# S. Bandyopadhyay - Center for Quantum Information and Quantum Control, University of Toronto

## Contact Details

NameS. Bandyopadhyay |
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AffiliationCenter for Quantum Information and Quantum Control, University of Toronto |
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CityToronto |
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CountryCanada |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesPhysics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (24) Physics - Materials Science (10) Quantum Physics (7) Statistics - Theory (2) Mathematics - Optimization and Control (2) Statistics - Machine Learning (2) Mathematics - Statistics (2) Mathematics - Probability (2) Mathematics - Information Theory (1) Statistics - Applications (1) Computer Science - Information Theory (1) Nonlinear Sciences - Exactly Solvable and Integrable Systems (1) Computer Science - Computation and Language (1) Quantitative Biology - Populations and Evolution (1) Physics - Atomic Physics (1) Physics - Physics and Society (1) Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (1) Physics - Disordered Systems and Neural Networks (1) Mathematical Physics (1) Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (1) Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (1) |

## Publications Authored By S. Bandyopadhyay

Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH) based algorithms have already shown their promise in finding approximate nearest neighbors in high dimen- sional data space. However, there are certain scenarios, as in sequential data, where the proximity of a pair of points cannot be captured without considering their surroundings or context. In videos, as for example, a particular frame is meaningful only when it is seen in the context of its preceding and following frames. Read More

Centrality is an important notion in complex networks; it could be used to characterize how influential a node or an edge is in the network. It plays an important role in several other network analysis tools including community detection. Even though there are a small number of axiomatic frameworks associated with this notion, the existing formalizations are not generic in nature. Read More

We propose an all-electric implementation of a precessionally switched perpendicular magnetic anisotropy magneto-tunneling-junction (p-MTJ) based toggle memory cell where data is written with voltage-controlled-magnetic-anisotropy (VCMA) without requiring an in-plane magnetic field. The soft layer of the MTJ is a two-phase (magnetostrictive/piezoelectric) multiferroic which is electrically stressed to produce an effective in-plane magnetic field around which the magnetization precesses to complete a flip when the VCMA voltage pulse duration and the stress duration are independently adjusted to obtain a high switching probability. A two-terminal energy-efficient cell, that is compatible with crossbar architecture and high cell density, is designed. Read More

We examine the dynamics associated with the miscibility-immiscibility transition of trapped two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (TBECs) of dilute atomic gases in presence of vortices. In particular, we consider TBECs of Rb hyperfine states, and Rb-Cs mixture. There is an enhancement of the phase-separation when the vortex is present in both condensates. Read More

We analyze general zero mode properties of the parent Hamiltonian of the unprojected Jain-2/5 state. We characterize the zero mode condition associated to this Hamiltonian via projection onto a four-dimensional two-particle subspace for given pair angular momentum, for the disk and similarly for the spherical geometry. Earlier numerical claims in the literature about ground state uniqueness on the sphere are substantiated on analytic grounds, and related results are derived. Read More

In this work the conducting properties of graphene lattice with a particular concentration of defect (5\% and 10\%) has been studied. The real space block recursion method introduced by Haydock et al. has been used in presence of the random distribution of defects in graphene. Read More

Rotating the magnetization of a shape anisotropic magnetostrictive nanomagnet with voltage-generated stress/strain dissipates much less energy than most other magnetization rotation schemes, but its application to writing bits in non-volatile magnetic memory has been hindered by the fundamental inability of stress/strain to rotate magnetization by full 180 degrees. Normally, stress/strain can rotate the magnetization of a shape anisotropic elliptical nanomagnet by only up to 90 degrees, resulting in incomplete magnetization reversal. Recently, we predicted that applying uniaxial stress sequentially along two different axes that are not collinear with the major or minor axis of the elliptical nanomagnet will rotate the magnetization by full 180 degrees. Read More

Hardware based image processing offers speed and convenience not found in software-centric approaches. Here, we show theoretically that a two-dimensional periodic array of dipole-coupled elliptical nanomagnets, delineated on a piezoelectric substrate, can act as a dynamical system for specific image processing functions. Each nanomagnet has two stable magnetization states that encode pixel color (black or white). Read More

