# S. K. Samaddar - NEEL

## Contact Details

NameS. K. Samaddar |
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AffiliationNEEL |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesNuclear Theory (42) Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (3) High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (2) Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (1) Physics - Materials Science (1) Nuclear Experiment (1) |

## Publications Authored By S. K. Samaddar

In the framework of an equation of state (EoS) constructed from a momentum and density-dependent finite-range two-body effective interaction, the quantitative magnitudes of the different symmetry elements of infinite nuclear matter are explored. The parameters of this interaction are determined from well-accepted characteristic constants associated with homogeneous nuclear matter. The symmetry energy coefficient $a_2$, its density slope $L_0$, the symmetry incompressibility $K_\delta $ as well as the density dependent incompressibility $K(\rho )$ evaluated with this EoS are seen to be in good harmony with those obtained from other diverse perspectives. Read More

The sensitivity of nuclear symmetry energy elements at the saturation density to the binding energies of ultra neutron-rich nuclei (neutron to proton ratio $\sim$ 2) and the maximum mass of neutron star is explored within a relativistic mean field model. Values of the interaction parameters governing the isovector strengths and the symmetry elements are determined in tighter bounds. Assessments based on the sensitivity matrix reveal that the properties of extreme neutron-rich systems play a predominant role in narrowing down the uncertainties in the various symmetry energy parameters. Read More

The charge carrier density in graphene on a dielectric substrate such as SiO$_2$ displays inhomogeneities, the so-called charge puddles. Because of the linear dispersion relation in monolayer graphene, the puddles are predicted to grow near charge neutrality, a markedly distinct property from conventional two-dimensional electron gases. By performing scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy on a mesoscopic graphene device, we directly observe the puddles' growth, both in spatial extent and in amplitude, as the Dirac point is approached. Read More

Experimental giant monopole resonance energies are now known to constrain nuclear incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter $K$ and its density slope $M$ at a particular value of sub-saturation density, the crossing density $\rho_c$. Consistent with these constraints, we propose a reasonable way to construct a plausible equation of state of symmetric nuclear matter in a broad density region around the saturation density $\rho_0$. Help of two additional empirical inputs, the value of $\rho_0$ and that of the energy per nucleon $e(\rho_0)$ are needed. Read More

From empirically determined values of some of the characteristic constants associated with homogeneous nuclear matter at saturation and sub-saturation densities, within the framework of a Skyrme-inspired energy density functional, we construct an equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter.This EoS is then used to predict values of density slope parameters of symmetry energy $L(\rho)$, isoscalar incompressibility $K(\rho)$ and a few related quantities. The close consonance of our predicted values with the currently available ones for the density dependence of symmetry energy and incompressibility gleaned from diverse approaches offers the possibility that our method may help in settling their values in tighter bounds. Read More

The thermal evolution of a few thermodynamic properties of the nuclear surface like its thermodynamic potential energy, entropy and the symmetry free energy are examined for both semi-infinite nuclear matter and finite nuclei. The Thomas-Fermi model is employed. Three Skyrme interactions, namely, SkM$^*$, SLy4 and SK255 are used for the calculations to gauge the dependence of the nuclear surface properties on the energy density functionals. Read More

**Authors:**Amina Kimouche

^{1}, Olivier Renault

^{2}, Sayanti Samaddar

^{3}, Clemens Winkelmann

^{4}, Hervé Courtois

^{5}, Olivier Fruchart

^{6}, Johann Coraux

^{7}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}NEEL,

^{2}NEEL,

^{3}NEEL,

^{4}NEEL,

^{5}NEEL,

^{6}NEEL,

^{7}NEEL

**Category:**Physics - Materials Science

The intercalation of an oxide barrier between graphene and its metallic substrate for chem- ical vapor deposition is a contamination-free alternative to the transfer of graphene to dielectric supports, usually needed for the realization of electronic devices. Low-cost pro- cesses, especially at atmospheric pressure, are desirable but whether they are achievable remains an open question. Combining complementary microscopic analysis, providing structural, electronic, vibrational, and chemical information, we demonstrate the spontaneous reactive intercalation of 1. Read More

