S. Carey - SSC/IPAC

S. Carey
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S. Carey
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SSC/IPAC
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Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (20)
 
Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (19)
 
Astrophysics of Galaxies (15)
 
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (5)
 
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (4)
 
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (2)

Publications Authored By S. Carey

We analyze an ensemble of microlensing events from the 2015 Spitzer microlensing campaign, all of which were densely monitored by ground-based high-cadence survey teams. The simultaneous observations from Spitzer and the ground yield measurements of the microlensing parallax vector $\pi_{\rm E}$, from which compact constraints on the microlens properties are derived, including $\lesssim$25\% uncertainties on the lens mass and distance. With the current sample, we demonstrate that the majority of microlenses are indeed in the mass range of M dwarfs. Read More

We present the physical and evolutionary properties of prestellar and protostellar clumps in the Herschel Infrared GALactic plane survey (Hi-GAL) in two large areas centered in the Galactic plane and covering the tips of the long Galactic bar at the intersection with the spiral arms. The areas fall in the longitude ranges 19 < l < 33 and 340 < l < 350, while latitude is -1 < b < 1. Newly formed high mass stars and prestellar objects are identified and their properties derived and compared. Read More

2016Nov
Affiliations: 1Oxford, 2Curtin, 3Oxford, 4Alberta, 5Cambridge, 6Cambridge, 7Cambridge, 8Manchester, 9Curtin, Amsterdam, 10Cambridge, 11Cambridge, 12Cambridge, 13Manchester, 14Cambridge, 15AAVSO

The connection between accretion and jet production in accreting white dwarf binary systems, especially dwarf novae, is not well understood. Radio wavelengths provide key insights into the mechanisms responsible for accelerating electrons, including jets and outflows. Here we present densely-sampled radio coverage, obtained with the Arcminute MicroKelvin Imager Large Array, of the dwarf nova SS Cyg during its February 2016 anomalous outburst. Read More

In this paper, we present the analysis of the binary gravitational microlensing event OGLE-2015-BLG-0196. The event lasted for almost a year and the light curve exhibited significant deviations from the lensing model based on the rectilinear lens-source relative motion, enabling us to measure the microlens parallax. The ground-based microlens parallax is confirmed by the data obtained from space-based microlens observations using the {\it Spitzer} telescope. Read More

After more than 26 years in quiescence, the black hole transient V404 Cyg went into a luminous outburst in June 2015, and additional activity was detected in late December of the same year. Here, we present an optical spectroscopic follow-up of the December mini-outburst, together with X-ray, optical and radio monitoring that spanned more than a month. Strong flares with gradually increasing intensity are detected in the three spectral ranges during the ~10 days following the Swift trigger. Read More

We have used the Spitzer Space Telescope in February 2016 to obtain high cadence, high signal-to-noise, 17-hour duration light curves of Neptune at 3.6 and 4.5 $\mu$m. Read More

This paper describes the beginning of the Far-Infrared Surveyor mission study for NASA's Astrophysics Decadal 2020. We describe the scope of the study, and the open process approach of the Science and Technology Definition Team. We are currently developing the science cases and provide some preliminary highlights here. Read More

We present a combined analysis of the observations of the gravitational microlensing event OGLE-2015-BLG-0479 taken both from the ground and by the {\it Spitzer Space Telescope}. The light curves seen from the ground and from space exhibit a time offset of $\sim 13$ days between the caustic spikes, indicating that the relative lens-source positions seen from the two places are displaced by parallax effects. From modeling the light curves, we measure the space-based microlens parallax. Read More

Simultaneous observations of microlensing events from multiple locations allow for the breaking of degeneracies between the physical properties of the lensing system, specifically by exploring different regions of the lens plane and by directly measuring the "microlens parallax". We report the discovery of a 30-55$M_J$ brown dwarf orbiting a K dwarf in microlensing event OGLE-2015-BLG-1319. The system is located at a distance of $\sim$5 kpc toward the Galactic bulge. Read More

(Abridged) We present the first public release of high-quality data products (DR1) from Hi-GAL, the {\em Herschel} infrared Galactic Plane Survey. Hi-GAL is the keystone of a suite of continuum Galactic Plane surveys from the near-IR to the radio, and covers five wavebands at 70, 160, 250, 350 and 500 micron, encompassing the peak of the spectral energy distribution of cold dust for 8 < T < 50K. This first Hi-GAL data release covers the inner Milky Way in the longitude range 68{\deg} > l > -70{\deg} in a |b|<1{\deg} latitude strip. Read More

