# S. Green - PSSRI, The Open University, UniversityK.

## Contact Details

NameS. Green |
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AffiliationPSSRI, The Open University, UniversityK. |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesGeneral Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (16) Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (14) High Energy Physics - Theory (12) Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (7) Physics - Soft Condensed Matter (3) Nonlinear Sciences - Chaotic Dynamics (3) Physics - Accelerator Physics (3) Physics - Geophysics (3) Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence (3) High Energy Physics - Experiment (3) Astrophysics (2) Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (2) Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (2) High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (2) Physics - Plasma Physics (2) Astrophysics of Galaxies (1) Quantitative Biology - Quantitative Methods (1) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (1) Physics - Chemical Physics (1) Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (1) Statistics - Machine Learning (1) Computer Science - Distributed; Parallel; and Cluster Computing (1) Computer Science - Programming Languages (1) Physics - Other (1) Mathematical Physics (1) |

## Publications Authored By S. Green

**Authors:**Charles Beattie, Joel Z. Leibo, Denis Teplyashin, Tom Ward, Marcus Wainwright, Heinrich Küttler, Andrew Lefrancq, Simon Green, Víctor Valdés, Amir Sadik, Julian Schrittwieser, Keith Anderson, Sarah York, Max Cant, Adam Cain, Adrian Bolton, Stephen Gaffney, Helen King, Demis Hassabis, Shane Legg, Stig Petersen

DeepMind Lab is a first-person 3D game platform designed for research and development of general artificial intelligence and machine learning systems. DeepMind Lab can be used to study how autonomous artificial agents may learn complex tasks in large, partially observed, and visually diverse worlds. DeepMind Lab has a simple and flexible API enabling creative task-designs and novel AI-designs to be explored and quickly iterated upon. Read More

**Authors:**Amara L. Graps

^{1}, Philippe Blondel, Grant Bonin, Daniel Britt, Simone Centuori, Marco Delbo, Line Drube, Rene Duffard, Martin Elvis, Daniel Faber, Elizabeth Frank, JL Galache, Simon F. Green, Jan Thimo Grundmann, Henry Hsieh, Akos Kereszturi, Pauli Laine, Anny-Chantal Levasseur-Regourd, Philipp Maier, Philip Metzger, Patrick Michel, Migo Mueller, Thomas Mueller, Naomi Murdoch, Alex Parker, Petr Pravec, Vishnu Reddy, Joel Sercel, Andy Rivkin, Colin Snodgrass, Paolo Tanga

**Affiliations:**

^{1}lead author

**Category:**Earth and Planetary Astrophysics

The aim of the Asteroid Science Intersections with In-Space Mine Engineering (ASIME) 2016 conference on September 21-22, 2016 in Luxembourg City was to provide an environment for the detailed discussion of the specific properties of asteroids, with the engineering needs of space missions that utilize asteroids. The ASIME 2016 Conference produced a layered record of discussions from the asteroid scientists and the asteroid miners to understand each other's key concerns and to address key scientific questions from the asteroid mining companies: Planetary Resources, Deep Space Industries and TransAstra. These Questions were the focus of the two day conference, were addressed by scientists inside and outside of the ASIME Conference and are the focus of this White Paper. Read More

