for a precise extraction of GPDs from experiment. Read More

We study the orbital angular momentum contribution to the spin structure of the proton. It is well known that the quark and gluon spin contributions do not add up to the proton spin. We motivate the connection between the Generalized Transverse Momentum Distribution (GTMD) $F_{14}$, and orbital angular momentum by exploring the underlying quark proton helicity amplitude structure. Read More

The quark orbital angular momentum component of proton spin, $L_q$, can be defined in QCD as the integral of a Wigner phase space distribution weighting the cross product of the quark's transverse position and momentum. It can also be independently defined from the operator product expansion for the off-forward Compton amplitude in terms of a twist-three generalized parton distribution. We provide an explicit link between the two definitions, connecting them through their dependence on partonic intrinsic transverse momentum. Read More

Spin and transverse momentum dependent parton distributions - Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) - are at the interface between the QCD structure of the hadrons and observable quantities. The GPDs are linear superpositions within helicity amplitudes. The amplitudes are probed in high energy leptoproduction processes through angular dependent cross sections and polarization asymmetries. Read More

We discuss two different definitions of partonic orbital angular momentum given in the literature in terms of the Fourier transform of a Wigner distribution, $F_{14}$, and a twist three generalized parton distribution, $\tilde{E}_{2T}$, respectively. We derive a relation between the two definitions which reflects their specific spin and intrinsic transverse momentum/transverse space correlations as well as their gauge link structure. Read More

We evaluate the impact of recent developments in hadron phenomenology on extracting possible fundamental tensor interactions beyond the standard model. We show that a novel class of observables, including the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions, and the transversity parton distribution function can contribute to the constraints on this quantity. Experimental extractions of the tensor hadronic matrix elements, if sufficiently precise, will provide a so far absent testing ground for lattice QCD calculations. Read More

A new debate has recently arisen on the subject of orbital angular momentum in QCD, in particular on its observability and on its partonic interpretation. Orbital momentum can be defined in QCD using two different decomposition schemes that yield a kinetic and a canonical definition, respectively. We argue that kinetic orbital angular momentum is intrinsically associated with twist three generalized parton distributions, and it is therefore more readily observable, while, due to parity constraints, canonical angular momentum, if defined as suggested in the literature in terms of generalized transverse momentum distributions, cannot be observed in scattering processes involving a single hadronic reaction plane. Read More

We discuss the application of an alternative type of neural network, the Self-Organizing Map to extract parton distribution functions from various hard scattering processes. Read More

**Authors:**Elke-Caroline Aschenauer, Ian Balitsky, Leslie Bland, Stanley J. Brodsky, Matthias Burkardt, Volker Burkert, Jian-Ping Chen, Abhay Deshpande, Markus Diehl, Leonard Gamberg, Matthias Grosse Perdekamp, Jin Huang, Charles Hyde, Xiangdong Ji, Xiaodong Jiang, Zhong-Bo Kang, Valery Kubarovsky, John Lajoie, Keh-Fei Liu, Ming Liu, Simonetta Liuti, Wally Melnitchouk, Piet Mulders, Alexei Prokudin, Andrey Tarasov, Jian-Wei Qiu, Anatoly Radyushkin, David Richards, Ernst Sichtermann, Marco Stratmann, Werner Vogelsang, Feng Yuan

A polarized $ep/eA$ collider (Electron--Ion Collider, or EIC), with polarized proton and light-ion beams and unpolarized heavy-ion beams with a variable center--of--mass energy $\sqrt{s} \sim 20$ to $\sim100$~GeV (upgradable to $\sim 150$ GeV) and a luminosity up to $\sim 10^{34} \, \textrm{cm}^{-2} \textrm{s}^{-1}$, would be uniquely suited to address several outstanding questions of Quantum Chromodynamics, and thereby lead to new qualitative and quantitative information on the microscopic structure of hadrons and nuclei. During this meeting at Jefferson Lab we addressed recent theoretical and experimental developments in the spin and the three--dimensional structure of the nucleon (sea quark and gluon spatial distributions, orbital motion, polarization, and their correlations). This mini--review contains a short update on progress in these areas since the EIC White paper~\cite{Accardi:2012qut}. Read More

Using a physically motivated parameterization based on the reggeized diquark model we perform a flavor separation of the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions obtained from both $\pi^0$ and $\eta$ exclusive electroproduction. In our approach we exploit a connection between the chiral-even and chiral-odd reduced helicity amplitudes using Parity transformations that are relevant for a class of models that includes two-component models. We compare our results for $\eta$ production to the previously obtained $\pi^0$ results, and we make predictions for the transverse single spin asymmetry components which will be measured within the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV program. Read More