Theoretical models and spectroscopic observations of newborn stars suggest that protoplantary disks have an inner "wall" at a distance set by the disk interaction with the star. Around T Tauri stars, the size of this disk hole is expected to be on a 0.1-AU scale that is unresolved by current adaptive optics imaging, though some model-dependent constraints have been obtained by near-infrared interferometry. Read More

Motivated by a high Spitzer IRAC oversubscription rate, we present a new technique of randomly and sparsely sampling phase curves of hot Jupiters. Snapshot phase curves are enabled by technical advances in precision pointing as well as careful characterization of a portion of the central pixel on the array. This method allows for observations which are a factor of roughly two more efficient than full phase curve observations, and are furthermore easier to insert into the Spitzer observing schedule. Read More

We present the first detection of photometric variability of a spectroscopically-confirmed Y dwarf. The Infrared Array Camera on board the Spitzer Space Telescope was used to obtain times series photometry at 3.6 and 4. Read More

We examine the repeatability, reliability, and accuracy of differential exoplanet eclipse depth measurements made using the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope during the post-cryogenic mission. We have re-analyzed an existing 4.5 {\mu}m data set, consisting of 10 observations of the XO-3b system during secondary eclipse, using seven different techniques for removing correlated noise. Read More

We provide CoRoT and Spitzer light curves, as well as broad-band multi-wavelength photometry and high resolution, multi- and single-epoch spectroscopy for 17 classical T Tauris in NGC 2264 whose CoRoT light curves (LCs) exemplify the "stochastic" LC class as defined in Cody et al. (2014). The most probable physical mechanism to explain the optical variability in this LC class is time-dependent mass accretion onto the stellar photosphere, producing transient hot spots. Read More

Spitzer microlensing parallax observations of OGLE-2015-BLG-1212 decisively breaks a degeneracy between planetary and binary solutions that is somewhat ambiguous when only ground-based data are considered. Only eight viable models survive out of an initial set of 32 local minima in the parameter space. These models clearly indicate that the lens is a stellar binary system possibly located within the bulge of our Galaxy, ruling out the planetary alternative. Read More

The microlensing event OGLE-2015-BLG-0448 was observed by Spitzer and lay within the tidal radius of the globular cluster NGC 6558. The event had moderate magnification and was intensively observed, hence it had the potential to probe the distribution of planets in globular clusters. We measure the proper motion of NGC 6558 ($\mu_{\rm cl}$(N,E) = (+0. Read More

We report on the mass and distance measurements of two single-lens events from the 2015 \emph{Spitzer} microlensing campaign. With both finite-source effect and microlens parallax measurements, we find that the lens of OGLE-2015-BLG-1268 is very likely a brown dwarf. Assuming that the source star lies behind the same amount of dust as the Bulge red clump, we find the lens is a $45\pm7$ $M_{\rm J}$ brown dwarf at $5. Read More

We develop a new photometry algorithm that is optimized for $Spitzer$ time series in crowded fields and that is particularly adapted to faint and/or heavily blended targets. We apply this to the 170 targets from the 2015 $Spitzer$ microlensing campaign and present the results of three variants of this algorithm in an online catalog. We present detailed accounts of the application of this algorithm to two difficult cases, one very faint and the other very crowded. Read More

2015Aug

We report the detection of a Cold Neptune m_planet=21+/-2MEarth orbiting a 0.38MSol M dwarf lying 2.5-3. Read More

To move one step forward toward a Galactic distribution of planets, we present the first planet sensitivity analysis for microlensing events with simultaneous observations from space and the ground. We present this analysis for two such events, OGLE-2014-BLG-0939 and OGLE-2014-BLG-0124, which both show substantial planet sensitivity even though neither of them reached high magnification. This suggests that an ensemble of low to moderate magnification events can also yield significant planet sensitivity and therefore probability to detect planets. Read More

We present spectroscopic tests of MIR to FIR extinction laws in IRDC G028.36+00.07, a potential site of massive star and star cluster formation. Read More

We present Spitzer 4.5\micron\ light curve observations, Keck NIRSPEC radial velocity observations, and LCOGT optical light curve observations of PTFO~8-8695, which may host a Jupiter-sized planet in a very short orbital period (0.45 days). Read More

Space-based microlens parallax measurements are a powerful tool for understanding planet populations, especially their distribution throughout the Galaxy. However, if space-based observations of the microlensing events must be specifically targeted, it is crucial that microlensing events enter the parallax sample without reference to the known presence or absence of planets. Hence, it is vital to define objective criteria for selecting events where possible and to carefully consider and minimize the selection biases where not possible so that the final sample represents a controlled experiment. Read More

We identify nine young stellar objects (YSOs) in the NGC 2264 star-forming region with optical {\em CoRoT} light curves exhibiting short-duration, shallow, periodic flux dips. All of these stars have infrared (IR) excesses that are consistent with their having inner disk walls near the Keplerian co-rotation radius. The repeating photometric dips have FWHM generally less than one day, depths almost always less than 15%, and periods (3Read More