**Category:**Nuclear Theory

The temperature dependence of the symmetry energy and symmetry free energy coefficients of infinite nuclear matter and of finite nuclei is investigated. For infinite matter, both these coefficients are found to have a weaker dependence on temperature at densities close to saturation; at low but homogeneous densities, the temperature dependence becomes stronger. For finite systems, different definitions of symmetry energy coefficients are encountered in the literature yielding different values. Read More

Empirically determined values of the nuclear volume and surface symmetry energy coefficients from nuclear masses are expressed in terms of density distributions of nucleons in heavy nuclei in the local density approximation. This is then used to extract the value of the symmetry energy slope parameter $L$. The density distributions in both spherical and well deformed nuclei calculated within microscopic framework with different energy density functionals give $L = 59. Read More

We report a novel method for the fabrication of superconducting nanodevices based on niobium. The well-known difficulties of lithographic patterning of high-quality niobium are overcome by replacing the usual organic resist mask by a metallic one. The quality of the fabrication procedure is demonstrated by the realization and characterization of long and narrow superconducting lines and niobium-gold-niobium proximity SQUIDs. Read More

Graphene on a dielectric substrate exhibits spatial doping inhomogeneities, forming electron-hole puddles. Understanding and controlling the latter is of crucial importance for unraveling many of graphene's fundamental properties at the Dirac point. Here we show the coexistence and correlation of charge puddles and topographic ripples in graphene decoupled from the metallic substrate it was grown on. Read More

The density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy remains poorly constrained. Starting from precise empirical values of the nuclear volume and surface symmetry energy coefficients and the nuclear saturation density, we show how in the ambit of microscopic calculations with different energy density functionals, the value of the symmetry energy slope parameter $L$ alongwith that for neutron skin can be put in tighter bounds. The value of $L$ is found to be $L$= 64$\pm $5 MeV. Read More

The thermal evolution of the energies and free energies of a set of spherical and near-spherical nuclei spanning the whole periodic table are calculated in the subtracted finite-temperature Thomas- Fermi framework with the zero-range Skyrme-type KDE0 and the finite-range modified Seyler-Blanchard interaction. The calculated energies are subjected to a global fit in the spirit of the liquid-drop model. The extracted parameters in this model reflect the temperature dependence of the volume symmetry and surface symmetry coefficients of finite nuclei, in addition to that of the volume and surface energy coefficients. Read More

In multifragmentation of hot nuclear matter, properties of fragments embedded in a soup of nucleonic gas and other fragments should be modified as compared with isolated nuclei. Such modifications are studied within a simple model where only nucleons and one kind of heavy nuclei are considered. The interaction between different species is described with a momentum-dependent two-body potential whose parameters are fitted to reproduce properties of cold isolated nuclei. Read More

The temperature dependence of the symmetry energy and the symmetry free energy coefficients of atomic nuclei is investigated in a finite temperature Thomas-Fermi framework employing the subtraction procedure. A substantial decrement in the symmetry energy coefficient is obtained for finite systems,contrary to those seen for infinite nuclear matter at normal and somewhat subnormal densities. The effect of the coupling of the surface phonons to the nucleonic motion is also considered; this is found to decrease the symmetry energies somewhat at low temperatures. Read More

The properties of warm dilute alpha-nucleon matter are studied in a variational approach in the Thomas-Fermi approximation starting from an effective two-body nucleon-nucleon interaction. The equation of state, symmetry energy, incompressibility of the said matter as well as the alpha fraction are in consonance with those evaluated from the virial approach that sets a bench-mark for such calculations at low densities. Read More

The symmetry energy coefficients of dilute clusterized nuclear matter are evaluated in the $S$-matrix framework. Employing a few different definitions commonly used in the literature for uniform nuclear matter, it is seen that the different definitions lead to perceptibly different results for the symmetry coefficients for dilute nuclear matter. They are found to be higher compared to those obtained for uniform matter in the low density domain. Read More