We present a physically motivated parameterization of the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions. The parametrization is an extension of our previous one in the chiral-even sector which was based on the reggeized diquark model. While for chiral even generalized distributions a quantitative fit with uncertainty estimation can be performed using deep inelastic scattering data, nucleon electromagnetic, axial and pseudoscalar form factors measurements, and all available deeply virtual Compton scattering data, the chiral-odd sector is far less constrained. Read More

We argue that due to Parity constraints, the helicity combination of the purely momentum space counterparts of the Wigner distributions -- the generalized transverse momentum distributions -- that describes the configuration of an unpolarized quark in a longitudinally polarized nucleon, can enter the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude only through matrix elements involving a final state interaction. The relevant matrix elements in turn involve light cone operators projections in the transverse direction, or they appear in the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude at twist three. Orbital angular momentum or the spin structure of the nucleon was a major reason for these various distributions and amplitudes to have been introduced. Read More

Our original suggestion to investigate exclusive $\pi^0$ electroproduction as a method for extracting the tensor charge, transversity, and other quantities related to chiral odd generalized parton distributions from cross section and asymmetry data is reviewed. We explain some of the details of the process: {\it i)} the connection between the helicity description and the cartesian basis; {\it ii)} the dependence on the momentum transfer squared, $Q^2$, and {\it iii)} the angular momentum, parity, and charge conjugation constraints ($J^{PC}$ quantum numbers). Read More

We argue that due to parity constraints, the helicity combination of the purely momentum space counterparts of the Wigner distributions -- the generalized transverse momentum distributions -- that describes the configuration of an unpolarized quark in a longitudinally polarized nucleon, can enter the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude only through matrix elements involving a final state interaction. The relevant matrix elements in turn involve light cone operators projections in the transverse direction, or they appear in the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude at twist three. Orbital angular momentum or the spin structure of the nucleon was a major reason for these various distributions and amplitudes to have been introduced. Read More

We present and discuss a new method to extract parton distribution functions from hard scattering processes based on an alternative type of neural network, the Self-Organizing Map. Quantitative results including a detailed treatment of uncertainties are presented within a Next to Leading Order analysis of inclusive electron proton deep inelastic scattering data. Read More

We present an analysis of the role of the running coupling constant at the intersection of perturbative and nonperturbative QCD in the context of the quark-hadron duality \`a la Bloom-Gilman. Our framework will be the unpolarized structure function of the proton in the resonance region. We suggest that the realization of duality is related to the inclusion of nonperturbative effects at the level of the coupling constant. Read More

We present an analysis of the role of the running coupling constant at the intersection of perturbative and nonperturbative QCD. Although the approaches that have been considered so far in these two regimes appear to be complementary to each other, a unified description might derive through the definition of the effective coupling, as they both provide ways of analyzing its freezing at low values of the scale. We extract the effective coupling from all available experimental data on the unpolarized structure function of the proton, $F_2^p$, at large values of Bjorken $x$, including the resonance region. Read More

We present recent developments on the role of the running coupling constant at the intersection of perturbative and nonperturbative QCD. A number of experiments show a smooth transition from small to large scales given by the four-momentum transfer in the reactions. This is at variance with perturbative QCD where the running coupling constant becomes infinite when the scale equals $\Lambda_{{\tiny QCD}}$. Read More

We give an interpretation of the $u$ and $d$ quarks contributions to the nucleon electromagnetic form factors for values of the four-momentum transfer in the multi-GeV region where flavor separated data have been recently made available. The data show, in particular, a suppression of $d$ quarks with respect to $u$ quarks at large momentum transfer. %and constant ratios of the flavor dependent Pauli to Dirac form factors ratios. Read More

Exclusive $\pi^o$ electroproduction from nucleons was first suggested by Ahmad, Goldstein and Liuti for extracting from experimental data the tensor charge, transversity and other quantities related to chiral odd combinations of generalized parton distributions. We now explain the details of the process: {\it i)} the connection between the helicity description and the cartesian basis; {\it ii)} the dependence on the momentum transfer squared, $Q^2$, and {\it iii)} the angular momentum, parity, and charge conjugation constraints ($J^{PC}$ quantum numbers). Read More

Longstanding puzzles in spin physics can be confronted at the high energies of the LHC. Will large s-quark and c-quark polarization be observed through heavy hyperon production? Top quarks are expected to have significant polarization - single spin asymmetries. How can such observations sort out possible QCD mechanisms? Leptoproduction provides a means to access those mechanisms. Read More