Straintronic magneto-tunneling junction (s-MTJ) switches, whose resistances are controlled with voltage-generated strain in the magnetostrictive free layer of the MTJ, are extremely energy-efficient switches that would dissipate a few aJ of energy during switching. Unfortunately, they are also relatively error-prone and have low resistance on/off ratio. This suggests that as computing elements, they are best suited for non-Boolean architectures. Read More

We have observed a super-giant (~10,000,000%) negative magnetoresistance at 39 mT field in Cu nanowires contacted with Au contact pads. In these nanowires, potential barriers form at the two Cu/Au interfaces because of Cu oxidation that results in an ultrathin copper oxide layer forming between Cu and Au. Current flows when electrons tunnel through, and/or thermionically emit over, these barriers. Read More

We report nanomagnetic switching with Acoustic Waves (AW) launched from interdigitated electrodes that modulate the stress anisotropy of elliptical cobalt nanoscale magnetostrictive magnets (340 nm x 270 nm x 12 nm) delineated on 128 degree Y-cut lithium niobate. The dipole-coupled nanomagnet pairs are in a single-domain state and are initially magnetized along the major axis of the ellipse, with their magnetizations parallel to each other. The magnetizations of nanomagnets having lower shape anisotropy are reversed upon acoustic wave propagation. Read More

Polycrystalline Sb 2 Te 3-x Se x (0.0 < x < 1.0) samples were synthesized by the solid state reaction method. Read More

Nanomagnetic logic has emerged as a potential replacement for traditional CMOS-based logic because of superior energy-efficiency. One implementation of nanomagnetic logic employs shape-anisotropic (e.g. Read More

Strain-mediated voltage control of magnetization in piezoelectric/ferromagnetic systems is a promising mechanism to implement energy-efficient spintronic memory devices. Here, we demonstrate giant voltage manipulation of MgO magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) on a Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0. Read More

We report manipulation of the magnetic states of elliptical cobalt magnetostrictive nanomagnets (of nominal dimensions ~ 340 nm x 270 nm x 12 nm) delineated on bulk 128{\deg} Y-cut lithium niobate with Surface Acoustic Waves (SAWs) launched from interdigitated electrodes. Isolated nanomagnets that are initially magnetized to a single domain state with magnetization pointing along the major axis of the ellipse are driven into a vortex state by surface acoustic waves that modulate the stress anisotropy of these nanomagnets. The nanomagnets remain in the vortex state until they are reset by a strong magnetic field to the initial single domain state, making the vortex state non-volatile. Read More

Structural, thermal, resistive and magnetic properties of melt quenched Bi 0.88 Sb 0.12 alloys are reported. Read More

Micromagnetic studies of the magnetization change in magnetostrictive nanomagnets subjected to stress are performed for nanomagnets of different sizes. The interplay between demagnetization, exchange and stress anisotropy energies is used to explain the rich physics of size-dependent magnetization dynamics induced by modulating stress anisotropy in planar nanomagnets. These studies have important implications for strain mediated ultralow energy magnetization change in nanomagnets and its application in energy-efficient nanomagnetic computing systems. Read More

We explore the question of using an entangled state as a universal resource for implementing quantum measurements by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). We show that for most systems consisting of three or more subsystems, there is no entangled state from the same space that can enable all measurements by LOCC. This is in direct contrast to the bipartite case, where a maximally entangled state is an universal resource. Read More

The question whether indeterminism in quantum measurement outcomes is fundamental or is there a possibility of constructing a finer theory underlying quantum mechanics that allows no such indeterminism, has been debated for a long time. We show that within the class of ontological models due to Harrigan and Spekkens, those satisfying preparation-measurement reciprocity must allow indeterminism of the order of quantum theory. Our result implies that one can design quantum random number generator, for which it is impossible, even in principle, to construct a reciprocal deterministic model. Read More

Spintronic devices usually rely on long spin relaxation times and/or lengths for optimum performance. Therefore, the ability to modulate these quantities with an external agent offers unique possibilities. The dominant spin relaxation mechanism in most technologically important semiconductors is the D'yakonov-Perel' (DP) mechanism which vanishes if the spin carriers (electrons) are confined to a single conduction subband in a quantum wire grown in certain crystallographic directions, or polycrystalline quantum wires. Read More

