Rui Liu - Department of Chemistry, Duke University

Rui Liu
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Rui Liu
Department of Chemistry, Duke University

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Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (25)
Physics - Optics (5)
Quantum Physics (5)
Physics - Space Physics (5)
Computer Science - Robotics (4)
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (4)
Computer Science - Computation and Language (4)
Physics - Plasma Physics (3)
Mathematics - Functional Analysis (3)
Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence (3)
Physics - Soft Condensed Matter (2)
Physics - Materials Science (2)
Mathematics - Operator Algebras (2)
Computer Science - Cryptography and Security (2)
Computer Science - Human-Computer Interaction (2)
Computer Science - Databases (2)
Computer Science - Multiagent Systems (1)
Computer Science - Information Retrieval (1)
Physics - Statistical Mechanics (1)
Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (1)
Computer Science - Learning (1)
Physics - Disordered Systems and Neural Networks (1)
Computer Science - Distributed; Parallel; and Cluster Computing (1)

Publications Authored By Rui Liu

Blockchain technologies are taking the world by storm. Public blockchains, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum, enable secure peer-to-peer applications like crypto-currency or smart contracts. Their security and performance are well studied. Read More

This paper develops a model that addresses syntactic embedding for machine comprehension, a key task of natural language understanding. Our proposed model, structural embedding of syntactic trees (SEST), takes each word in a sentence, constructs a sequence of syntactic nodes extracted from syntactic parse trees, and encodes the sequence into a vector representation. The learned vector is then incorporated into neural attention models, which allows learning the mapping of syntactic structures between question and context pairs. Read More

Natural Language (NL) for transferring knowledge from a human to a robot. Recently, research on using NL to support human-robot cooperation (HRC) has received increasing attention in several domains such as robotic daily assistance, robotic health caregiving, intelligent manufacturing, autonomous navigation and robot social accompany. However, a high-level review that can reveal the realization process and the latest methodologies of using NL to facilitate HRC is missing. Read More

Natural-language-facilitated human-robot cooperation (NLC), in which natural language (NL) is used to share knowledge between a human and a robot for conducting intuitive human-robot cooperation (HRC), is continuously developing in the recent decade. Currently, NLC is used in several robotic domains such as manufacturing, daily assistance and health caregiving. It is necessary to summarize current NLC-based robotic systems and discuss the future developing trends, providing helpful information for future NLC research. Read More

Since only the magnetic conditions at the photosphere can be routinely observed in current observations, it is of great significance to find out the influences of photospheric magnetic conditions on solar eruptive activities. Previous studies about catastrophe indicated that the magnetic system consisting of a flux rope in a partially open bipolar field is subject to catastrophe, but not if the bipolar field is completely closed under the same specified photospheric conditions. In order to investigate the influence of the photospheric magnetic conditions on the catastrophic behavior of this system, we expand upon the 2. Read More

Stabilization and trajectory control of a quadrotor carrying a suspended load with a fixed known mass has been extensively studied in recent years. However, the load mass is not always known beforehand or may vary during the practical transportations. This mass uncertainty brings uncertain disturbances to the quadrotor system, causing existing controllers to have worse stability and trajectory tracking performance. Read More

It is critical for advanced manufacturing machines to autonomously execute a task by following an end-user's natural language (NL) instructions. However, NL instructions are usually ambiguous and abstract so that the machines may misunderstand and incorrectly execute the task. To address this NL-based human-machine communication problem and enable the machines to appropriately execute tasks by following the end-user's NL instructions, we developed a Machine-Executable-Plan-Generation (exePlan) method. Read More

We report on the tornado-like evolution of a quiescent prominence on 2014 November 1. The eastern section of the prominence first rose slowly transforming into an arch-shaped structure as high as ~150 Mm above the limb; the arch then writhed moderately in a left-handed sense, while the originally dark prominence material became in emission in the Fe IX 171~{\AA} passband, and a braided structure appeared at the eastern edge of the warped arch. The unraveling of the braided structure was associated with a transient brightening in EUV and apparently contributed to the formation of a curtain-like structure (CLS). Read More

We propose an algorithm to uncover the intrinsic low-rank component of a high-dimensional, graph-smooth and grossly-corrupted dataset, under the situations that the underlying graph is unknown. Based on a model with a low-rank component plus a sparse perturbation, and an initial graph estimation, our proposed algorithm simultaneously learns the low-rank component and refines the graph. Our evaluations using synthetic and real brain imaging data in unsupervised and supervised classification tasks demonstrate encouraging performance. Read More