We describe a new method to extract parton distribution functions from hard scattering processes based on Self-Organizing Maps. The extension to a larger, and more complex class of soft matrix elements, including generalized parton distributions is also discussed. Read More

We propose an extraction of the running coupling constant of QCD in the infrared region from experimental data on deep inelastic inclusive scattering at Bjorken x -> 1. We first attempt a perturbative fit of the data that extends NLO PQCD evolution to large x values and final state invariant mass, W, in the resonance region. We include both target mass corrections and large x resummation effects. Read More

**Authors:**D. Boer, M. Diehl, R. Milner, R. Venugopalan, W. Vogelsang, A. Accardi, E. Aschenauer, M. Burkardt, R. Ent, V. Guzey, D. Hasch, K. Kumar, M. A. C. Lamont, Y. Li, W. J. Marciano, C. Marquet, F. Sabatie, M. Stratmann, F. Yuan, S. Abeyratne, S. Ahmed, C. Aidala, S. Alekhin, M. Anselmino, H. Avakian, A. Bacchetta, J. Bartels, H. BC, J. Beebe-Wang, S. Belomestnykh, I. Ben-Zvi, G. Beuf, J. Blumlein, M . Blaskiewicz, A. Bogacz, S. J. Brodsky, T. Burton, R. Calaga, X. Chang, I. O. Cherednikov, P. Chevtsov, G. A. Chirilli, C. Ciofi degli Atti, I. C. Cloet, A. Cooper-Sarkar, R. Debbe, Ya. Derbenev, A. Deshpande, F. Dominguez, A. Dumitru, R. Dupre, B. Erdelyi, C. Faroughy, S. Fazio, A. Fedotov, J. R. Forshaw, R. Geraud, K. Gallmeister, L. Gamberg, J. -H. Gao, D. Gassner, F. Gelis, G. P. Gilfoyle, G. Goldstein, K. Golec-Biernat, V. P. Goncalves, M. Gonderinger, M. Guzzi, P. Hagler, H. Hahn, L. Hammons, Y. Hao, P. He, T. Horn, W. A. Horowitz, M. Huang, A. Hutton, B. Jager, W. Jackson, A. Jain, E. C. Johnson, Z. -B. Kang, L. P. Kaptari, D. Kayran, J. Kewisch, Y. Koike, A. Kondratenko, B. Z. Kopeliovich, Y. V. Kovchegov, G. Krafft, P. Kroll, S. Kumano, K. Kumericki, T. Lappi, T. Lautenschlager, R. Li, Z. -T. Liang, V. N. Litvinenko, S. Liuti, Y. Luo, D. Muller, G. Mahler, A. Majumder, S. Manikonda, F. Marhauser, G. McIntyre, M. Meskauskas, W. Meng, A. Metz, C. B. Mezzetti, G. A. Miller, M. Minty, S. -O. Moch, V. Morozov, U. Mosel, L. Motyka, H. Moutarde, P. J. Mulders, B. Musch, P. Nadel-Turonski, P. Nadolsky, F. Olness, P. N. Ostrumov, B. Parker, B. Pasquini, K. Passek-Kumericki, A. Pikin, F. Pilat, B. Pire, H. Pirner, C. Pisano, E. Pozdeyev, A. Prokudin, V. Ptitsyn, X. Qian, J. -W. Qiu, M. Radici, A. Radyushkin, T. Rao, R. Rimmer, F. Ringer, S. Riordan, T. Rogers, J. Rojo, T. Roser, R. Sandapen, R. Sassot, T. Satogata, H. Sayed, A. Schafer, G. Schnell, P. Schweitzer, B. Sheehy, J. Skaritka, G. Soyez, M. Spata, H. Spiesberger, A. M. Stasto, N. G. Stefanis, M. Strikman, M. Sullivan, L. Szymanowski, K. Tanaka, S. Taneja, S. Tepikian, B. Terzic, Y. Than, T. Toll, D. Trbojevic, E. Tsentalovich, N. Tsoupas, K. Tuchin, J. Tuozzolo, T. Ullrich, A. Vossen, S. Wallon, G. Wang, H. Wang, X. -N. Wang, S. Webb, C. Weiss, Q. Wu, B. -W. Xiao, W. Xu, B. Yunn, A. Zelenski, Y. Zhang, J. Zhou, P. Zurita