**Authors:**H. Abramowicz, A. Abusleme, K. Afanaciev, N. Alipour Tehrani, C. Balázs, Y. Benhammou, M. Benoit, B. Bilki, J. -J. Blaising, M. J. Boland, M. Boronat, O. Borysov, I. Božović-Jelisavčić, M. Buckland, S. Bugiel, P. N. Burrows, T. K. Charles, W. Daniluk, D. Dannheim, R. Dasgupta, M. Demarteau, M. A. Díaz Gutierrez, G. Eigen, K. Elsener, U. Felzmann, M. Firlej, E. Firu, T. Fiutowski, J. Fuster, M. Gabriel, F. Gaede, I. García, V. Ghenescu, J. Goldstein, S. Green, C. Grefe, M. Hauschild, C. Hawkes, D. Hynds, M. Idzik, G. Kačarević, J. Kalinowski, S. Kananov, W. Klempt, M. Kopec, M. Krawczyk, B. Krupa, M. Kucharczyk, S. Kulis, T. Laštovička, T. Lesiak, A. Levy, I. Levy, L. Linssen, S. Lukić, A. A. Maier, V. Makarenko, J. S. Marshall, K. Mei, G. Milutinović-Dumbelović, J. Moroń, A. Moszczyński, D. Moya, R. M. Münker, A. Münnich, A. T. Neagu, N. Nikiforou, K. Nikolopoulos, A. Nürnberg, M. Pandurović, B. Pawlik, E. Perez Codina, I. Peric, M. Petric, F. Pitters, S. G. Poss, T. Preda, D. Protopopescu, R. Rassool, S. Redford, J. Repond, A. Robson, P. Roloff, E. Ros, O. Rosenblat, A. Ruiz-Jimeno, A. Sailer, D. Schlatter, D. Schulte, N. Shumeiko, E. Sicking, F. Simon, R. Simoniello, P. Sopicki, S. Stapnes, R. Ström, J. Strube, K. P. Świentek, M. Szalay, M. Tesař, M. A. Thomson, J. Trenado, U. I. Uggerhøj, N. van der Kolk, E. van der Kraaij, M. Vicente Barreto Pinto, I. Vila, M. Vogel Gonzalez, M. Vos, J. Vossebeld, M. Watson, N. Watson, M. A. Weber, H. Weerts, J. D. Wells, L. Weuste, A. Winter, T. Wojtoń, L. Xia, B. Xu, A. F. Żarnecki, L. Zawiejski, I. -S. Zgura

The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is an option for a future e+e- collider operating at centre-of-mass energies up to 3 TeV, providing sensitivity to a wide range of new physics phenomena and precision physics measurements at the energy frontier. This paper presents the Higgs physics reach of CLIC operating in three energy stages, sqrt(s) = 350 GeV, 1.4 TeV and 3 TeV. Read More