Typical solar flares display two quasi-parallel, bright ribbons on the chromosphere. In between is the polarity inversion line (PIL) separating concentrated magnetic fluxes of opposite polarity in active regions (ARs). Intriguingly a series of flares exhibiting X-shaped ribbons occurred at the similar location on the outskirts of NOAA AR 11967, where magnetic fluxes were scattered, yet three of them were alarmingly energetic. Read More

In this paper, we present the detailed analysis of recurrent homologous jets originating from an emerging negative magnetic flux at the edge of an Active Region. The observed jets show multi-thermal features. Their evolution shows high consistence with the characteristic parameters of the emerging flux, suggesting that with more free magnetic energy, the eruptions tend to be more violent, frequent and blowout-like. Read More

Magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) are one kind of fundamental structures in the solar physics, and involved in various eruption phenomena. Twist, characterizing how the magnetic field lines wind around a main axis, is an intrinsic property of MFRs, closely related to the magnetic free energy and stableness. So far it is unclear how much amount of twist is carried by MFRs in the solar atmosphere and in heliosphere and what role the twist played in the eruptions of MFRs. Read More

The largest geomagnetic storm so far in the solar cycle 24 was produced by a fast coronal mass ejection (CME) originating on 2015 March 15. It was an initially west-oriented CME and expected to only cause a weak geomagnetic disturbance. Why did this CME finally cause such a large geomagnetic storm? We try to find some clues by investigating its propagation from the Sun to 1 AU. Read More

Solar active regions (ARs) are the major sources of two kinds of the most violent solar eruptions, namely flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The largest AR in the past 24 years, NOAA AR 12192, crossed the visible disk from 2014 October 17 to 30, unusually produced more than one hundred flares, including 32 M-class and 6 X-class ones, but only one small CME. Flares and CMEs are believed to be two phenomena in the same eruptive process. Read More

2.5D time-dependent ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models in Cartesian coordinates were used in previous studies to seek MHD equilibria involving a magnetic flux rope embedded in a bipolar, partially open background field. As demonstrated by these studies, the equilibrium solutions of the system are separated into two branches: the flux rope sticks to the photosphere for solutions at the lower branch but is suspended in the corona for those at the upper branch. Read More

Chirality is an important concept that describes the asymmetry property of a system, which usually emerges spontaneously due to mirror symmetry breaking. Such spontaneous chirality manifests predominantly as parity breaking in modern physics, which has been studied extensively, for instance, in Higgs physics, double-well Bose-Einstein condensates, topological insulators and superconductors. In the optical domain, spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking has been elusive experimentally, especially for micro- and nano-photonics which demands multiple identical subsystems, such as photonic nanocavities, meta-molecules and other dual-core settings. Read More

We investigate the evolutions of two prominences (P1,P2) and two bundles of coronal loops (L1,L2), observed with SDO/AIA near the east solar limb on 2012 September 22. It is found that there were large-amplitude oscillations in P1 and L1, but no detectable motions in P2 and L2. These transverse oscillations were triggered by a large-scale coronal wave, originating from a large flare in a remote active region behind the solar limb. Read More

Using an event-driven molecular dynamics simulation, we show that simple monodisperse granular beads confined in coupled columns may oscillate as a new type of granular clock. To trigger this oscillation, the system needs to be driven against gravity into a density-inverted state, with a high-density clustering phase supported from below by a gas-like low-density phase (Leidenfrost effect) in each column. Our analysis reveals that the density-inverted structure and the relaxation dynamics between the phases can amplify any small asymmetry between the columns, and lead to a giant oscillation. Read More

In this paper, we present that security threats coming with existing GPU memory management strategy are overlooked, which opens a back door for adversaries to freely break the memory isolation: they enable adversaries without any privilege in a computer to recover the raw memory data left by previous processes directly. More importantly, such attacks can work on not only normal multi-user operating systems, but also cloud computing platforms. To demonstrate the seriousness of such attacks, we recovered original data directly from GPU memory residues left by exited commodity applications, including Google Chrome, Adobe Reader, GIMP, Matlab. Read More

