Ravi Kumar - Yahoo! Research

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Ravi Kumar
Yahoo! Research

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Physics - Materials Science (13)
Physics - Atomic Physics (4)
Physics - Optics (4)
Computer Science - Data Structures and Algorithms (4)
Computer Science - Databases (3)
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (2)
Physics - Superconductivity (2)
Statistics - Machine Learning (2)
Physics - Other (2)
Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (1)
Physics - Accelerator Physics (1)
Mathematics - Optimization and Control (1)
Computer Science - Information Theory (1)
Quantum Physics (1)
Computer Science - Learning (1)
Computer Science - Computation and Language (1)
Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence (1)
Computer Science - Computational Geometry (1)
Physics - Physics and Society (1)
Mathematics - Information Theory (1)

Publications Authored By Ravi Kumar

We consider the problem of approximating a given matrix by a low-rank matrix so as to minimize the entrywise $\ell_p$-approximation error, for any $p \geq 1$; the case $p = 2$ is the classical SVD problem. We obtain the first provably good approximation algorithms for this version of low-rank approximation that work for every value of $p \geq 1$, including $p = \infty$. Our algorithms are simple, easy to implement, work well in practice, and illustrate interesting tradeoffs between the approximation quality, the running time, and the rank of the approximating matrix. Read More

We introduce LAMP: the Linear Additive Markov Process. Transitions in LAMP may be influenced by states visited in the distant history of the process, but unlike higher-order Markov processes, LAMP retains an efficient parametrization. LAMP also allows the specific dependence on history to be learned efficiently from data. Read More

We realize a spin-1 Dicke model using magnetic sub-levels of the lowest F=1 hyperfine level of $^{87}$Rb atoms confined to a high finesse cavity. We study this system under conditions of imbalanced driving, which is predicted to have a rich phase diagram of nonequilibrium phases and phase transitions. We observe both super-radiant and oscillatory phases from the cavity output spectra as predicted by theory. Read More

Public debates are a common platform for presenting and juxtaposing diverging views on important issues. In this work we propose a methodology for tracking how ideas flow between participants throughout a debate. We use this approach in a case study of Oxford-style debates---a competitive format where the winner is determined by audience votes---and show how the outcome of a debate depends on aspects of conversational flow. Read More

Ultrathin optical fibres integrated into cold atom setups are proving to be ideal building blocks for atom-photon hybrid quantum networks. Such optical nanofibres (ONF) can be used for the demonstration of nonlinear optics and quantum interference phenomena in atomic media. Here, we report on the observation of multilevel cascaded electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) using an optical nanofibre to interface cold $^{87}$Rb atoms through the intense evanescent fields that can be achieved at ultralow probe and coupling powers. Read More

Information distances like the Hellinger distance and the Jensen-Shannon divergence have deep roots in information theory and machine learning. They are used extensively in data analysis especially when the objects being compared are high dimensional empirical probability distributions built from data. However, we lack common tools needed to actually use information distances in applications efficiently and at scale with any kind of provable guarantees. Read More

The tight confinement of the evanescent light field around the waist of an optical nanofiber makes it a suitable tool for studying nonlinear optics in atomic media. Here, we use an optical nanofiber embedded in a cloud of laser-cooled 87Rb for near-infrared frequency upconversion via a resonant two-photon process. Sub-nW powers of the two-photon beams, at 780 nm and 776 nm, co-propagate through the optical nanofiber and generation of 420 nm photons is observed. Read More

We at RRCAT have recently developed high power laser diodes in the wavelength range of 740 to 1000 nm. A typical semiconductor laser structure is consisted of about 10 epilayers with different composition, thickness and doping values. For example, a laser diode operating at 0. Read More

Epitaxy of ZnO layers on cubic GaP (111) substrates has been demonstrated using pulsed laser deposition. Out of plane and in-plane epitaxial relationship of ZnO layer with respect to GaP substrate determined using phi scans in high resolution X-ray diffraction measurements are (0001) ZnO || (111) GaP and (-1 2 -1 0) ZnO || (-1 1 0) GaP respectively. Our results of epitaxy of ZnO and its intense excitonic photoluminescence with very weak defect luminescence suggest that (111) oriented GaP can be a potential buffer layer choice for the integration of ZnO based optoelectronic devices on Si(111) substrates. Read More

Optical nanofibres are used to confine light to subwavelength regions and are very promising tools for the development of optical fibre-based quantum networks using cold, neutral atoms. To date, experimental studies on atoms near nanofibres have focussed on fundamental fibre mode interactions. In this work, we demonstrate the integration of a few-mode optical nanofibre into a magneto-optical trap for $^{87}$Rb atoms. Read More