Isotope thermometry, widely used to measure the temperature of a hot nuclear system formed in energetic nuclear collisions, is examined in the light of S-matrix approach to the nuclear equation of state of disassembled nuclear matter. Scattering between produced light fragment pairs, hitherto neglected, is seen to have an important bearing on the extraction of system temperature and volume at freeze-out from isotope thermometry. Taking due care of the scattering effects and decay of the primary fragments, a more reliable way to extract the nuclear thermodynamic parameters is suggested by exploiting least-squares fit to the observed fragment multiplicities. Read More

The symmetry energy coefficients, incompressibility, and single-particle and isovector potentials of clusterized dilute nuclear matter are calculated at different temperatures employing the $S$-matrix approach to the evaluation of the equation of state. Calculations have been extended to understand the aforesaid properties of homogeneous and clusterized supernova matter in the subnuclear density region. Comparison of the results in the $S$-matrix and mean-field approach reveals some subtle differences in the density and temperature region we explore. Read More

The nuclear thermodynamic observables like the temperature, volume and the specific heat as obtained from isotopic ratios in hot disassembled nuclear matter are examined in the light of the S-matrix approach to the nuclear equation of state. The values of the observables, as extracted without inclusion of scattering effects are found to be modified appreciably in some cases when scattering between the fragment species is taken care of. Read More

Based on the general analysis of the grand canonical partition function in the S-matrix framework, the calculated results on symmetry energy, free energy and entropy of dilute warm nuclear matter are presented. At a given temperature and density, the symmetry energy or symmetry free energy of the clusterized nuclear matter in the S-matrix formulation deviates, particularly at low temperature and relatively higher density, in a subtle way, from the linear dependence on the square of the isospin asymmetry parameter $X=(\rho_n-\rho_p)/(\rho_n+\rho_p)$, contrary to those obtained for homogeneous nucleonic matter. The symmetry coefficients, in the conventional definition, can then be even negative. Read More

The density and excitation energy dependence of symmetry energy and symmetry free energy for finite nuclei are calculated microscopically in a microcanonical framework taking into account thermal and expansion effects. A finite-range momentum and density dependent two-body effective interaction is employed for this purpose. The role of mass, isospin and equation of state (EoS) on these quantities is also investigated; our calculated results are in consonance with the available experimental data. Read More

We calculate the equation of state of nuclear matter based on the general analysis of the grand canonical partition function in the $S$-matrix framework. In addition to the low mass stable particles and their two-body scattering channels considered earlier, the calculation includes systematically all the higher mass particles and their exited states as well as the scattering channels formed by any number of these species. We estimate the latter contribution by resonances in all the channels. Read More

The isothermal compression of a dilute nucleonic gas invoking cluster degrees of freedom is studied in an equilibrium statistical model; this clusterized system is found to be more stable than the pure nucleonic system. The equation of state (EoS) of this matter shows features qualitatively very similar to the one obtained from pure nucleonic gas. In the isothermal compression process, there is a sudden enhancement of clusterization at a transition density rendering features analogous to the gas-liquid phase transition in normal dilute nucleonic matter. Read More

A finite range density and momentum dependent effective interaction is used to calculate the density and temperature dependence of the symmetry energy coefficient Csym(rho,T) of infinite nuclear matter. This symmetry energy is then used in the local density approximation to evaluate the excitation energy dependence of the symmetry energy coefficient of finite nuclei in a microcanonical formulation that accounts for thermal and expansion effects. The results are in good harmony with the recently reported experimental data from energetic nucleus-nucleus collisions. Read More

**Category:**Nuclear Theory

The density profile of a hot nuclear system produced in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions is studied in a microcanonical formulation with a momentum and density dependent finite range interaction. The caloric curve and the density evolution with excitation are calculated for a number of systems for the equilibrium mononuclear configuration; they compare favorably with the recent experimental data. The studied density fluctuations are seen to build up rapidly beyond an excitation energy of 8 MeV/u indicating the instability of the system towards nuclear disassembly. Read More