Usually HBT effect can be interpreted by classical (intensity fluctuation correlation) and quantum (interference of two-photon probability amplitudes) theories properly at the same time. In this manuscript, we report a deliberately designed experiment in which two chaotic light beams has the same intensity fluctuation but mutual-orthogonal polarizations to each other so there will be no interference of two-photon probability amplitudes. Classical and quantum theory give different predictions on if there should be HBT (photon bunching) effect or not in the experiment. Read More

The 2011 January 28 M1.4 flare exhibits two side-by-side candle-flame-shaped flare loop systems underneath a larger cusp-shaped structure during the decay phase, as observed at the northwestern solar limb by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The northern loop system brightens following the initiation of the flare within the southern loop system, but all three cusp-shaped structures are characterized by ~ 10 MK temperatures, hotter than the arch-shaped loops underneath. Read More

We report multi-wavelength and multi-viewpoint observations of a solar eruptive event which involves loop-loop interactions. During a C2.0 flare, motions associated with inflowing and outflowing plasma provide evidence for ongoing magnetic reconnection. Read More

We image local structural rearrangements in soft colloidal glasses under small periodic perturbations induced by thermal cycling. Local structural entropy $S_{2}$ positively correlates with observed rearrangements in colloidal glasses. The high $S_{2}$ values of the rearranging clusters in glasses indicate that fragile regions in glasses are structurally less correlated, similar to structural defects in crystalline solids. Read More

In this paper, we introduce the concept of cb-frames for operator spaces. We show that there is a concrete cb-frame for the reduced free group C*-algebra $C_r^*(F_2)$, which is derived from the infinite convex decomposition of the biorthogonal system $(\lambda_s, \delta_s)_{s \in F_2}$. We show that, in general, a separable operator space X has a cb-frame if and only if it has the completely bounded approximation property if and only if it is completely isomorphic to a completely complemented subspace of an operator space with a cb-basis. Read More

Since the well-known PT symmetry has its fundamental significance and implication in physics, where PT denotes the combined operation of space-inversion P and time-reversal T, it is extremely important and intriguing to completely classify exotic PT-invariant topological metals and to physically realize them. Here we, for the first time, establish a rigorous classification of topological metals that are protected by the PT symmetry using KO-theory. As a physically realistic example, a PT-invariant nodal loop (NL) model in a 3D Brillouin zone is constructed, whose topological stability is revealed through its PT-symmetry-protected nontrivial Z2 topological charge. Read More

We investigate the evolution of NOAA Active Region 11817 during 2013 August 10--12, when it developed a complex field configuration and produced four confined, followed by two eruptive, flares. These C-and-above flares are all associated with a magnetic flux rope (MFR) located along the major polarity inversion line, where shearing and converging photospheric flows are present. Aided by the nonlinear force-free field modeling, we identify the MFR through mapping magnetic connectivities and computing the twist number $\mathcal{T}_w$ for each individual field line. Read More

Photons may have homogeneous polarization and may carry quantized orbital angular momentum (OAM). Photon entanglement has been realized in various degrees of freedom such as polarization and OAM. Using a pair of orthogonally polarized states carrying opposite-handedness quantized OAMs could create "quantized" vector polarization states with space-variant polarization structures. Read More

Bell-state analysis is a considerable challenge and an essential requirement for reliable implementation of quantum communication proposals. An open question is the one for the maximal fraction of successful Bell measurements. It has been pointed out that no scheme using only linear elements can implement a Bell state analyzer. Read More

The dynamic properties of flare ribbons and the often associated filament eruptions can provide crucial information on the flaring coronal magnetic field. This Letter analyzes the GOES-class X1.0 flare on 2014 March 29 (SOL2014-03-29T17:48), in which we found an asymmetric eruption of a sigmoidal filament and an ensuing circular flare ribbon. Read More

SDO/EVE provides rich information of the thermodynamic processes of solar activities, particularly of solar flares. Here, we develop a method to construct thermodynamic spectrum (TDS) charts based on the EVE spectral lines. This tool could be potentially useful to the EUV astronomy to learn the eruptive activities on the distant astronomical objects. Read More

We report on an eruption involving a relatively rare filament-filament interaction on 2013 June 21, observed by SDO and STEREO-B. The two filaments were separated in height with a 'double-decker' configuration. The eruption of the lower filament began simultaneously with a descent of the upper filament resulting in a convergence and direct interaction of the two filaments. Read More