Structural and thermoelectric properties of metallic and semiconducting Sb2Te3 are reported. X-Ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy studies reveal that semiconducting sample have higher defect density. Nature and origin of possible defects are highlighted. Read More

Ba2ScSbO6 (BSS) has been synthesized in polycrystalline form by solid state reaction. Structural characterization of the compound was done through X-ray diffraction (XRD) followed by Riedvelt analysis of the XRD pattern. The crystal structure is cubic, space group Fm-3m (No. Read More

Reversible straintronic switching of a nanomagnet's magnetization between two stable or metastable states promises ultra-energy-efficient non-volatile memory. Here, we report strain-induced magnetization switching in ~300 nm sized FeGa nanomagnets delineated on a piezoelectric PMN-PT substrate. Voltage of one polarity applied across the substrate generates compressive strain in a nanomagnet and switches its magnetization to one state, while voltage of the opposite polarity generates tensile strain and switches the magnetization back to the original state, resulting in "non-toggle" switching. Read More

We report observation of a "non-volatile" converse magneto-electric effect in elliptical FeGa nanomagnets delineated on a piezoelectric PMN-PT substrate. The nanomagnets are initially magnetized with a magnetic field directed along their nominal major axis and subsequent application of an electric field across the substrate generates strain in the substrate, which is partially transferred to the nanomagnets and rotates the magnetizations of some of them to metastable orientations. There they remain after the field is removed, resulting in "non-volatility". Read More

We classify protocols of entanglement distribution as excessive and non-excessive ones. In a non-excessive protocol, the gain of entanglement is bounded by the amount of entanglement being communicated between the remote parties, while excessive protocols violate such bound. We first present examples of excessive protocols that achieve a significant entanglement gain. Read More

The fluorescence of organic fluorophore molecules is enhanced when they are placed in contact with certain metals (Al, Ag, Cu, Au, etc.) whose surface plasmon waves couple into the radiative modes of the molecules and increase the radiative efficiency. Here, we report a hitherto unknown size dependence of this metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) effect in the nanoscale. Read More

Probabilistic graphical models are powerful mathematical formalisms for machine learning and reasoning under uncertainty that are widely used for cognitive computing. However they cannot be employed efficiently for large problems (with variables in the order of 100K or larger) on conventional systems, due to inefficiencies resulting from layers of abstraction and separation of logic and memory in CMOS implementations. In this paper, we present a magneto-electric probabilistic technology framework for implementing probabilistic reasoning functions. Read More

In artificial neural networks, neurons are usually implemented with highly dissipative CMOS-based operational amplifiers. A more energy-efficient implementation is a 'spin-neuron' realized with a magneto-tunneling junction (MTJ) that is switched with a spin-polarized current (representing weighted sum of input currents) that either delivers a spin transfer torque or induces domain wall motion in the soft layer of the MTJ. Here, we propose and analyze a different type of spin-neuron in which the soft layer of the MTJ is switched with mechanical strain generated by a voltage (representing weighted sum of input voltages) and term it straintronic spin-neuron. Read More

We propose a reconfigurable bit comparator implemented with a nanowire spin valve whose two contacts are magnetostrictive with bistable magnetization. Reference and input bits are "written" into the magnetization states of the two contacts with electrically generated strain and the spin-valve's resistance is lowered if they match. Multiple comparators can be interfaced in parallel with a magneto-tunneling junction to determine if an N-bit input stream matches an N-bit reference stream bit by bit. Read More

This paper develops empirical likelihood methodology for irregularly spaced spatial data in the frequency domain. Unlike the frequency domain empirical likelihood (FDEL) methodology for time series (on a regular grid), the formulation of the spatial FDEL needs special care due to lack of the usual orthogonality properties of the discrete Fourier transform for irregularly spaced data and due to presence of nontrivial bias in the periodogram under different spatial asymptotic structures. A spatial FDEL is formulated in the paper taking into account the effects of these factors. Read More

This is a reply to a comment on our work recently posted in arXiv. To our knowledge, this comment has not been published anywhere else. We show that the points raised in the comment are invalid Read More