**Authors:**The CLIC, CLICdp collaborations, :, M. J. Boland, U. Felzmann, P. J. Giansiracusa, T. G. Lucas, R. P. Rassool, C. Balazs, T. K. Charles, K. Afanaciev, I. Emeliantchik, A. Ignatenko, V. Makarenko, N. Shumeiko, A. Patapenka, I. Zhuk, A. C. Abusleme Hoffman, M. A. Diaz Gutierrez, M. Vogel Gonzalez, Y. Chi, X. He, G. Pei, S. Pei, G. Shu, X. Wang, J. Zhang, F. Zhao, Z. Zhou, H. Chen, Y. Gao, W. Huang, Y. P. Kuang, B. Li, Y. Li, J. Shao, J. Shi, C. Tang, X. Wu, L. Ma, Y. Han, W. Fang, Q. Gu, D. Huang, X. Huang, J. Tan, Z. Wang, Z. Zhao, T. Laštovička, U. Uggerhoj, T. N. Wistisen, A. Aabloo, K. Eimre, K. Kuppart, S. Vigonski, V. Zadin, M. Aicheler, E. Baibuz, E. Brücken, F. Djurabekova, P. Eerola, F. Garcia, E. Haeggström, K. Huitu, V. Jansson, V. Karimaki, I. Kassamakov, A. Kyritsakis, S. Lehti, A. Meriläinen, R. Montonen, T. Niinikoski, K. Nordlund, K. Österberg, M. Parekh, N. A. Törnqvist, J. Väinölä, M. Veske, W. Farabolini, A. Mollard, O. Napoly, F. Peauger, J. Plouin, P. Bambade, I. Chaikovska, R. Chehab, M. Davier, W. Kaabi, E. Kou, F. LeDiberder, R. Pöschl, D. Zerwas, B. Aimard, G. Balik, J. -P. Baud, J. -J. Blaising, L. Brunetti, M. Chefdeville, C. Drancourt, N. Geoffroy, J. Jacquemier, A. Jeremie, Y. Karyotakis, J. M. Nappa, S. Vilalte, G. Vouters, A. Bernard, I. Peric, M. Gabriel, F. Simon, M. Szalay, N. van der Kolk, T. Alexopoulos, E. N. Gazis, N. Gazis, E. Ikarios, V. Kostopoulos, S. Kourkoulis, P. D. Gupta, P. Shrivastava, H. Arfaei, M. K. Dayyani, H. Ghasem, S. S. Hajari, H. Shaker, Y. Ashkenazy, H. Abramowicz, Y. Benhammou, O. Borysov, S. Kananov, A. Levy, I. Levy, O. Rosenblat, G. D'Auria, S. Di Mitri, T. Abe, A. Aryshev, T. Higo, Y. Makida, S. Matsumoto, T. Shidara, T. Takatomi, Y. Takubo, T. Tauchi, N. Toge, K. Ueno, J. Urakawa, A. Yamamoto, M. Yamanaka, R. Raboanary, R. Hart, H. van der Graaf, G. Eigen, J. Zalieckas, E. Adli, R. Lillestøl, L. Malina, J. Pfingstner, K. N. Sjobak, W. Ahmed, M. I. Asghar, H. Hoorani, S. Bugiel, R. Dasgupta, M. Firlej, T. A. Fiutowski, M. Idzik, M. Kopec, M. Kuczynska, J. Moron, K. P. Swientek, W. Daniluk, B. Krupa, M. Kucharczyk, T. Lesiak, A. Moszczynski, B. Pawlik, P. Sopicki, T. Wojtoń, L. Zawiejski, J. Kalinowski, M. Krawczyk, A. F. Żarnecki, E. Firu, V. Ghenescu, A. T. Neagu, T. Preda, I-S. Zgura, A. Aloev, N. Azaryan, J. Budagov, M. Chizhov, M. Filippova, V. Glagolev, A. Gongadze, S. Grigoryan, D. Gudkov, V. Karjavine, M. Lyablin, A. Olyunin, A. Samochkine, A. Sapronov, G. Shirkov, V. Soldatov, A. Solodko, E. Solodko, G. Trubnikov, I. Tyapkin, V. Uzhinsky, A. Vorozhtov, E. Levichev, N. Mezentsev, P. Piminov, D. Shatilov, P. Vobly, K. Zolotarev, I. Bozovic Jelisavcic, G. Kacarevic, S. Lukic, G. Milutinovic-Dumbelovic, M. Pandurovic, U. Iriso, F. Perez, M. Pont, J. Trenado, M. Aguilar-Benitez, J. Calero, L. Garcia-Tabares, D. Gavela, J. L. Gutierrez, D. Lopez, F. Toral, D. Moya, A. Ruiz Jimeno, I. Vila, T. Argyropoulos, C. Blanch Gutierrez, M. Boronat, D. Esperante, A. Faus-Golfe, J. Fuster, N. Fuster Martinez, N. Galindo Muñoz, I. García, J. Giner Navarro, E. Ros, M. Vos, R. Brenner, T. Ekelöf, M. Jacewicz, J. Ögren, M. Olvegård, R. Ruber, V. Ziemann, D. Aguglia, N. Alipour Tehrani, A. Andersson, F. Andrianala, F. Antoniou, K. Artoos, S. Atieh, R. Ballabriga Sune, M. J. Barnes, J. Barranco