We report the first mass and distance measurement of a caustic-crossing binary system OGLE-2014-BLG-1050L using the space-based microlens parallax method. \emph{Spitzer} captured the second caustic-crossing of the event, which occurred $\sim$10 days before that seen from Earth. Due to the coincidence that the source-lens relative motion was almost parallel to the direction of the binary-lens axis, the four-fold degeneracy, which was known before only to occur in single-lens events, persists in this case, leading to either a lower-mass (0. Read More

We present microlens parallax measurements for 21 (apparently) isolated lenses observed toward the Galactic bulge that were imaged simultaneously from Earth and Spitzer, which was ~1 AU West of Earth in projection. We combine these measurements with a kinematic model of the Galaxy to derive distance estimates for each lens, with error bars that are small compared to the Sun's Galactocentric distance. The ensemble therefore yields a well-defined cumulative distribution of lens distances. Read More

HAT-P-20b is a giant exoplanet that orbits a metal-rich star. The planet itself has a high total density, suggesting that it may also have a high metallicity in its atmosphere. We analyze two eclipses of the planet in each of the 3. Read More

This article summarizes a workshop held on March, 2014, on the potential of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to revolutionize our knowledge of the physical properties of exoplanets through transit observations. JWST's unique combination of high sensitivity and broad wavelength coverage will enable the accurate measurement of transits with high signal-to-noise. Most importantly, JWST spectroscopy will investigate planetary atmospheres to determine atomic and molecular compositions, to probe vertical and horizontal structure, and to follow dynamical evolution, i. Read More

High-mass Stars are cosmic engines known to dominate the energetics in the Milky Way and other galaxies. However, their formation is still not well understood. Massive, cold, dense clouds, often appearing as Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs), are the nurseries of massive stars. Read More

We present Spitzer/IRS low resolution observations of 11 compact circumstellar bubbles from the MIPSGAL 24 {\mu}m Galactic Plane Survey. We find that this set of MIPSGAL bubbles (MBs) is divided into two categories, and that this distinction correlates with the morphologies of the MBs in the mid- IR. The four MBs with central sources in the mid-IR exhibit dust-rich, low excitation spectra, and their 24 {\mu}m emission is accounted for by the dust continuum. Read More

We present the first space-based microlens parallax measurement of an isolated star. From the striking differences in the lightcurve as seen from Earth and from Spitzer (~1 AU to the West), we infer a projected velocity v_helio,projected ~ 250 km/s, which strongly favors a lens in the Galactic Disk with mass M=0.23 +- 0. Read More

We combine Spitzer and ground-based observations to measure the microlens parallax vector ${\mathbf \pi}_{\rm E}$, and so the mass and distance of OGLE-2014-BLG-0124L, making it the first microlensing planetary system with a space-based parallax measurement. The planet and star have masses $m \sim 0.5\,M_{\rm jup}$ and $M\sim 0. Read More

2014Aug
Affiliations: 1SSC/IPAC, 2SSC/IPAC, 3Lowell, 4Harvard CfA, 5Caltech, 6NExScI/IPAC, 7Harvard CfA, 8SSC/IPAC, 9Harvard CfA, 10U. Mass, 11INTA-CSIC, 12UGeorgia, 13INTA-CSIC, 14Max Planck; U. Valpariso, 15CTIO, 16Harvard CfA, 17USNO, 18ESA/ESAC, 19IPAG, 20SSC/IPAC, 21Caltech, 22ESTEC, 23Wesleyan, 24U. Vienna, 25CIDA, 26ESTEC, 27U. Toledo, 28INAF, 29Harvard CfA, 30CSULA, 31JPL, 32NOAO, 33IPAC, 34INTA-CSIC, 35ESO

The YSOVAR (Young Stellar Object VARiability) Spitzer Space Telescope observing program obtained the first extensive mid-infrared (3.6 & 4.5 um) time-series photometry of the Orion Nebula Cluster plus smaller footprints in eleven other star-forming cores (AFGL490, NGC1333, MonR2, GGD 12-15, NGC2264, L1688, Serpens Main, Serpens South, IRAS 20050+2720, IC1396A, and Ceph C). Read More

We present the first detection from the Spitzer Space Telescope of 4.5 micron variability from Sgr A*, the emitting source associated with the Milky Way's central black hole. The >23 hour continuous light curve was obtained with the IRAC instrument in 2013 December. Read More

We have used multiple mid-infrared observations at 4.5 micron obtained with the Infrared Array Camera, of the compact (~1.4 arcmin) young stellar bipolar outflow Cep E to measure the proper motion of its brightest condensations. Read More