The liquid-gas phase transition in finite nuclei is studied in a heated liquid-drop model where the nuclear drop is assumed to be in thermodynamic equilibrium with its own evaporated nucleonic vapor conserving the total baryon number and isospin of the system. It is found that in the liquid-vapor coexistence region the pressure is not a constant on an isotherm indicating that the transition is continuous. At constant pressure, the caloric curve shows some anomalies, namely, the systems studied exhibit negative heat capacity in a small temperature domain. Read More

**Category:**Nuclear Theory

The expansion of an isolated hot spherical nucleus with excitation energy and its caloric curve are studied in a thermodynamic model with the SkM* force as the nuclear effective two-body interaction. The calculated results are shown to compare well with the recent experimental data from energetic nuclear collisions. The fluctuations in temperature and density are also studied. Read More

A prescription to incorporate the effects of nuclear flow on the process of multifragmentation of hot nuclei is proposed in an analytically solvable canonical model. Flow is simulated by the action of an effective negative external pressure. It favors sharpening the signatures of liquid-gas phase transition in finite nuclei with increased multiplicity and a lowered phase transition temperature. Read More

The concept of freeze out volume used in many statistical approaches for disassembly of hot nuclei leads to ambiguities. The fragmentation pattern and the momentum distribution (temperature) of the emanated fragments are determined by the phase space at the freeze-out volume where the interaction among the fragments is supposedly frozen out. However, to get coherence with the experimental momentum distribution of the charged particles, one introduces Coulomb acceleration beyond this freeze-out. Read More

The liquid-gas phase transition in finite nuclei is studied in a heated liquid-drop model where the drop is assumed to be in thermodynamic equilibrium with the vapour emanated from it. Changing pressure along the liquid-gas coexistence line of the systems, symmetric or asymmetric, suggests that the phase transition is a continuous one. This is further corroborated from the study of the thermal evolution of the entropy at constant pressure. Read More

Stability of nuclei beyond the drip lines in the presence of an enveloping gas of nucleons and electrons, as prevailing in the inner crust of a neutron star, is studied in the temperature-dependent Thomas-Fermi framework. A limiting asymmetry in the isospin space beyond which nuclei cannot exist emerges from the calculations. The ambient conditions like temperature, baryon density and neutrino concentration under which these exotic nuclear systems can be formed are studied in some detail. Read More

The relativistic mean field theory is applied to study some exotic properties of neutron rich nuclei as recently observed, namely, extension of the drip-line for $F$ nuclei from $^{29}F$ to $^{31}F$ and the appearence of a new shell closure at neutron number N=16. We find $^{31}F$ to be bound against one-neutron dripping but unbound only marginally for two neutron separation. The calculated functional dependence of one-neutron separation energy with neutron number for different values of $T_Z = (N-Z)/2$ signals a new shell closure at N=16 for neutron rich nuclei with $T_Z\ge 3$. Read More

The thermal evolution of the shell correction energy is investigated for deformed nuclei using Strutinsky prescription in a self-consistent relativistic mean-field framework. For temperature independent single-particle states corresponding to either spherical or deformed nuclear shapes, the shell correction energy $\Delta_{sc}$ steadily washes out with temperature. However, for states pertaining to the self-consistent thermally evolving shapes of deformed nuclei, the dual role played by the single-particle occupancies in diluting the fluctuation effects from the single-particle spectra and in driving the system towards a smaller deformation is crucial in determining $\Delta_{sc}$ at moderate temperatures. Read More

A detailed microscopic study of the temperature dependence of the shapes of some rare-earth nuclei is made in the relativistic mean field theory. Analyses of the thermal evolution of the single-particle orbitals and their occupancies leading to the collapse of the deformation are presented. The role of the non-linear $\sigma-$field on the shape transition in different nuclei is also investigated; in its absence the shape transition is found to be sharper. Read More

The equation of state (EOS) of finite nuclei is constructed in the relativistic Thomas-Fermi theory using the non-linear $\sigma-\omega -\rho$ model. The caloric curves are calculated by confining the nuclei in the freeze-out volume taken to be a sphere of size about 4 to 8 times the normal nuclear volume. The results obtained from the relativistic theory are not significantly different from those obtained earlier in a non-relativistic framework. Read More

