Rosanne Di Stefano - SAO/CfA

Rosanne Di Stefano
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Rosanne Di Stefano

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Astrophysics (16)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (14)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (8)
Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (8)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (8)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (5)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (3)
Computer Science - Digital Libraries (1)
Computer Science - Computers and Society (1)

Publications Authored By Rosanne Di Stefano

We recommend that the search for exoplanets around binary stars be extended to include X-ray binaries in which the accretor is a white dwarf, neutron star, or black hole. We present a novel idea for detecting planets bound to such mass transfer binaries: we propose that the X-ray light curves of these binaries be inspected for signatures of transiting planets. X-ray transits may be the only way to detect planets around some systems, while providing a complementary approach to optical and/or radio observations in others. Read More

We compile observations of early-type binaries identified via spectroscopy, eclipses, long-baseline interferometry, sparse aperture masking, adaptive optics, lucky imaging, and common proper motion. We combine the samples from the various surveys and correct for their respective selection effects to determine a comprehensive nature of the intrinsic multiplicity statistics of O-type and B-type stars. We find the properties of companions to massive stars differ among three regimes. Read More

The formation of relativistic jets by an accreting compact object is one of the fundamental mysteries of astrophysics. While the theory is poorly understood, observations of relativistic jets from systems known as microquasars have led to a well-established phenomenology. Relativistic jets are not expected from sources with soft or supersoft X-ray spectra, although two such systems are known to produce relatively low-velocity bipolar outflows. Read More

At intervals as short as ten thousand years, each white dwarf (WD) passes within a solar radius of a planetoid, i.e., a comet, asteroid, or planet. Read More

We analyze 221 eclipsing binaries (EBs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud with B-type main-sequence (MS) primaries ($M_1$ $\approx$ 4 - 14 M$_{\odot}$) and orbital periods $P$ = 20 - 50 days that were photometrically monitored by the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. We utilize our three-stage automated pipeline to (1) classify all 221 EBs, (2) fit physical models to the light curves of 130 detached well-defined EBs from which unique parameters can be determined, and (3) recover the intrinsic binary statistics by correcting for selection effects. We uncover two statistically significant trends with age. Read More

Gravitational lensing events provide unique opportunities to discover and study planetary systems and binaries. Here we build on previous work to explore the role that orbital motion can play in both identifying and learning more about multiple-mass systems that serve as gravitational lenses. We find that a significant fraction of planet-lens and binary-lens light curves are influenced by orbital motion. Read More

Early B-type main-sequence (MS) stars (M$_1$ = 5-16 M$_{\odot}$) with closely orbiting low-mass stellar companions (q = M$_2$/M$_1$ < 0.25) can evolve to produce Type Ia supernovae, low-mass X-ray binaries, and millisecond pulsars. However, the formation mechanism and intrinsic frequency of such close extreme mass-ratio binaries have been debated, especially considering none have hitherto been detected. Read More

This article offers a short guide to the steps scientists can take to ensure that their data and associated analyses continue to be of value and to be recognized. In just the past few years, hundreds of scholarly papers and reports have been written on questions of data sharing, data provenance, research reproducibility, licensing, attribution, privacy, and more, but our goal here is not to review that literature. Instead, we present a short guide intended for researchers who want to know why it is important to "care for and feed" data, with some practical advice on how to do that. Read More

In order to understand the rates and properties of Type Ia and Type Ib/c supernovae, X-ray binaries, gravitational wave sources, and gamma ray bursts as a function of galactic environment and cosmic age, it is imperative that we measure how the close binary properties of O and B-type stars vary with metallicity. We have studied eclipsing binaries with early-B main-sequence primaries in three galaxies with different metallicities: the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC, respectively) as well as the Milky Way (MW). The observed fractions of early-B stars which exhibit deep eclipses 0. Read More

The successful prediction of lensing events is a new and exciting enterprise that provides opportunities to discover and study planetary systems. The companion paper investigates the underlying theory. This paper is devoted to outlining the components of observing programs that can discover planets orbiting stars predicted to make a close approach to a background star. Read More