Observations of molecular clouds reveal a complex structure, with gas and dust often arranged in filamentary rather than spherical geometries. The associations of pre- and proto- stellar cores with the filaments suggest a direct link with the process of star formation. Any study of the properties of such filaments requires a representative samples from different enviroments and so an unbiased detection method. Read More

Herschel FIR continuum data obtained as part of the Hi-GAL survey have been used, together with the GLIMPSE 8 $\mu$m and MIPSGAL 24 $\mu$m data, to attempt the first 3D-decomposition of dust emission associated with atomic, molecular and ionized gas at 15 arcmin angular resolution. Our initial test case is a 2$\times$2 square degrees region centred on (l,b)=(30$^{\circ}$,0$^{\circ}$), a direction that encompasses the origin point of the Scutum-Crux Arm at the tip of the Galactic Bar. Coupling the IR maps with velocity maps specific for different gas phases (HI 21cm, $^{12}$CO and $^{13}$CO, and RRLs), we estimate the properties of dust blended with each of the gas components and at different Galactocentric distances along the LOS. Read More

Based on more than four weeks of continuous high cadence photometric monitoring of several hundred members of the young cluster NGC 2264 with two space telescopes, NASA's Spitzer and the CNES CoRoT (Convection, Rotation, and planetary Transits), we provide high quality, multi-wavelength light curves for young stellar objects (YSOs) whose optical variability is dominated by short duration flux bursts, which we infer are due to enhanced mass accretion rates. These light curves show many brief -- several hour to one day -- brightenings at optical and near-infrared (IR) wavelengths with amplitudes generally in the range 5-50% of the quiescent value. Typically, a dozen or more of these bursts occur in a thirty day period. Read More

2014Jan
Affiliations: 1ESO, Harvard CfA, Kapteyn, Peking Univ., 2Harvard CfA, 3ESO, Excellence Cluster Universe, INAF, 4SRON, Kapteyn, 5Peking Univ., 6Peking Univ., 7Caltech, 8MPIfR, 9Spitzer Science Center, 10MPIA, 11MPIA

We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) $\lambda =$ 0.88 and 1.3 mm broad band observations, and the Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations in $\rm{NH_3}$ $(J,K) = (1,1)$ up to $(5,5)$, $\rm{H_2O}$ and $\rm{CH_3OH}$ maser lines toward the two most massive molecular clumps in infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G11. Read More

This paper presents a study of the rate and efficiency of star formation in the NGC 6334 star forming region. We obtained observations at J, H, and Ks taken with the NOAO Extremely Wide-Field Infrared Imager (NEWFIRM) and combined them with observations taken with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope at wavelengths {\lambda} = 3.6, 4. Read More

We present a method, based on Bayesian statistics, to fit the dust emission parameters in the far-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. The method estimates the dust temperature and spectral emissivity index, plus their relationship, taking into account properly the statistical and systematic uncertainties. We test it on three sets of simulated sources detectable by the Herschel Space Observatory in the PACS and SPIRE spectral bands (70-500 micron), spanning over a wide range of dust temperatures. Read More

The Herschel survey of the Galactic Plane (Hi-GAL) provides a unique opportunity to study star formation over large areas of the sky and different environments in the Milky Way. We use the best studied Hi-GAL fields to date, two 2x2 tiles centered on (l, b) = (30, 0) deg and (l, b) = (59, 0) deg, to study the star formation activity using a large sample of well selected young stellar objects (YSOs). We estimate the star formation rate (SFR) for these fields using the number of candidate YSOs and their average time scale to reach the Zero Age Main Sequence, and compare it with the rate estimated using their integrated luminosity at 70 micron combined with an extragalactic star formation indicator. Read More

We use two 4.5micron Spitzer (IRAC) maps of the NGC 1333 region taken over approx. 7 yr interval to determine proper motions of its associated outflows. Read More

We present a Herschel far-infrared study towards the rich massive star- forming complex G305, utilising PACS 70, 160 {\mu}m and SPIRE 250, 350, and 500 {\mu}m observations from the Hi-GAL survey of the Galactic plane. The focus of this study is to identify the embedded massive star-forming population within G305, by combining far-infrared data with radio continuum, H2O maser, methanol maser, MIPS, and Red MSX Source survey data available from previous studies. By applying a frequentist technique we are able to identify a sample of the most likely associations within our multi-wavelength dataset, that can then be identified from the derived properties obtained from fitted spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Read More

Using infrared, radio continuum and spectral observations, we performed a detailed investigation of the HII region RCW175. We determined that RCW175, which actually consists of two separate HII regions, G29.1-0. Read More