A systematic study of the temperature dependence of the shapes and pairing gaps of some isotopes in the rare-earth region is made in the relativistic Hartree-BCS theory. Thermal response to these nuclei is always found to lead to a phase transition from the superfluid to the normal phase at a temperature $T_{\Delta}\sim 0.4 - 0. Read More

The relativistic Hartree-BCS theory is applied to study the temperature dependence of nuclear shape and pairing gap for $^{166}Er$ and $^{170}Er$. For both the nuclei, we find that as temperature increases the pairing gap vanishes leading to phase transition from superfluid to normal phase as is observed in nonrelativistic calculation. The deformation evolves from prolate shapes to spherical shapes at $T\sim 2. Read More

Microcanonical calculations are no more difficult to implement than canonical calculations in the Lattice Gas Model. We report calculations for a few observables where we compare microcanonical model results with canonical model results. Read More

We construct the equation of state (EOS) of finite nuclei including surface and Coulomb effects in a Thomas-Fermi framework using a finite range, momentum and density dependent two-body interaction. We identify critical temperatures for nuclei below which the EOS so constructed shows clear signals for liquid-gas phase transition in these finite systems. Comparison with the EOS of infinite nuclear matter shows that the critical density and temperature of the phase transition in nuclei are influenced by the mentioned finite size effects. Read More

A systematic study of the effect of fragment$-$fragment interaction, quantum statistics, $\gamma$-feeding and collective flow is made in the extraction of the nuclear temperature from the double ratio of the isotopic yields in the statistical model of one-step (Prompt) multifragmentation. Temperature is also extracted from the isotope yield ratios generated in the sequential binary-decay model. Comparison of the thermodynamic temperature with the extracted temperatures for different isotope ratios show some anomaly in both models which is discussed in the context of experimentally measured caloric curves. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}SINP, Calcutta,

^{2}VECC Calcutta,

^{3}Texas A & M

**Category:**Nuclear Theory

In a finite temperature Thomas-Fermi theory, we construct caloric curves for finite nuclei enclosed in a freeze-out volume few times the normal nuclear volume, with and without inclusion of flow. Without flow, the caloric curve indicates a smooth liquid-gas phase transition whereas with flow, the transition may be very sharp. We discuss these results in the context of two recent experiments, one for heavy symmetric system (Au + Au at 600A MeV) and the other for highly asymmetric system (Au + C at 1A GeV) where different behaviours in the caloric curves are seen. Read More

**Category:**Nuclear Theory

In a finite temperature Thomas-Fermi framework, we calculate density distributions of hot nuclei enclosed in a freeze-out volume of few times the normal nuclear volume and then construct the caloric curve, with and without inclusion of radial collective flow. In both cases, the calculated specific heats $C_v$ show a peaked structure signalling a liquid-gas phase transition. Without flow, the caloric curve indicates a continuous phase transition whereas with inclusion of flow, the transition is very sharp. Read More

The possibility of formation of a droplet phase (DP) inside a star and its consequences on the structural properties of the star are investigated. For nuclear matter (NM), an equation of state (EOS) based on finite range, momentum and density dependent interaction, and which predicts that neutron matter undergoes ferromagnetic transition at densities realisable inside the neutron star is employed. An EOS for quark matter (QM) with density dependent quark masses, the so-called effective mass model, is constructed by correctly treating the quark chemical potentials. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}VECC, Calcutta,

^{2}McGill, Canada,

^{3}Cyclotron Inst, Texas,

^{4}Saha Inst, Calcutta

**Category:**Nuclear Theory

In a finite temperature Thomas-Fermi theory with realistic nuclear interactions, we construct caloric curves for finite nuclei enclosed in a sphere of about $4 - 8$ times the normal nuclear volume. The specific heat capacity $C_v$ shows a peaked structure that is possibly indicative of a liquid-gas phase transition in finite nuclear systems. Read More

An equation of state(EOS) of nuclear matter with explicit inclusion of a spin-isospin dependent force is constructed from a finite range, momentum and density dependent effective interaction. This EOS is found to be in good agreement with those obtained from more sophisticated models for unpolarised nuclear matter. Introducing spin degrees of freedom, it is found that at density about 2. Read More