Garcia, H. Bartosik, C. Belver-Aguilar, A. Benot Morell, D. R. Bett, S. Bettoni, G. Blanchot, O. Blanco Garcia, X. A. Bonnin, O. Brunner, H. Burkhardt, S. Calatroni, M. Campbell, N. Catalan Lasheras, M. Cerqueira Bastos, A. Cherif, E. Chevallay, B. Constance, R. Corsini, B. Cure, S. Curt, B. Dalena, D. Dannheim, G. De Michele, L. De Oliveira, N. Deelen, J. P. Delahaye, T. Dobers, S. Doebert, M. Draper, F. Duarte Ramos, A. Dubrovskiy, K. Elsener, J. Esberg, M. Esposito, V. Fedosseev, P. Ferracin, A. Fiergolski, K. Foraz, A. Fowler, F. Friebel, J-F. Fuchs, C. A. Fuentes Rojas, A. Gaddi, L. Garcia Fajardo, H. Garcia Morales, C. Garion, L. Gatignon, J-C. Gayde, H. Gerwig, A. N. Goldblatt, C. Grefe, A. Grudiev, F. G. Guillot-Vignot, M. L. Gutt-Mostowy, M. Hauschild, C. Hessler, J. K. Holma, E. Holzer, M. Hourican, D. Hynds, Y. Inntjore Levinsen, B. Jeanneret, E. Jensen, M. Jonker, M. Kastriotou, J. M. K. Kemppinen, R. B. Kieffer, W. Klempt, O. Kononenko, A. Korsback, E. Koukovini Platia, J. W. Kovermann, C-I. Kozsar, I. Kremastiotis, S. Kulis, A. Latina, F. Leaux, P. Lebrun, T. Lefevre, L. Linssen, X. Llopart Cudie, A. A. Maier, H. Mainaud Durand, E. Manosperti, C. Marelli, E. Marin Lacoma, R. Martin, S. Mazzoni, G. Mcmonagle, O. Mete, L. M. Mether, M. Modena, R. M. Münker, T. Muranaka, E. Nebot Del Busto, N. Nikiforou, D. Nisbet, J-M. Nonglaton, F. X. Nuiry, A. Nürnberg, M. Olvegard, J. Osborne, S. Papadopoulou, Y. Papaphilippou, A. Passarelli, M. Patecki, L. Pazdera, D. Pellegrini, K. Pepitone, E. Perez Codina, A. Perez Fontenla, T. H. B. Persson, M. Petrič, F. Pitters, S. Pittet, F. Plassard, R. Rajamak, S. Redford, Y. Renier, S. F. Rey, G. Riddone, L. Rinolfi, E. Rodriguez Castro, P. Roloff, C. Rossi, V. Rude, G. Rumolo, A. Sailer, E. Santin, D. Schlatter, H. Schmickler, D. Schulte, N. Shipman, E. Sicking, R. Simoniello, P. K. Skowronski, P. Sobrino Mompean, L. Soby, M. P. Sosin, S. Sroka, S. Stapnes, G. Sterbini, R. Ström, I. Syratchev, F. Tecker, P. A. Thonet, L. Timeo, H. Timko, R. Tomas Garcia, P. Valerio, A. L. Vamvakas, A. Vivoli, M. A. Weber, R. Wegner, M. Wendt, B. Woolley, W. Wuensch, J. Uythoven, H. Zha, P. Zisopoulos, M. Benoit, M. Vicente Barreto Pinto, M. Bopp, H. H. Braun, M. Csatari Divall, M. Dehler, T. Garvey, J. Y. Raguin, L. Rivkin, R. Zennaro, A. Aksoy, Z. Nergiz, E. Pilicer, I. Tapan, O. Yavas, V. Baturin, R. Kholodov, S. Lebedynskyi, V. Miroshnichenko, S. Mordyk, I. Profatilova, V. Storizhko, N. Watson, A. Winter, J. Goldstein, S. Green, J. S. Marshall, M. A. Thomson, B. Xu, W. A. Gillespie, R. Pan, M. A Tyrk, D. Protopopescu, A. Robson, R. Apsimon, I. Bailey, G. Burt, D. Constable, A. Dexter, S. Karimian, C. Lingwood, M. D. Buckland, G. Casse, J. Vossebeld, A. Bosco, P. Karataev, K. Kruchinin, K. Lekomtsev, L. Nevay, J. Snuverink, E. Yamakawa, V. Boisvert, S. Boogert, G. Boorman, S. Gibson, A. Lyapin, W. Shields, P. Teixeira-Dias, S. West, R. Jones, N. Joshi, R. Bodenstein, P. N. Burrows, G. B. Christian, D. Gamba, C. Perry, J. Roberts, J. A. Clarke, N. A. Collomb, S. P. Jamison, B. J. A. Shepherd, D. Walsh, M. Demarteau, J. Repond, H. Weerts, L. Xia, J. D. Wells, C. Adolphsen, T. Barklow, M. Breidenbach, N. Graf, J. Hewett, T. Markiewicz, D. McCormick, K. Moffeit, Y. Nosochkov, M. Oriunno, N. Phinney, T. Rizzo, S. Tantawi, F. Wang, J. Wang, G. White, M. Woodley