Inspired by some recent development on the theory about projection valued dilations for operator valued measures or more generally bounded homomorphism dilations for bounded linear maps on Banach algebras, we explore a pure algebraic version of the dilation theory for linear systems acting on unital algebras and vector spaces. By introducing two natural dilation structures, namely the canonical and the universal dilation systems, we prove that every linearly minimal dilation is equivalent to a reduced homomorphism dilation of the universal dilation, and all the linearly minimal homomorphism dilations can be classified by the associated reduced subspaces contained in the kernel of synthesis operator for the universal dilation. Read More

The second peak in the Fe XVI 33.5 nm line irradiance observed during solar flares by Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) is known as Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) late phase. Our previous paper (Liu et al. Read More

This paper presents a simulation model based on the general framework of Multi-Agent System (MAS) that can be used to investigate construction project bidding process. Specifically, it can be used to investigate different strategies in project bidding management from the general contractors' perspective. The effectiveness of the studied management strategies is evaluated by the quality, time and cost of bidding activities. Read More

There has been significant recent interest in the area of group recommendations, where, given groups of users of a recommender system, one wants to recommend top-k items to a group that maximize the satisfaction of the group members, according to a chosen semantics of group satisfaction. Examples semantics of satisfaction of a recommended itemset to a group include the so-called least misery (LM) and aggregate voting (AV). We consider the complementary problem of how to form groups such that the users in the formed groups are most satisfied with the suggested top-k recommendations. Read More

Magnetic clouds (MCs) are the interplanetary counterparts of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and usually modeled by a flux rope. By assuming the quasi-steady evolution and self-similar expansion, we introduce three types of global motion into a cylindrical force-free flux rope model, and developed a new velocity-modified model for MCs. The three types of the global motion are the linear propagating motion away from the Sun, the expanding and the poloidal motion with respect to the axis of the MC. Read More

We report the coexistence of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases in the single crystal of Mn$_3$ single-molecule magnet. The coexistent state appears within a certain period of time in the progress of either oxidation or reduction during a reversible oxidation-reduction process, when the sample is exposed in the air (oxygen) or the methyl vapor. We noticed an apparent change in the molecular structure, which is also reversible in terms of that the methyl group is dropped or added to the molecules during the oxidation or reduction. Read More

We present a set of tools for detecting small-scale solar magnetic cancellations and the disk counterpart of type II spicules (the so-called Rapid Blueshifted Excursions (RBEs)), using line-of-sight photospheric magnetograms and chromospheric spectroscopic observations, respectively. For tracking magnetic cancellation, we improve the Southwest Automatic Magnetic Identification Suite (SWAMIS) so that it is able to detect certain obscure cancellations that can be easily missed. For detecting RBEs, we use a normalized reference profile to reduce false-positive detections caused by the non-uniform background and seeing condition. Read More

Super-elastic collision is an abnormal collisional process, in which some particular mechanisms cause the kinetic energy of the system increasing. Most studies in this aspect focus on solid-like objects, but they rarely consider gases or liquids, as the collision of the latter is primarily a mixing process. With cross-field diffusion being effectively prohibited, magnetized plasmoids are different from ordinary gases. Read More

Chromospheric rapid blueshifted excursions (RBEs) are suggested to be the disk counterparts of type II spicules at the limb and believed to contribute to the coronal heating process. Previous identification of RBEs was mainly based on feature detection using Dopplergrams. In this paper, we study RBEs on 2011 October 21 in a very quiet region at the disk center, which were observed with the high-cadence imaging spectroscopy of the Ca II 8542 A line from the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer (IBIS). Read More

We will give an outline of the main results in our recent AMS Memoir, and include some new results, exposition and open problems. In that memoir we developed a general dilation theory for operator valued measures acting on Banach spaces where operator-valued measures (or maps) are not necessarily completely bounded. The main results state that any operator-valued measure, not necessarily completely bounded, always has a dilation to a projection-valued measure acting on a Banach space, and every bounded linear map, again not necessarily completely bounded, on a Banach algebra has a bounded homomorphism dilation acting on a Banach space. Read More

Motivated by a general dilation theory for operator-valued measures, framings and bounded linear maps on operator algebras, we consider the dilation theory of the above objects with special structures. We show that every operator-valued system of imprimitivity has a dilation to a probability spectral system of imprimitivity acting on a Banach space. This completely generalizes a well-kown result which states that every frame representation of a countable group on a Hilbert space is unitarily equivalent to a subrepresentation of the left regular representation of the group. Read More