This is a comment on two recent arXiv postings. Read More

A long-standing goal of computer technology is to process and store digital information with the same device in order to implement new architectures. One way to accomplish this is to use nanomagnetic `non-volatile' logic gates that can perform Boolean operations and then store the output data in the magnetization states of nanomagnets, thereby doubling as both logic and memory. Unfortunately, many proposed nanomagnetic gates do not possess the seven essential characteristics of a Boolean logic gate: concatenability, non-linearity, isolation between input and output, gain, universal logic implementation, scalability and error resilience. Read More

We present a data based statistical study on the effects of seasonal variations in the growth rates of the gastro-intestinal (GI) parasitic infection in livestock. The alluded growth rate is estimated through the variation in the number of eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces in animals. In accordance with earlier studies, our analysis too shows that rainfall is the dominant variable in determining EPG infection rates compared to other macro-parameters like temperature and humidity. Read More

Strain-clocked dipole-coupled nanomagnetic logic is an energy-efficient Boolean logic paradigm whose progress has been stymied by its propensity for high error rates. In an effort to mitigate this problem, we have studied the effect of nanomagnet geometry on error rates, focusing on elliptical and cylindrical geometries. We had previously reported that the out-of-plane excursion of the magnetization vector during switching creates a precessional torque that is responsible for high switching error probability in elliptical nanomagnet geometries. Read More

In this work, the exact solutions for combined KdV-mKdV generalized equation as a linear superposition of Jacobi elliptic functions, $c_n(\xi,m)$, $d_n(\xi,m)$. When $m$ is set to one, the solution matches with well-known hyperbolic solutions of generalized combined KdV-mKdV equation. Similar solution is also derived for the case for time dependent co-efficient. Read More

We prove limitations on LOCC and separable measurements in bipartite state discrimination problems using techniques from convex optimization. Specific results that we prove include: an exact formula for the optimal probability of correctly discriminating any set of either three or four Bell states via LOCC or separable measurements when the parties are given an ancillary partially entangled pair of qubits; an easily checkable characterization of when an unextendable product set is perfectly discriminated by separable measurements, along with the first known example of an unextendable product set that cannot be perfectly discriminated by separable measurements; and an optimal bound on the success probability for any LOCC or separable measurement for the recently proposed state discrimination problem of Yu, Duan, and Ying. Read More

We report magnetoresistive properties of direct and indirect band gap Bismuth-Antimony (Bi-Sb) alloys. Band gap increases with magnetic field. Large positive magnetoresistance (MR) approaching to 400 % is observed. Read More

Rotating the magnetization of a magnetostrictive nanomagnet with electrically generated mechanical strain dissipates miniscule amount of energy compared to any other rotation method and would have been the ideal method to write bits in nonvolatile magnetic memory, except strain cannot ordinarily rotate the magnetization of magnet by more than 90 degrees and "flip" it. Here, we describe a scheme to achieve complete 180 degree rotation of the magnetization of a nanomagnet with strain that will enable writing of binary bits in non-volatile magnetic memory implemented with magneto-tunneling junctions whose soft layers are two-phase magnetostrictive/piezoelectric multiferroics. At room temperature, this writing method results in: (1) energy dissipation < 6200 kT per bit, (2) write error probability < 10^-6, (3) write time of ~ 1 ns, and (4) low read error. Read More

Dipole-coupled nanomagnetic logic (NML), where nanomagnets with bistable magnetization states act as binary switches and information is transferred between them via dipole coupling and Bennett clocking, is a potential replacement for conventional transistor logic since magnets dissipate less energy than transistors when they switch in response to the clock. However, dipole-coupled NML is much more error-prone than transistor logic because thermal noise can easily disrupt magnetization dynamics. Here, we study a particularly energy-efficient version of dipole-coupled NML known as straintronic multiferroic logic (SML) where magnets are clocked/switched with electrically generated mechanical strain. Read More

We consider the problem of unambiguous (error-free) discrimination of N linearly independent pure quantum states with prior probabilities, where the goal is to find a measurement that maximizes the average probability of success. We derive an upper bound on the optimal average probability of success using a result on optimal local conversion between two bipartite pure states. We prove that an optimal measurement in general saturates our bound. Read More