This report is based on a ten-week program on "Gluons and the quark sea at high-energies", which took place at the Institute for Nuclear Theory in Seattle in Fall 2010. The principal aim of the program was to develop and sharpen the science case for an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), a facility that will be able to collide electrons and positrons with polarized protons and with light to heavy nuclei at high energies, offering unprecedented possibilities for in-depth studies of quantum chromodynamics. This report is organized around four major themes: i) the spin and flavor structure of the proton, ii) three-dimensional structure of nucleons and nuclei in momentum and configuration space, iii) QCD matter in nuclei, and iv) Electroweak physics and the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. Read More

We show how deeply virtual pseudoscalar meson production experiments single out the contribution of the four chiral odd quark-proton GPDs which are related to the so far elusive transversity distribution function, $h_1$. Furthermore, in the kinematical ranges of the proposed EIC, electroproduction of strange and charmed mesons will allow one to uniquely pin down the non-perturbative charmed component in the nucleon structure function, and at the same time provide new insights in the connection of the quark/gluon degrees of freedom with the meson-baryon description. The use of dispersion relations as well as the naive extension of the parton model to the ERBL region are critically analyzed. Read More

We discuss the extension of a systematic perturbative QCD based analysis to the x -> 1 region. After subtracting a number of effects that transcend NLO pQCD evolution, such as target mass corrections and large x resummation effects, the remaining power corrections can be interpreted as dynamical higher twists. The quantitative outcome of the analysis is dominated by the interplay between the value of alpha_S in the infrared region and the higher twists. Read More

We derive a sum rule for the total quark angular momentum of a spin-one hadronic system within a gauge invariant decomposition of the hadron's spin. We show that the total angular momentum can be measured through deeply virtual Compton scattering experiments using transversely polarized deuteron targets. Read More

We present a physically motivated parametrization of the chiral-even generalized parton distributions in the non-singlet sector obtained from a global analysis using a set of available experimental data. Our analysis is valid in the kinematical region of intermediate Bjorken $x$ and for $Q^2$ in the multi-GeV region which is accessible at present and currently planned facilities. Relevant data included in our fit are from the nucleon elastic form factors measurements, from deep inelastic scattering experiments. Read More

We propose to investigate a largely unexplored sector that is unique to the formulation of hard exclusive processes in terms of GPDs, namely the electroproduction of strange and charmed mesons in the kinematical ranges of Jefferson Lab's 12 GeV upgrade, and of the proposed Electron Ion Collider (EIC). In this contribution we focus on charmed meson production that is unique to the EIC. Exclusive strange and charmed meson production provides new insights in the connection of the quark/gluon degrees of freedom with the meson-baryon description, both in the unpolarized and polarized sectors. Read More

Exclusive meson leptoproduction from nucleons in the deeply virtual exchanged boson limit can be described by generalized parton distributions (GPDs). Including spin dependence in the description requires 8 independent quark-parton and gluon-parton functions. The chiral even subset of 4 quark-nucleon GPDs are related to nucleon form factors and to parton distribution functions. Read More

We present a new method to extract parton distribution functions from high energy experimental data based on a specific type of neural networks, the Self-Organizing Maps. We illustrate the features of our new procedure that are particularly useful for an anaysis directed at extracting generalized parton distributions from data. We show quantitative results of our initial analysis of the parton distribution functions from inclusive deep inelastic scattering. Read More

We describe a new method to extract parton distribution functions both in the unpolarized and the polarized case, based on a type of neural networks, the Self-Organizing Maps. Initial quantitative results of our Next to Leading Order analysis are presented for the unpolarized case. Read More

Exclusive meson leptoproduction from nucleons in the deeply virtual exchanged boson limit can be described by generalized parton distributions (GPDs). Including spin dependence in the description requires 8 independent quark-parton and gluon-parton functions. The chiral even subset of 4 quark-nucleon GPDs are related to nucleon form factors and to parton distribution functions. Read More

In this work we derive a sum rule for the angular momentum of a spin 1 hadronic system. Read More

We summarize the main results of the Spin Physics Working Group Sessions at DIS 2010, the XVIII International Workshop on Deep Inelastic Scattering and Related Subjects. Read More

Generalized Parton Distributions describe, within QCD factorization, the non perturbative component in the amplitudes for deeply virtual exclusive processes. However, in order for a partonic interpretation to hold, semi-disconnected diagrams should not contribute. We show that this condition is not satisfied for non-forward kinematics at leading order, and that gluon mediated re-interactions are essential for a consistent description in terms of parton degrees of freedom. Read More

