Richard H. Friend

Richard H. Friend
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Richard H. Friend
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Physics - Materials Science (9)
 
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (4)
 
Physics - Soft Condensed Matter (3)
 
Physics - Other (1)
 
Physics - Chemical Physics (1)
 
Physics - Optics (1)

Publications Authored By Richard H. Friend

In photovoltaics (PVs) and artificial photosynthetic systems based on excitons, the question of how energy must be lost in overcoming the Coulomb barrier, converting excitons to free charges, is fundamental, as it determines the achievable open-circuit voltage or over-potential1-3. Here, using transient and steady-state optical spectroscopy we study a model system, pentacene/C60, where pentacene triplet excitons are dissociated to form charge transfer states, which we show to be degenerate in energy with the triplet excitons. We directly track these charge transfer states undergoing efficient long-range separation to free charges within 50 ps, despite a significant Coulomb barrier that we measure to be 220 meV. Read More

Singlet exciton fission (SF), the conversion of one spin-singlet exciton (S1) into two spin-triplet excitons (T1), could provide a means to overcome the Shockley-Queisser limit in photovoltaics. SF as measured by the decay of S1 has been shown to occur efficiently and independently of temperature even when the energy of S1 is as much as 200 meV less than 2T1. Here, we study films of TIPS-tetracene using transient optical spectroscopy and show that the initial rise of the triplet pair state (TT) occurs in 300 fs, matched by rapid loss of S1 stimulated emission, and that this process is mediated by the strong coupling of electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom. Read More

In band-like semiconductors, charge carriers form a thermal energy distribution rapidly after optical excitation. In hybrid lead halide perovskites, the cooling of such thermal distributions has been reported to occur on timescales of ~300 fs via carrier-phonon scattering. However, the initial step of build-up of a thermal Boltzmann distribution proved difficult to resolve with conventional pump-probe techniques due to the requirement of high resolution both in time and in energy. Read More

The efficiency of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is fundamentally governed by the spin of recombining electron-hole pairs (singlet and triplet excitons), since triplets cannot usually emit light. The singlet-triplet energy gap, a key factor for efficient utilization of triplets, is normally positive. Here we show that in a family of materials with amide donor and carbene acceptor moieties linked by a metal, this energy gap for singlet and triplet excitons with charge-transfer character can be tuned from positive to negative values via the rotation of donor and acceptor about the metal-amide bond. Read More

Scanning nanofocus X-ray diffraction (nXRD) performed at a synchrotron is used for the first time to simultaneously probe the morphology and the structural properties of spin-coated CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPI) perovskite films for photovoltaic devices. MAPI films are spin-coated on a Si/SiO2/PEDOT:PSS substrate held at different temperatures during the deposition in order to tune the perovskite film coverage, and then investigated by nXRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scatter-ing (GI-WAXS). The advantages of nXRD over SEM and GI-WAXS are dis-cussed. Read More

Silicon solar cells dominate the solar cell market with record lab efficiencies reaching almost 26%. However, after 60 years of research, this efficiency saturated close to the theoretical limit for silicon, and radically new approaches are needed to further improve the efficiency. Here we present parallel-connected tandem solar cells based on down-conversion via singlet fission. Read More

The formation of bound electron-hole pairs, also called charge-transfer (CT) states, in organic-based photovoltaic devices is one of the dominant loss mechanisms hindering performance. While CT state dynamics following electron transfer from donor to acceptor have been widely studied, there is not much known about the dynamics of bound CT states produced by hole transfer from the acceptor to the donor. In this letter, we compare the dynamics of CT states formed in the different charge-transfer pathways in a range of model systems. Read More

The electron-hole pair created via photon absorption in organic photoconversion systems must overcome the Coulomb attraction to achieve long-range charge separation. We show that this process is facilitated through the formation of excited, delocalized band states. In our experiments on organic photovoltaic cells, these states were accessed for a short time (<1ps) via IR optical excitation of electron-hole pairs bound at the heterojunction. Read More

In photovoltaic diodes recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes is a major loss process. Biological light harvesting complexes (LHCs) prevent recombination via the use of cascade structures, which lead to spatial separation of charge-carriers1. In contrast, the nanoscale morphology and high charge densities in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) give a high rate of electron-hole encounters, which should result in the formation of spin triplet excitons, as in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs)2. Read More

We analyze the linear absorption spectrum of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) films spun from a variety of solvents to probe directly the film microstructure and how it depends on processing conditions. We estimate the exciton bandwidth and the percentage of the film composed of aggregates quantitatively using a weakly interacting H-aggregate model. This provides a description of the degree and quality of crystallites within the film and is in turn correlated with thin-film field-effect transistor characteristics. Read More

We address the role of excitonic coulping on the nature of photoexcitations in the conjugated polymer regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene). By means of temperature-dependent absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy, we show that optical emission is overwhelmingly dominated by weakly coupled H-aggregates. The relative absorbance of the 0-0 and 0-1 vibronic peaks provides a powerfully simple means to extract the magnitude of the intermolecular coupling energy, approximately 5 and 30 meV for films spun from isodurene and chloroform solutions respectively. Read More

Control of the band-edge offsets at heterojunctions between organic semiconductors allows efficient operation of either photovoltaic or light-emitting diodes. We investigate systems where the exciton is marginally stable against charge separation, and show via E-field-dependent time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy that excitons that have undergone charge separation at a heterojunction can be efficiently regenerated. This is because the charge transfer produces a geminate electron-hole pair (separation 2. Read More