The Einstein rings and proper motions of nearby stars tend to be large. Thus, every year some foreground stars within a few hundred parsecs of Earth induce gravitational lensing events in background stars. In some of these cases, the events may exhibit evidence of planets orbiting the nearby star. Read More

Gravitational microlensing events are powerful tools for the study of stellar populations. In particular, they can be used to discover and study a variety of binary systems. A large number of binary lenses have already been found through microlensing surveys and a few of these systems show strong evidence of orbital motion on the timescale of the lensing event. Read More

Searches for planets via gravitational lensing have focused on cases in which the projected separation, a, between planet and star is comparable to the Einstein radius, R_E. This paper considers smaller orbital separations and demonstrates that evidence of close-orbit planets can be found in the low-magnification portion of the light curves generated by the central star. We develop a protocol to discover hot Jupiters as well as Neptune-mass and Earth-mass planets in the stellar habitable zone. Read More

The explosion of a Type Ia supernova, SN 2011ef, in the nearby Pinwheel galaxy (M101 at 6.4 Mpc) provides an opportunity to study pre-explosion images and search for the progenitor, which should consist of a white dwarf (WD), possibly surrounded by an accretion disk, in orbit with another star. We report on our use of deep Chandra observations to limit the luminosity and temperature of the pre-explosion white dwarf (WD). Read More

Based on new and archival Chandra observations of the Sombrero galaxy (M 104), we study the diffuse X-ray emission in and around its massive stellar bulge. The 2-6 keV unresolved emission from the bulge region closely follows the K-band star light and most likely arises from unresolved stellar sources. At lower energies, however, the unresolved emission reaches a galactocentric radius of at least 23 kpc, significantly beyond the extent of the starlight, clearly indicating the presence of diffuse hot gas. Read More

We present a study of discrete X-ray sources in and around the bulge-dominated, massive Sa galaxy, Sombrero (M104), based on new and archival Chandra observations with a total exposure of ~200 ks. With a detection limit of L_X = 1E37 erg/s and a field of view covering a galactocentric radius of ~30 kpc (11.5 arcminute), 383 sources are detected. Read More

We report on observations of a luminous supersoft X-ray source (SSS) in M31, r1-25, that has exhibited spectral changes to harder X-ray states. We document these spectral changes. In addition, we show that they have important implications for modeling the source. Read More

In order for a white dwarf (WD) to achieve the Chandrasekhar mass, M_C, and explode as a Type Ia supernova (SNIa), it must interact with another star, either accreting matter from or merging with it. The failure to identify the types of binaries which produce SNeIa is the "progenitor problem". Its solution is required if we are to utilize the full potential of SNeIa to elucidate basic cosmological and physical principles. Read More

Kepler's first major discoveries are two hot objects orbiting stars in its field. These may be the cores of stars that have each been eroded or disrupted by a companion star. The companion, which is the star monitored today, is likely to have gained mass from its now-defunct partner, and can be considered to be a blue straggler. Read More

Affiliations: 1Harvard/CfA, 2CESR-Toulouse, 3INAF-Brera, 4Univ. Paris/Diderot, 5Univ. Iowa, 6Harvard/CfA, 7IASF-Rome, 8Harvard/CfA, 9IASF-Milan, 10IASF-Milan, 11INAF-Milan, 12SAO, 13NASA-MSFC, 14INAF-Rome, 15Harvard/CfA, 16Berkeley, 17Univ. Amsterdam, 18NASA-MSFC, 19GSFC, 20Harvard/CfA, 21INAF-Milan, 22INAF-Brera, 23NASA-GSFC, 24SAO/CfA, 25IASF-Rome, 26NASA-MSFC

The population of stellar black holes (SBHs) in the Galaxy and galaxies generally is poorly known in both number and distribution. SBHs are the fossil record of the massive stars in galaxy evolution and may have produced some (if not all) of the intermediate mass (\gsim100\Msun) black holes (IMBHs) and, in turn, the central supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic nuclei. For the first time, a Galaxy-wide census of accreting black holes, and their more readily recognizable tracer population, accreting neutron stars (NSs), could be measured with a wide-field hard X-ray imaging survey and soft X-ray and optical/IR prompt followup -- as proposed for the EXIST mission. Read More