**Authors:**Noel D'Souza

^{1}, Mohammad Salehi Fashami

^{2}, Supriyo Bandyopadhyay

^{3}, Jayasimha Atulasimha

^{4}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}corresponding author,

^{2}corresponding author,

^{3}corresponding author,

^{4}corresponding author

Nanomagnetic implementations of Boolean logic [1,2] have garnered attention because of their non-volatility and the potential for unprecedented energy-efficiency. Unfortunately, the large dissipative losses that take place when nanomagnets are switched with a magnetic field [3], or spin-transfer-torque [4] inhibit the promised energy-efficiency. Recently, there have been experimental reports of utilizing the Spin Hall effect for switching magnets [5-7], and theoretical proposals for strain induced switching of single-domain magnetostrictive nanomagnets [8-12], that might reduce the dissipative losses significantly. Read More

Predicting an individual's risk of experiencing a future clinical outcome is a statistical task with important consequences for both practicing clinicians and public health experts. Modern observational databases such as electronic health records (EHRs) provide an alternative to the longitudinal cohort studies traditionally used to construct risk models, bringing with them both opportunities and challenges. Large sample sizes and detailed covariate histories enable the use of sophisticated machine learning techniques to uncover complex associations and interactions, but observational databases are often ``messy,'' with high levels of missing data and incomplete patient follow-up. Read More

Models for predicting the risk of cardiovascular events based on individual patient characteristics are important tools for managing patient care. Most current and commonly used risk prediction models have been built from carefully selected epidemiological cohorts. However, the homogeneity and limited size of such cohorts restricts the predictive power and generalizability of these risk models to other populations. Read More

We present a novel method for guiding a large-scale swarm of autonomous agents into a desired formation shape in a distributed and scalable manner. Our Probabilistic Swarm Guidance using Inhomogeneous Markov Chains (PSG-IMC) algorithm adopts an Eulerian framework, where the physical space is partitioned into bins and the swarm's density distribution over each bin is controlled. Each agent determines its bin transition probabilities using a time-inhomogeneous Markov chain. Read More

We present the Bayesian consensus filter (BCF) for tracking a moving target using a networked group of sensing agents and achieving consensus on the best estimate of the probability distributions of the target's states. Our BCF framework can incorporate nonlinear target dynamic models, heterogeneous nonlinear measurement models, non-Gaussian uncertainties, and higher-order moments of the locally estimated posterior probability distribution of the target's states obtained using Bayesian filters. If the agents combine their estimated posterior probability distributions using a logarithmic opinion pool, then the sum of Kullback--Leibler divergences between the consensual probability distribution and the local posterior probability distributions is minimized. Read More

We propose an improved scheme for low-power writing of binary bits in non-volatile (multiferroic) magnetic memory with electrically generated mechanical stress. Compared to an earlier idea [Tiercelin, et al., J. Read More

A longstanding goal of spintronics is to inject, coherently transport, and detect spins in a semiconductor nanowire where a SINGLE quantized subband is occupied at room temperature. Here, we report achieving this goal in 50-nm diameter InSb nanowires by demonstrating both the spin-valve and the Hanle effect. The spin relaxation time in the nanowires was found to have increased by an order of magnitude over what has been reported in bulk and quantum wells due to the suppression of D'yakonov-Perel' spin relaxation as a result of single subband occupancy. Read More

One of the key issues in both natural language understanding and generation is the appropriate processing of Multiword Expressions (MWEs). MWEs pose a huge problem to the precise language processing due to their idiosyncratic nature and diversity in lexical, syntactical and semantic properties. The semantics of a MWE cannot be expressed after combining the semantics of its constituents. Read More

Maximally entangled states--a resource for quantum information processing--can only be shared through noiseless quantum channels, whereas in practice channels are noisy. Here we ask: Given a noisy quantum channel, what is the maximum attainable purity (measured by singlet fraction) of shared entanglement for single channel use and local trace preserving operations? We find an exact formula of the maximum singlet fraction attainable for a qubit channel and give an explicit protocol to achieve the optimal value. The protocol distinguishes between unital and nonunital channels and requires no local post-processing. Read More