The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a multi-TeV high-luminosity linear e+e- collider under development. For an optimal exploitation of its physics potential, CLIC is foreseen to be built and operated in a staged approach with three centre-of-mass energy stages ranging from a few hundred GeV up to 3 TeV. The first stage will focus on precision Standard Model physics, in particular Higgs and top-quark measurements. Read More

We provide a simple discussion of our results on the backreaction effects of density inhomogeneities in cosmology, without mentioning one-parameter families or weak limits. Emphasis is placed on the manner in which "averaging" is done and the fact that one is solving Einstein's equation. The key assumptions and results that we rigorously derived within our original mathematical framework are thereby explained in a heuristic way. Read More

We describe the full nonlinear development of the superradiant instability for a charged massless scalar field, coupled to general relativity and electromagnetism, in the vicinity of a Reissner-Nordstrom-AdS black hole. The presence of the negative cosmological constant provides a natural context for considering perfectly reflecting boundary conditions and studying the dynamics as the scalar field interacts repeatedly with the black hole. At early times, small superradiant perturbations grow as expected from linearized studies. Read More

We study the linear stability of asymptotically anti-de Sitter black holes in general relativity in spacetime dimension $d\ge4$. Our approach is an adaptation of the general framework of Hollands and Wald, which gives a stability criterion in terms of the sign of the canonical energy, $\mathcal{E}$. The general framework was originally formulated for static or stationary and axisymmetric black holes in the asymptotically flat case, and the stability analysis for that case applies only to axisymmetric perturbations. Read More

**Authors:**M Litos, E Adli, J M Allen, W An, C I Clarke, S Corde, C E Clayton, J Frederico, S J Gessner, S Z Green, M J Hogan, C Joshi, W. Lu, K A Marsh, W B Mori, M Schmeltz, N Vafaei-Najafabadi, V Yakimenko

An electron beam has gained a maximum energy of 9 GeV per particle in a 1.3 m-long electron beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator. The amount of charge accelerated in the spectral peak was 28. Read More

Ionization injection in a plasma wakefield accelerator was investigated experimentally using two lithium plasma sources of different lengths. The ionization of the helium gas, used to confine the lithium, injects electrons in the wake. After acceleration, these injected electrons were observed as a distinct group from the drive beam on the energy spectrometer. Read More

**Authors:**O. Groussin, J. Licandro, J. Helbert, J. -L. Reynaud, P. Levacher, M. Reyes García-Talavera, V. Alí-Lagoa, P. -E. Blanc, E. Brageot, B. Davidsson, M. Delbó, M. Deleuze, A. Delsanti, J. J. Diaz Garcia, K. Dohlen, D. Ferrand, S. Green, L. Jorda, E. Joven Álvarez, J. Knollenberg, E. Kührt, P. Lamy, E. Lellouch, J. Le Merrer, B. Marty, G. Mas, C. Rossin, B. Rozitis, J. Sunshine, P. Vernazza, S. Vives

We present THERMAP, a mid-infrared (8-16 {\mu}m) spectro-imager for space missions to small bodies in the inner solar system, developed in the framework of the MarcoPolo-R asteroid sample return mission. THERMAP is very well suited to characterize the surface thermal environment of a NEO and to map its surface composition. The instrument has two channels, one for imaging and one for spectroscopy: it is both a thermal camera with full 2D imaging capabilities and a slit spectrometer. Read More

We study the stability of anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime to spherically symmetric perturbations of a real scalar field in general relativity. Further, we work within the context of the "two time framework" (TTF) approximation, which describes the leading nonlinear effects for small amplitude perturbations, and is therefore suitable for studying the weakly turbulent instability of AdS---including both collapsing and non-collapsing solutions. We have previously identified a class of quasi-periodic (QP) solutions to the TTF equations, and in this work we analyze their stability. Read More

We respond to the criticisms of a recent comment by Bizo\'n and Rostworowski [arXiv:1410.2631]. Read More

We respond to the criticisms of a recent paper of Buchert et al. [arXiv:1505.07800] Read More

Motivated by the gravity/fluid correspondence, we introduce a new method for characterizing nonlinear gravitational interactions. Namely we map the nonlinear perturbative form of the Einstein equation to the equations of motion of a collection of nonlinearly-coupled harmonic oscillators. These oscillators correspond to the quasinormal or normal modes of the background spacetime. Read More

We consider the dynamics of a spherically symmetric massless scalar field coupled to general relativity in Anti--de Sitter spacetime in the small-amplitude limit. Within the context of our previously developed two time framework (TTF) to study the leading self-gravitating effects, we demonstrate the existence of two new conserved quantities in addition to the known total energy $E$ of the modes: The particle number $N$ and Hamiltonian $H$ of our TTF system. Simultaneous conservation of $E$ and $N$ implies that weak turbulent processes undergo dual cascades (direct cascade of $E$ and inverse cascade of $N$ or vice versa). Read More

Motivated by a low-energy effective description of gauge theory/string theory duality, we conjecture that the dynamics of $SO(4)$-invariant states in a large class of four-dimensional conformal gauge theories on $S^3$ with non-equal central charges $c\ne a$ are universal on time scales $t_{\rm universal}\propto ({\cal E}-{\cal E}_{\rm vacuum})^{-1}$, in the limit where the energy ${\cal E}\to {\cal E}_{\rm vacuum}$. We show that low-energy excitations in $c\ne a$ CFTs do not thermalize in this limit. The holographic universality conjecture then implies that within the Einstein-scalar field system (dual to theories with $c=a$), $AdS_5$ is stable to spherically symmetric perturbations against formation of trapped surfaces within time scales $t_{\rm universal}$. Read More