Do white dwarfs host asteroid systems? Although several lines of argument suggest that white dwarfs may be orbited by large populations of asteroids, transits would provide the most direct evidence. We demonstrate that the Kepler mission has the capability to detect transits of white dwarfs by asteroids. Because white-dwarf asteroid systems, if they exist, are likely to contain many asteroids orbiting in a spatially extended distribution, discoveries of asteroid transits can be made by monitoring only a small number of white dwarfs, compatible with Kepler's primary mission, which is to monitor stars with potentially habitable planets. Read More

Ongoing microlensing observations by OGLE and MOA regularly identify and conduct high-cadence sampling of lensing events with Einstein diameter crossing time, tau_E, of 16 or fewer days. Events with estimated values of tau_E of one to two days have been detected. Short duration events tend to be generated by low-mass lenses or by lenses with high transverse velocities. Read More

Short duration lensing events tend to be generated by low-mass lenses or by lenses with high transverse velocities. Furthermore, for any given lens mass and speed, events of short duration are preferentially caused by nearby lenses (mesolenses) that can be studied in detail, or else by lenses so close to the source star that finite-source-size effects may be detected, yielding information about both the Einstein ring radius and the surface of the lensed star. Planets causing short-duration events may be in orbits with any orientation, and may have semimajor axes smaller than an AU, or they may reach the outer limits of their planetary systems, in the region corresponding to the Solar System's Oort Cloud. Read More

In a canonical model, the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are accreting, nuclear-burning white dwarfs (NBWDs), which explode when the white dwarf reaches the Chandrasekhar mass, M_C. Such massive NBWDs are hot (kT ~100 eV), luminous (L ~ 10^{38} erg/s), and are potentially observable as luminous supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs). During the past several years, surveys for soft X-ray sources in external galaxies have been conducted. Read More

