# Robert E. Tarjan

## Contact Details

NameRobert E. Tarjan |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesComputer Science - Data Structures and Algorithms (16) Computer Science - Discrete Mathematics (1) Computer Science - Distributed; Parallel; and Cluster Computing (1) |

## Publications Authored By Robert E. Tarjan

The disjoint set union problem is a basic problem in data structures with a wide variety of applications. We extend a known efficient sequential algorithm for this problem to obtain a simple and efficient concurrent wait-free algorithm running on an asynchronous parallel random access machine (APRAM). Crucial to our result is the use of randomization. Read More

In this note we describe an application of low-high orders in fault-tolerant network design. Baswana et al. [DISC 2015] study the following reachability problem. Read More

We introduce the hollow heap, a very simple data structure with the same amortized efficiency as the classical Fibonacci heap. All heap operations except delete and delete-min take $O(1)$ time, worst case as well as amortized; delete and delete-min take $O(\log n)$ amortized time on a heap of $n$ items. Hollow heaps are by far the simplest structure to achieve this. Read More

An AVL tree is the original type of balanced binary search tree. An insertion in an $n$-node AVL tree takes at most two rotations, but a deletion in an $n$-node AVL tree can take $\Theta(\log n)$. A natural question is whether deletions can take many rotations not only in the worst case but in the amortized case as well. Read More

The Fibonacci heap is a classic data structure that supports deletions in logarithmic amortized time and all other heap operations in O(1) amortized time. We explore the design space of this data structure. We propose a version with the following improvements over the original: (i) Each heap is represented by a single heap-ordered tree, instead of a set of trees. Read More

The theory community has proposed several new heap variants in the recent past which have remained largely untested experimentally. We take the field back to the drawing board, with straightforward implementations of both classic and novel structures using only standard, well-known optimizations. We study the behavior of each structure on a variety of inputs, including artificial workloads, workloads generated by running algorithms on real map data, and workloads from a discrete event simulator used in recent systems networking research. Read More

The problem of finding dominators in a directed graph has many important applications, notably in global optimization of computer code. Although linear and near-linear-time algorithms exist, they use sophisticated data structures. We develop an algorithm for finding dominators that uses only a "static tree" disjoint set data structure in addition to simple lists and maps. Read More

How does one verify that the output of a complicated program is correct? One can formally prove that the program is correct, but this may be beyond the power of existing methods. Alternatively one can check that the output produced for a particular input satisfies the desired input-output relation, by running a checker on the input-output pair. Then one only needs to prove the correctness of the checker. Read More

We consider the problem of detecting a cycle in a directed graph that grows by arc insertions, and the related problems of maintaining a topological order and the strong components of such a graph. For these problems, we give two algorithms, one suited to sparse graphs, and the other to dense graphs. The former takes the minimum of O(m^{3/2}) and O(mn^{2/3}) time to insert m arcs into an n-vertex graph; the latter takes O(n^2 log(n)) time. Read More

We present two on-line algorithms for maintaining a topological order of a directed $n$-vertex acyclic graph as arcs are added, and detecting a cycle when one is created. Our first algorithm handles $m$ arc additions in $O(m^{3/2})$ time. For sparse graphs ($m/n = O(1)$), this bound improves the best previous bound by a logarithmic factor, and is tight to within a constant factor among algorithms satisfying a natural {\em locality} property. Read More

The heap is a basic data structure used in a wide variety of applications, including shortest path and minimum spanning tree algorithms. In this paper we explore the design space of comparison-based, amortized-efficient heap implementations. From a consideration of dynamic single-elimination tournaments, we obtain the binomial queue, a classical heap implementation, in a simple and natural way. Read More

We present an on-line algorithm for maintaining a topological order of a directed acyclic graph as arcs are added, and detecting a cycle when one is created. Our algorithm takes O(m^{1/2}) amortized time per arc, where m is the total number of arcs. For sparse graphs, this bound improves the best previous bound by a logarithmic factor and is tight to within a constant factor for a natural class of algorithms that includes all the existing ones. Read More

We consider the problem of finding a feasible single-commodity flow in a strongly connected network with fixed supplies and demands, provided that the sum of supplies equals the sum of demands and the minimum arc capacity is at least this sum. A fast algorithm for this problem improves the worst-case time bound of the Goldberg-Rao maximum flow method by a constant factor. Erlebach and Hagerup gave an linear-time feasible flow algorithm. Read More

Motivated by an application in computational topology, we consider a novel variant of the problem of efficiently maintaining dynamic rooted trees. This variant requires merging two paths in a single operation. In contrast to the standard problem, in which only one tree arc changes at a time, a single merge operation can change many arcs. Read More

We present algorithms that run in linear time on pointer machines for a collection of problems, each of which either directly or indirectly requires the evaluation of a function defined on paths in a tree. These problems previously had linear-time algorithms but only for random-access machines (RAMs); the best pointer-machine algorithms were super-linear by an inverse-Ackermann-function factor. Our algorithms are also simpler, in some cases substantially, than the previous linear-time RAM algorithms. Read More

The parametric shortest path problem is to find the shortest paths in graph where the edge costs are of the form w_ij+lambda where each w_ij is constant and lambda is a parameter that varies. The problem is to find shortest path trees for every possible value of lambda. The minimum-balance problem is to find a ``weighting'' of the vertices so that adjusting the edge costs by the vertex weights yields a graph in which, for every cut, the minimum weight of any edge crossing the cut in one direction equals the minimum weight of any edge crossing the cut in the other direction. Read More