Extremely well! In the $\Lambda$CDM model, the spacetime metric, $g_{ab}$, of our universe is approximated by an FLRW metric, $g_{ab}^{(0)}$, to about 1 part in $10^4$ or better on both large and small scales, except in the immediate vicinity of very strong field objects, such as black holes. However, derivatives of $g_{ab}$ are not close to derivatives of $g_{ab}^{(0)}$, so there can be significant differences in the behavior of geodesics and huge differences in curvature. Consequently, observable quantities in the actual universe may differ significantly from the corresponding observables in the FLRW model. Read More

The Yarkovsky (orbital drift) and YORP (spin state change) effects play important roles in the dynamical and physical evolution of asteroids. Thermophysical modelling of these observed effects, and of thermal-infrared observations, allows a detailed physical characterisation of an individual asteroid to be performed. We perform a detailed physical characterisation of near-Earth asteroid (1620) Geographos, a potential meteor stream source and former spacecraft target, using the same techniques as previously used in Rozitis et al. Read More

For a real massless scalar field in general relativity with a negative cosmological constant, we uncover a large class of spherically symmetric initial conditions that are close to AdS, but whose numerical evolution does not result in black hole formation. According to the AdS/CFT dictionary, these bulk solutions are dual to states of a strongly interacting boundary CFT that fail to thermalize at late times. Furthermore, as these states are not stationary, they define dynamical CFT configurations that do not equilibrate. Read More

It is time-consuming and error-prone to implement inference procedures for each new probabilistic model. Probabilistic programming addresses this problem by allowing a user to specify the model and having a compiler automatically generate an inference procedure for it. For this approach to be practical, it is important to generate inference code that has reasonable performance. Read More

We study the dynamics of a 2+1 dimensional relativistic viscous conformal fluid in Minkowski spacetime. Such fluid solutions arise as duals, under the "gravity/fluid correspondence", to 3+1 dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AAdS) black brane solutions to the Einstein equation. We examine stability properties of shear flows, which correspond to hydrodynamic quasinormal modes of the black brane. Read More

We consider perfect fluid bodies (stars) in general relativity, characterized by particle number density and entropy per particle. A star is said to be in dynamic equilibrium if it is a stationary, axisymmetric solution to the Einstein-fluid equations with circular flow. We prove that for a star in dynamic equilibrium, the necessary and sufficient condition for thermodynamic equilibrium (extremum of total entropy S) is constancy of angular velocity (\Omega), redshifted temperature, and redshifted chemical potential. Read More

Despite their very low surface gravities, the surfaces of asteroids and comets are covered by granular materials - regolith - that can range from a fine dust to a gravel-like structure of varying depths. Understanding the dynamics of granular materials is, therefore, vital for the interpretation of the surface geology of these small bodies and is also critical for the design and/or operations of any device planned to interact with their surfaces. We present the first measurements of transient weakening of granular material after shear reversal in microgravity as well as a summary of experimental results recently published in other journals, which may have important implications for small-body surfaces. Read More

We investigate the role of gravity on convection in a dense granular shear flow. Using a microgravity modified Taylor-Couette shear cell under the conditions of parabolic flight microgravity, we demonstrate experimentally that secondary, convective-like flows in a sheared granular material are close to zero in microgravity and enhanced under high-gravity conditions, though the primary flow fields are unaffected by gravity. We suggest that gravity tunes the frictional particle-particle and particle-wall interactions, which have been proposed to drive the secondary flow. Read More

Despite their very low surface gravities, asteroids exhibit a number of different geological processes involving granular matter. Understanding the response of this granular material subject to external forces in microgravity conditions is vital to the design of a successful asteroid sub-surface sampling mechanism, and in the interpretation of the fascinating geology on an asteroid. We have designed and flown a Taylor-Couette shear cell to investigate granular flow due to rotational shear forces under the conditions of parabolic flight microgravity. Read More

Surfaces of planets and small bodies of our Solar System are often covered by a layer of granular material that can range from a fine regolith to a gravel-like structure of varying depths. Therefore, the dynamics of granular materials are involved in many events occurring during planetary and small-body evolution thus contributing to their geological properties. We demonstrate that the new adaptation of the parallel N-body hard-sphere code pkdgrav has the capability to model accurately the key features of the collective motion of bidisperse granular materials in a dense regime as a result of shaking. Read More