Authors: LSST Science Collaboration, Paul A. Abell1, Julius Allison2, Scott F. Anderson3, John R. Andrew4, J. Roger P. Angel5, Lee Armus6, David Arnett7, S. J. Asztalos8, Tim S. Axelrod9, Stephen Bailey10, D. R. Ballantyne11, Justin R. Bankert12, Wayne A. Barkhouse13, Jeffrey D. Barr14, L. Felipe Barrientos15, Aaron J. Barth16, James G. Bartlett17, Andrew C. Becker18, Jacek Becla19, Timothy C. Beers20, Joseph P. Bernstein21, Rahul Biswas22, Michael R. Blanton23, Joshua S. Bloom24, John J. Bochanski25, Pat Boeshaar26, Kirk D. Borne27, Marusa Bradac28, W. N. Brandt29, Carrie R. Bridge30, Michael E. Brown31, Robert J. Brunner32, James S. Bullock33, Adam J. Burgasser34, James H. Burge35, David L. Burke36, Phillip A. Cargile37, Srinivasan Chandrasekharan38, George Chartas39, Steven R. Chesley40, You-Hua Chu41, David Cinabro42, Mark W. Claire43, Charles F. Claver44, Douglas Clowe45, A. J. Connolly46, Kem H. Cook47, Jeff Cooke48, Asantha Cooray49, Kevin R. Covey50, Christopher S. Culliton51, Roelof de Jong52, Willem H. de Vries53, Victor P. Debattista54, Francisco Delgado55, Ian P. Dell'Antonio56, Saurav Dhital57, Rosanne Di Stefano58, Mark Dickinson59, Benjamin Dilday60, S. G. Djorgovski61, Gregory Dobler62, Ciro Donalek63, Gregory Dubois-Felsmann64, Josef Durech65, Ardis Eliasdottir66, Michael Eracleous67, Laurent Eyer68, Emilio E. Falco69, Xiaohui Fan70, Christopher D. Fassnacht71, Harry C. Ferguson72, Yanga R. Fernandez73, Brian D. Fields74, Douglas Finkbeiner75, Eduardo E. Figueroa76, Derek B. Fox77, Harold Francke78, James S. Frank79, Josh Frieman80, Sebastien Fromenteau81, Muhammad Furqan82, Gaspar Galaz83, A. Gal-Yam84, Peter Garnavich85, Eric Gawiser86, John Geary87, Perry Gee88, Robert R. Gibson89, Kirk Gilmore90, Emily A. Grace91, Richard F. Green92, William J. Gressler93, Carl J. Grillmair94, Salman Habib95, J. S. Haggerty96, Mario Hamuy97, Alan W. Harris98, Suzanne L. Hawley99, Alan F. Heavens100, Leslie Hebb101, Todd J. Henry102, Edward Hileman103, Eric J. Hilton104, Keri Hoadley105, J. B. Holberg106, Matt J. Holman107, Steve B. Howell108, Leopoldo Infante109, Zeljko Ivezic110, Suzanne H. Jacoby111, Bhuvnesh Jain112, R113, Jedicke114, M. James Jee115, J. Garrett Jernigan116, Saurabh W. Jha117, Kathryn V. Johnston118, R. Lynne Jones119, Mario Juric120, Mikko Kaasalainen121, Styliani122, Kafka, Steven M. Kahn, Nathan A. Kaib, Jason Kalirai, Jeff Kantor, Mansi M. Kasliwal, Charles R. Keeton, Richard Kessler, Zoran Knezevic, Adam Kowalski, Victor L. Krabbendam, K. Simon Krughoff, Shrinivas Kulkarni, Stephen Kuhlman, Mark Lacy, Sebastien Lepine, Ming Liang, Amy Lien, Paulina Lira, Knox S. Long, Suzanne Lorenz, Jennifer M. Lotz, R. H. Lupton, Julie Lutz, Lucas M. Macri, Ashish A. Mahabal, Rachel Mandelbaum, Phil Marshall, Morgan May, Peregrine M. McGehee, Brian T. Meadows, Alan Meert, Andrea Milani, Christopher J. Miller, Michelle Miller, David Mills, Dante Minniti, David Monet, Anjum S. Mukadam, Ehud Nakar, Douglas R. Neill, Jeffrey A. Newman, Sergei Nikolaev, Martin Nordby, Paul O'Connor, Masamune Oguri, John Oliver, Scot S. Olivier, Julia K. Olsen, Knut Olsen, Edward W. Olszewski, Hakeem Oluseyi, Nelson D. Padilla, Alex Parker, Joshua Pepper, John R. Peterson, Catherine Petry, Philip A. Pinto, James L. Pizagno, Bogdan Popescu, Andrej Prsa, Veljko Radcka, M. Jordan Raddick, Andrew Rasmussen, Arne Rau, Jeonghee Rho, James E. Rhoads, Gordon T. Richards, Stephen T. Ridgway, Brant E. Robertson, Rok Roskar, Abhijit Saha, Ata Sarajedini, Evan Scannapieco, Terry Schalk, Rafe Schindler, Samuel Schmidt, Sarah Schmidt, Donald P. Schneider, German Schumacher, Ryan Scranton, Jacques Sebag, Lynn G. Seppala, Ohad Shemmer, Joshua D. Simon, M. Sivertz, Howard A. Smith, J. Allyn Smith, Nathan Smith, Anna H. Spitz, Adam Stanford, Keivan G. Stassun, Jay Strader, Michael A. Strauss, Christopher W. Stubbs, Donald W. Sweeney, Alex Szalay, Paula Szkody, Masahiro Takada, Paul Thorman, David E. Trilling, Virginia Trimble, Anthony Tyson, Richard Van Berg, Daniel Vanden Berk, Jake VanderPlas, Licia Verde, Bojan Vrsnak, Lucianne M. Walkowicz, Benjamin D. Wandelt, Sheng Wang, Yun Wang, Michael Warner, Risa H. Wechsler, Andrew A. West, Oliver Wiecha, Benjamin F. Williams, Beth Willman, David Wittman, Sidney C. Wolff, W. Michael Wood-Vasey, Przemek Wozniak, Patrick Young, Andrew Zentner, Hu Zhan
Affiliations: 1Stella, 2Stella, 3Stella, 4Stella, 5Stella, 6Stella, 7Stella, 8Stella, 9Stella, 10Stella, 11Stella, 12Stella, 13Stella, 14Stella, 15Stella, 16Stella, 17Stella, 18Stella, 19Stella, 20Stella, 21Stella, 22Stella, 23Stella, 24Stella, 25Stella, 26Stella, 27Stella, 28Stella, 29Stella, 30Stella, 31Stella, 32Stella, 33Stella, 34Stella, 35Stella, 36Stella, 37Stella, 38Stella, 39Stella, 40Stella, 41Stella, 42Stella, 43Stella, 44Stella, 45Stella, 46Stella, 47Stella, 48Stella, 49Stella, 50Stella, 51Stella, 52Stella, 53Stella, 54Stella, 55Stella, 56Stella, 57Stella, 58Stella, 59Stella, 60Stella, 61Stella, 62Stella, 63Stella, 64Stella, 65Stella, 66Stella, 67Stella, 68Stella, 69Stella, 70Stella, 71Stella, 72Stella, 73Stella, 74Stella, 75Stella, 76Stella, 77Stella, 78Stella, 79Stella, 80Stella, 81Stella, 82Stella, 83Stella, 84Stella, 85Stella, 86Stella, 87Stella, 88Stella, 89Stella, 90Stella, 91Stella, 92Stella, 93Stella, 94Stella, 95Stella, 96Stella, 97Stella, 98Stella, 99Stella, 100Stella, 101Stella, 102Stella, 103Stella, 104Stella, 105Stella, 106Stella, 107Stella, 108Stella, 109Stella, 110Stella, 111Stella, 112Stella, 113Stella, 114Stella, 115Stella, 116Stella, 117Stella, 118Stella, 119Stella, 120Stella, 121Stella, 122Stella