We report spin-pair tunneling observed in Mn$_3$ single-molecule magnet, which is a crystal with 2D network of identical exchange coupling. We observed a series of extra quantum tunnelings by the ac susceptibility measurements, and demonstrated these are concerted tunnelings of two spins taking place from the same initial state to the same final state simultaneously. The resonant field of spin-pair tunneling can be expressed as $H_z=lD/g\mu_{0}\mu_{B}+(n_{\downarrow}-n_{\uparrow})JS/2{g\mu_{0}\mu_{B}}$, and the splitting interval ($|J|S/{g\mu_{0}\mu_{B}}$) is half of that of the single-spin tunneling ($2|J|S/{g\mu_{0}\mu_{B}}$), which is analogous to the relationship between the magnetic flux quantum in superconductor ($h/2e$) and common metal ($h/e$). Read More

We study a coronal mass ejection (CME) associated with an X-class flare, whose initiation is clearly observed in low corona with high-cadence, high-resolution EUV images, providing us a rare opportunity to witness the early evolution of an energetic CME in detail. The eruption starts with a slow expansion of cool overlying loops (~1 MK) following a jet-like event in the periphery of the active region. Underneath the expanding loop system a reverse S-shaped dimming is seen immediately above the brightening active region in hot EUV passbands. Read More

Force-free equilibria containing two vertically arranged magnetic flux ropes of like chirality and current direction are considered as a model for split filaments/prominences and filament-sigmoid systems. Such equilibria are constructed analytically through an extension of the methods developed in Titov & D\'emoulin (1999) and numerically through an evolutionary sequence including shear flows, flux emergence, and flux cancellation in the photospheric boundary. It is demonstrated that the analytical equilibria are stable if an external toroidal (shear) field component exceeding a threshold value is included. Read More

Ground-state cooling of mesoscopic mechanical resonators is a fundamental requirement for test of quantum theory and for implementation of quantum information. We analyze the cavity optomechanical cooling limits in the intermediate coupling regime, where the light-enhanced optomechanical coupling strength is comparable with the cavity decay rate. It is found that in this regime the cooling breaks through the limits in both the strong and weak coupling regimes. Read More

We present multi-wavelength observations of a prominence eruption originating from a quadrupolar field configuration, in which the prominence was embedded in a side-arcade. Within the two-day period prior to its eruption on 2012 October 22, the prominence was perturbed three times by chromospheric fibrils underneath, which rose upward, became brightened, and merged into the prominence, resulting in horizontal flows along the prominence axis, suggesting that the fluxes carried by the fibrils were incorporated into the magnetic field of the prominence. These perturbations caused the prominence to oscillate and to rise faster than before. Read More

We report the observation of an X-class long-duration flare which is clearly confined. It appears as a compact-loop flare in the traditional EUV passbands (171 and 195 {\AA}), but in the passbands sensitive to flare plasmas (94 and 131 {\AA}), it exhibits a cusp-shaped structure above an arcade of loops like other long-duration events. Inspecting images in a running difference approach, we find that the seemingly diffuse, quasi-static cusp-shaped structure consists of multiple nested loops that repeatedly rise upward and disappear approaching the cusp edge. Read More

In this presentation, we report for the first time the detailed temperature evolution process of the magnetic flux rope in a failed solar eruption. Occurred on January 05, 2013, the flux rope was impulsively accelerated to a speed of ~ 400 km/s in the first minute, then decelerated and came to a complete stop in two minutes. The failed eruption resulted in a large-size high-lying (~ 100 Mm above the surface) high-temperature "fire ball" sitting in the corona for more than two hours. Read More

The equal-interval splitting of quantum tunneling observed in simple-Ising-model systems of Ni$_{4}$ (3D) and Mn$_3$ (2D) single-molecule magnets (SMMs) is reported. The splitting is due to the identical exchange coupling in the SMMs, and is simply determined by the difference between the two numbers of the spin-down $n_{\downarrow}$ and spin-up $n_{\uparrow}$ molecules neighboring to the tunneling molecule. The splitting may be presented as $(n_{\downarrow}-n_{\uparrow})JS/{g\mu_{0}\mu_{B}}$, and the number of the splittings follows $n+1$ where $n=n_{\downarrow}+n_{\uparrow}$ is the coordination number. Read More