Near-Earth asteroid (1862) Apollo has strong detections of both orbital semimajor axis drift and rotational acceleration. We produce a unified model that can accurately match both observed effects using a single set of thermophysical properties derived from ground-based observations, and we determine Apollo's long term evolution. We use light-curve shape inversion techniques and the ATPM on published light-curve, thermal-infrared, and radar observations to constrain Apollo's thermophysical properties. Read More

We present an adaptation of the ATPM to simultaneously predict the Yarkovsky and YORP effects in the presence of global self-heating that occurs within the large concavities of irregularly shaped asteroids, which has been neglected or dismissed in all previous models. It is also combined with rough surface thermal-infrared beaming effects, which have been previously shown to enhance the Yarkovsky-orbital-drift and dampen on average the YORP-rotational-acceleration by orders of several tens of per cent. Tests on all published concave shape models of near-Earth asteroids, and also on one hundred Gaussian-random-spheres, show that the Yarkovsky effect is sensitive to shadowing and global self-heating effects at the few per cent level or less. Read More

In previous work, we introduced a new framework to treat large scale backreaction effects due to small scale inhomogeneities in general relativity. We considered one-parameter families of spacetimes for which such backreaction effects can occur, and we proved that, provided the weak energy condition on matter is satisfied, the leading effect of small scale inhomogeneities on large scale dynamics is to produce a traceless effective stress-energy tensor that itself satisfies the weak energy condition. In this work, we illustrate the nature of our framework by providing two explicit examples of one-parameter families with backreaction. Read More

Qualitative probabilistic networks have been designed for probabilistic reasoning in a qualitative way. Due to their coarse level of representation detail, qualitative probabilistic networks do not provide for resolving trade-offs and typically yield ambiguous results upon inference. We present an algorithm for computing more insightful results for unresolved trade-offs. Read More

In addition to collisions and gravitational forces, it is now becoming widely acknowledged that photon recoil forces and torques from the asymmetric reflection and thermal re-radiation of sunlight are primary mechanisms that govern the rotational evolution of an asteroid. The Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect causes changes in the rotation rate and pole direction of an irregularly shaped asteroid. We present a simple Monte Carlo method to estimate the range of YORP-rotational-accelerations acting on a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) without knowledge of its detailed shape, and to estimate its detectability using light-curve observations. Read More

We present a new rough-surface thermophysical model (Advanced Thermophysical Model or ATPM) that describes the observed directional thermal emission from any atmosphereless planetary surface. It explicitly incorporates partial shadowing, scattering of sunlight, selfheating and thermal-infrared beaming (re-radiation of absorbed sunlight back towards the Sun as a result of surface roughness). The model is verified by accurately reproducing ground-based directional thermal emission measurements of the lunar surface using surface properties that are consistent with the findings of the Apollo missions and roughness characterised by an RMS slope of ~32 degrees. Read More

It is now becoming widely accepted that photon recoil forces from the asymmetric reflection and thermal re-radiation of absorbed sunlight are, together with collisions and gravitational forces, primary mechanisms governing the dynamical and physical evolution of asteroids. The Yarkovsky effect causes orbital semi-major axis drift and the YORP effect causes changes in the rotation rate and pole orientation. We present an adaptation of the Advanced Thermophysical Model (ATPM) to simultaneously predict the Yarkovsky and YORP effects in the presence of thermal-infrared beaming caused by surface roughness, which has been neglected or dismissed in all previous models. Read More

Cosmological N-body simulations are now being performed using Newtonian gravity on scales larger than the Hubble radius. It is well known that a uniformly expanding, homogeneous ball of dust in Newtonian gravity satisfies the same equations as arise in relativistic FLRW cosmology, and it also is known that a correspondence between Newtonian and relativistic dust cosmologies continues to hold in linearized perturbation theory in the marginally bound/spatially flat case. Nevertheless, it is far from obvious that Newtonian gravity can provide a good global description of an inhomogeneous cosmology when there is significant nonlinear dynamical behavior at small scales. Read More

String theory contains sources like orientifold planes that support higher derivative interactions. These interactions make possible static flux compactifications which are forbidden in supergravity. They can also lead to violations of the strong energy condition (SEC) which is needed for an accelerating universe. Read More

Asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3 is a binary asteroid and the baseline target for the proposed MarcoPolo-R sample-return mission. We present thermal IR photometry obtained with the ESO VLT+VISIR together with optical photometry obtained with the ESO NTT+EFOSC2 . An absolute visual magnitude H_V = 17. Read More

We conduct a survey of numerical simulations to probe the structure and appearance of non-radiative black hole accretion flows like the supermassive black hole at the Galactic centre. We find a generic set of solutions, and make specific predictions for currently feasible rotation measure (RM) observations, which are accessible to current instruments including the EVLA, GMRT and ALMA. The slow time variability of the RM is a key quantitative signature of this accretion flow. Read More

We develop a new, mathematically precise framework for treating the effects of nonlinear phenomena occurring on small scales in general relativity. Our approach is an adaptation of Burnett's formulation of the "shortwave approximation", which we generalize to analyze the effects of matter inhomogeneities as well as gravitational radiation. Our framework requires the metric to be close to a "background metric", but allows arbitrarily large stress-energy fluctuations on small scales. Read More

This paper has been withdrawn. Read More

**Authors:**N. Hurlburt, M. Cheung, C. Schrijver, L. Chang, S. Freeland, S. Green, C. Heck, A. Jaffey, A. Kobashi, D. Schiff, J. Serafin, R. Seguin, G. Slater, A. Somani, R. Timmons

The immense volume of data generated by the suite of instruments on SDO requires new tools for efficient identifying and accessing data that is most relevant to research investigations. We have developed the Heliophysics Events Knowledgebase (HEK) to fill this need. The HEK system combines automated data mining using feature-detection methods and high-performance visualization systems for data markup. Read More

The Near-Earth Asteroid Thermal Model (NEATM, Harris, 1998) has proven to be a reliable simple thermal model for radiometric diameter determination. However NEATM assumes zero thermal emission on the night side of an asteroid. We investigate how this assumption affects the best-fit beaming parameter, overestimates the effective diameter and underestimates the albedo at large phase angles, by testing NEATM on thermal IR fluxes generated from simulated asteroid surfaces with different thermal inertia. Read More

**Authors:**Amara L. Graps

^{1}, Simon F. Green

^{2}, Neil McBride

^{3}, J. A. M. McDonnell

^{4}, Kalle Bunte

^{5}, Hakan Svedhem

^{6}, Gerhard Drolshagen

^{7}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}INAF-IFSI, Italy,

^{2}PSSRI, The Open University, U.K.,

^{3}PSSRI, The Open University, U.K.,

^{4}Unispace Kent, U.K.,

^{5}eta max space GmbH, Germany,

^{6}ESA/ESTEC, The Netherlands,

^{7}ESA/ESTEC, The Netherlands

**Category:**Astrophysics

In September 1996, a dust/debris detector: GORID was launched into the geostationary (GEO) region as a piggyback instrument on the Russian Express-2 telecommunications spacecraft. The instrument began its normal operation in April 1997 and ended its mission in July 2002. The goal of this work was to use GORID's particle data to identify and separate the space debris to interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) in GEO, to more finely determine the instrument's measurement characteristics and to derive impact fluxes. Read More

**Authors:**T. J. Galama, M. S. Briggs, R. A. M. J. Wijers, P. M. Vreeswijk, E. Rol, D. Band, J. van Paradijs, C. Kouveliotou, R. D. Preece, M. Bremer, I. A. Smith, R. P. J. Tilanus, A. G. de Bruyn, R. G. Strom, G. Pooley, A. J. Castro-Tirado, N. Tanvir, C. Robinson, K. Hurley, J. Heise, J. Telting, R. G. M. Rutten, C. Packham, R. Swaters, J. K. Davies, A. Fassia, S. F. Green, M. J. Foster, R. Sagar, A. K. Pandey, Nilakshi, R. K. S. Yadav, E. O. Ofek, E. Leibowitz, P. Ibbetson, J. Rhoads, E. Falco, C. Petry, C. Impey, T. R. Geballe, D. Bhattacharya

**Category:**Astrophysics

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are thought to result from the interaction of an extremely relativistic outflow interacting with a small amount of material surrounding the site of the explosion. Multi-wavelength observations covering the gamma-ray to radio wavebands allow investigations of this `fireball' model. On 23 January 1999 optical emission was detected while the gamma-ray burst was still underway. Read More