A survey that can cover the sky in optical bands over wide fields to faint magnitudes with a fast cadence will enable many of the exciting science opportunities of the next decade. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will have an effective aperture of 6.7 meters and an imaging camera with field of view of 9. Read More

Observations of hundreds of supersoft x-ray sources (SSSs) in external galaxies have shed light on the diversity of the class and on the natures of the sources. SSSs are linked to the physics of Type Ia supernovae and accretion-induced collapse, ultraluminous x-ray sources and black holes, the ionization of the interstellar medium, and tidal disruption by supermassive black holes. The class of SSSs has an extension to higher luminosities: ultraluminous SSSs have luminosities above 10^39 erg/s. Read More

Affiliations: 1Harvard/CfA, 2Harvard/CfA, 3UC Berkeley, 4Johns Hopkins, 5UC Berkeley, 6INAF-Brera, 7Harvard/CfA, 8INAF-Milan, 9Harvard/CfA, 10Yale, 11Tokyo Inst. Tech., 12GSFC, 13UC Berkeley, 14Harvard/CfA, 15CESR-Toulouse, 16IASF-Rome, 17IASF-Milan, 18IASF-Milan, 19U. Paris Diderot, CEA Saclay, 20INAF-Milan, 21Harvard/CfA, 22SAO, 23USRA, 24INAF-Rome, 25Clemson, 26Harvard/CfA, 27UC Berkeley, 28U. Iowa, 29MSFC, 30GSFC, 31Harvard/CfA, 32INAF-Brera, 33GSFC, 34Harvard/CfA, 35INAF-OABrera, 36IASF-Rome, 37U. Amsterdam, 38MSFC

Over the next decade, we can expect time domain astronomy to flourish at optical and radio wavelengths. In parallel with these efforts, a dedicated transient "machine" operating at higher energies (X-ray band through soft gamma-rays) is required to reveal the unique subset of events with variable emission predominantly visible above 100 eV. Here we focus on the transient phase space never yet sampled due to the lack of a sensitive, wide-field and triggering facility dedicated exclusively to catching high energy transients and enabling rapid coordinated multi-wavelength follow-up. Read More

Ultraluminous supersoft X-ray sources (ULSSS) exhibit supersoft spectra with blackbody temperatures of 50-100 eV and bolometric luminosities above $10^{39}$ erg s$^{-1}$, and are possibly intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) of $\ge10^3 M_\odot$ or massive white dwarfs that are progenitors of type Ia supernovae. In this letter we report our optical studies of such a source in M81, M81-ULS1, with HST archive observations. M81-ULS1 is identified with a point-like object, the spectral energy distribution of which reveals a blue component in addition to the companion of an AGB star. Read More