In most experiments aimed at determining the masses and mixing parameters for neutrino oscillations in different energy regimes there are strong backgrounds to neutrino interactions with matter that can confuse the expected small signals. One particular set of backgrounds is due to neutrino production of mesons, particularly pions, from nucleon or nuclear targets. It is especially important and theoretically interesting in itself to study $coherent$ neutrino production of pions, i. Read More

Exclusive $\pi^0$ electroproduction from nucleons at large $Q^2$ can be described by Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), particularly the chiral odd subset related to transversity. These GPDs can be accessed experimentally from various cross sections and asymmetries. We calculate these GPDs in a spectator model, constrained by boundary functions. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Tufts U.,

^{2}U. Virginia

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering and electroproduction of mesons involve amplitudes that are analytic in energy. Analyticity enables Dispersion Relations (DR's) for such amplitudes, relating real and imaginary parts. Lately it has been suggested that DR's be applied to the integrated Generalized Parton Distributions that embody the spin-dependent soft, but factorizable part of the scattering. Read More

A number of deeply virtual exclusive experiments will allow us to access the Generalized Parton Distributions which are embedded in the complex amplitudes for such processes. The extraction from experiment is particularly challenging both because of the large number of kinematical variables and observables to be pinned down in each experimental analysis and because, at variance with inclusive experiments, the variables representing the quark momentum fraction appear integrated over in the physical amplitudes and cannot be accessed directly. We present a strategy for the extraction from experiment that makes use of constraints from both elastic and inclusive scattering as well as information from lattice QCD results. Read More

Recently dispersion relations have been applied to hard exclusive processes such as deeply virtual Compton scattering, and a holographic principle was proposed that maps out the generalized parton distributions entering the soft matrix elements for the processes from their values on a given kinematical ridge. We examine possible pitfalls associated with the implicit, direct identification in this approach of the physical hadronic states with colored partons, and suggest an improved treatment of this assumption. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Tufts U.,

^{2}U. Virginia

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

Exclusive pi0 electroproduction from nucleons at large photon virtuality can be described in terms of Generalized Parton Distributions, particularly the chiral odd subset. Chiral odd GPDs are related to transversity and can be accessed experimentally for various special choices of observables. This is accomplished by choosing C-parity odd and chiral odd combinations of t-channel exchange quantum numbers. Read More

We propose a Parton Distribution Function (PDF) fitting technique which is based on an interactive neural network algorithm using Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs). SOMs are visualization algorithms based on competitive learning among spatially-ordered neurons. Our SOMs are trained with stochastically generated PDF samples. Read More

Neural network algorithms have been recently applied to construct Parton Distribution Function (PDF) parametrizations which provide an alternative to standard global fitting procedures. We propose a technique based on an interactive neural network algorithm using Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs). SOMs are a class of clustering algorithms based on competitive learning among spatially-ordered neurons. Read More

Exclusive pi0 electroproduction from nucleons can be related to transversity, the tensor charge, and other quantities related to transversity. This process isolates C-parity odd and chiral odd combinations of t-channel exchange quantum numbers. In a hadronic picture the meson production amplitudes for intermediate energy and Q are determined by C-odd Regge exchanges with final state interactions. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Tufts U.,

^{2}U. of Virginia

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

Exclusive $\pi^0$ electroproduction from nucleons is suggested for extracting the tensor charge and other quantities related to transversity from experimental data. This process isolates C-parity odd and chiral odd combinations of t-channel exchange quantum numbers. In a hadronic picture it connects the meson production amplitudes to C-odd Regge exchanges with final state interactions. Read More

Exclusive $\pi^o$ electroproduction is suggested for extracting both the tensor charge and the transverse anomalous magnetic moment from experimental data. A connection between partonic degrees of freedom, given in terms of Generalized Parton Distributions, and Regge phenomenology is discussed. Calculations are performed using a physically motivated parametrization that is valid at values of the skewness, $\zeta \neq 0$. Read More

Exclusive $\pi^o$ electroproduction from nucleons is suggested for extracting the tensor charge and other quantities related to transversity from experimental data. This process isolates C-parity odd and chiral odd combinations of t-channel exchange quantum numbers. In a hadronic picture it connects the meson production amplitudes to C-odd Regge exchanges with final state interactions. Read More

Exclusive $\pi^o$ electroproduction and related processes are suggested to investigate the chiral odd transversity distributions of quarks in the transversely polarized nucleon, $h_1(x)$, and its first moment, the tensor charge. The connection between a description based on partonic degrees of freedom, given in terms of generalized parton distributions, and Regge phenomenology is explored. Read More