We demonstrate that gravitational lensing can be used to discover and study planets in the habitable zones of nearby dwarf stars. If appropriate software is developed, a new generation of monitoring programs will automatically conduct a census of nearby planets in the habitable zones of dwarf stars. In addition, individual nearby dwarf stars can produce lensing events at predictable times; careful monitoring of these events can discover any planets located in the zone of habitability. Read More

Binary microlensing light curves have a variety of morphologies. Many are indistinguishable from point lens light curves. Of those that deviate from the point lens form, caustic crossing light curves have tended to dominate identified binary lens events. Read More

We report the discovery of an eclipsing X-ray binary in M101, the first such system to be discovered outside the Local Group. Based on a sequence of 25 Chandra observations that sample a wide range of orbital phases, we find a period of 32.688 $\pm$ 0. Read More

XMM-Newton and Chandra have ushered in a new era for the study of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. We provide an overview of the opportunities, challenges, and some early results. The large number of background sources relative to galaxy sources is a major theme. Read More

First discovered in the Magellanic Clouds and in the Milky Way, the largest pools of luminous supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs) now known lie in M31 and in more distant galaxies. Hundreds of newly-discovered SSSs are helping us to test models for Type Ia supernovae and to identify SSSs that may represent a wider range of physical systems, including accreting intermediate-mass black holes. In this short report we list ten intriguing facts about distant SSSs. Read More

In a variety of astronomical situations, there is a relatively high probability that a single isolated lens will produce a detectable event. The high probability is caused by some combination of a large Einstein angle, fast angular motion, and a dense background field. We refer to high-probability lenses as mesolenses. Read More

We have obtained 17 epochs of Chandra High Resolution Camera (HRC) snapshot images, each covering most of the M31 disk. The data cover a total baseline of 2.5 years and contain a mean effective exposure of 17 ks. Read More

The problem of formulating a fully consistent quantum gravity theory (QGT) has not yet been solved. Even before we are able to work out the details of a complete theory, however, we do know some important qualitative features to be expected in any quantum theory. Fluctuations of the metric, for example, are expected and are associated with fluctuations of the lightcone. Read More

Affiliations: 1Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
Category: Astrophysics

This paper uses the caustic crossing events in the microlens data sets to explore the nature and location of the lenses. We conclude that the large majority of lenses, whether they are luminous or dark, are likely to be binaries. Further, we demonstrate that blending is an important feature of all the data sets. Read More

Affiliations: 1Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 2University of Chicago
Category: Astrophysics

In the companion paper we began the task of systematically studying the detection of planets in wide orbits ($a > 1.5 R_E$) via microlensing surveys. In this paper we continue, focusing on repeating events. Read More

Affiliations: 1Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
Category: Astrophysics

Are microlensing searches likely to discover planets that harbor life? Given our present state of knowledge, this is a difficult question to answer. We therefore begin by asking a more narrowly focused question: are conditions on planets discovered via microlensing likely to be similar to those we experience on Earth? In this paper I link the microlensing observations to the well-known "Goldilocks Problem" (conditions on the Earth-like planets need to be "just right"), to find that Earth-like planets discovered via microlensing are likely to be orbiting stars more luminous than the sun. This means that light from the planetary system's central star may contribute a significant fraction of the baseline flux relative to the star that is lensed. Read More


We propose and evaluate the feasibility of a new strategy to search for planets via microlensing. This new strategy is designed to detect planets in "wide" orbits, i.e. Read More

Affiliations: 1Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 2University of Chicago
Category: Astrophysics

We propose and evaluate the feasibility of a new strategy to search for planets via microlensing observations. This new strategy is designed to detect planets in "wide" orbits, i.e. Read More

The microlensing monitoring programs have studied large numbers of standard light curves which seem to be due to lensing by a dark point mass. Theory predicts that many microlensing events should display significant deviations from the standard form. Lens binarity in particular is expected to be common. Read More

In some luminous supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs), hydrogen accretes onto the surface of a white dwarf at rates more-or-less compatible with steady nuclear burning. The white dwarfs in these systems therefore have a good chance to grow in mass. Here we review what is known about the rate of Type Ia supernovae that may be associated with SSSs. Read More