Present study reveals that the free energy landscape of the La5/8-yPryCa3/8MnO3 (LPCMO) system could be modified by elastic strain interaction in the epitaxial thin films. Epitaxial LPCMO thin films of various thicknesses are grown on LaAlO3 substrate by pulsed laser deposition. With increasing thickness, by virtue of island growth morphology, strain disorder is invoked in thin films during strain relaxation process. Read More

We consider the problem of service rate control of a single server queueing system with a finite-state Markov-modulated Poisson arrival process. We show that the optimal service rate is non-decreasing in the number of customers in the system; higher congestion rates warrant higher service rates. On the contrary, however, we show that the optimal service rate is not necessarily monotone in the current arrival rate. Read More

The use of tapered optical fibers, i.e., optical nanofibers, for spectroscopy and the detection of small numbers of particles, such as neutral atoms or molecules, has been gaining ground in recent years. Read More

The influence of La and Nd co-substitution on the structural and magnetic properties of BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films was examined. Epitaxial thin films of pure and, La and Nd co-doped BFO on the SrRuO3 buffered single crystal SrTiO3 (001) substrate were deposited using pulsed laser deposition. The structural change in co doped La and Nd BFO thin films which was caused by the changes of force constant in the crystal lattice induced by ionic radii mismatch was investigated. Read More

Over half a century old and showing no signs of aging, k-means remains one of the most popular data processing algorithms. As is well-known, a proper initialization of k-means is crucial for obtaining a good final solution. The recently proposed k-means++ initialization algorithm achieves this, obtaining an initial set of centers that is provably close to the optimum solution. Read More

The problem of finding locally dense components of a graph is an important primitive in data analysis, with wide-ranging applications from community mining to spam detection and the discovery of biological network modules. In this paper we present new algorithms for finding the densest subgraph in the streaming model. For any epsilon>0, our algorithms make O((log n)/log (1+epsilon)) passes over the input and find a subgraph whose density is guaranteed to be within a factor 2(1+epsilon) of the optimum. Read More

The effects of 200-MeV Ag^{+15} ion irradiation on the optical properties of TiO_{2} and SnO_{2} thin films prepared by using the RF magnetron sputtering technique were investigated. These films were characterized by using UV-vis spectroscopy, and with increasing irradiation fluence, the transmittance for the TiO_{2} films was observed to increase systematically while that for SnO_{2} was observed to decrease. Absorption spectra of the irradiated samples showed minor changes in the indirect bandgap from 3. Read More

The present work aims to study the effect of ion irradiation on structural and electrical properties and their correlation with the defects in Zn1-xMnxO type system. Zn1-xMnxO (x = 0.02, 0. Read More

Affiliations: 1Yahoo! Research, 2Yahoo! Research, 3U. of Waterloo

We present a generic framework to make wrapper induction algorithms tolerant to noise in the training data. This enables us to learn wrappers in a completely unsupervised manner from automatically and cheaply obtained noisy training data, e.g. Read More

Dimension reduction is a key algorithmic tool with many applications including nearest-neighbor search, compressed sensing and linear algebra in the streaming model. In this work we obtain a {\em sparse} version of the fundamental tool in dimension reduction --- the Johnson--Lindenstrauss transform. Using hashing and local densification, we construct a sparse projection matrix with just $\tilde{O}(\frac{1}{\epsilon})$ non-zero entries per column. Read More

Thin films of Fe3O4 have been deposited on single crystal MgO (100) and Si (100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. Films grown on MgO substrate are epitaxial with c-axis orientation whereas, films on Si substrate are highly <111> oriented. Film thicknesses are 150 nm. Read More

We report the growth of undoped and Fe (2 and 5 at. percentage) doped molybdenum oxide thin films on c-plane of sapphire substrate using pulsed laser ablation. X-ray diffraction results show that the films are oriented in (100) direction and have monoclinic structure based on MoO2 phase as also supported by Raman spectroscopy. Read More

We report structural and magnetic properties of pure ZnO rods using X-ray diffraction (XRD), magnetization hysteresis (M-H) loop and near edge x-ray fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) study at O K edge. Sample of ZnO was prepared by co-precipitation method. XRD and selective area electron diffraction measurements infer that ZnO rods exhibit a single phase polycrystalline nature with wurtzite lattice. Read More

Dielectric response has been studied for a new manganocuprate, Gd3Ba2Mn2Cu2O12 (Gd3222) as a function of temperature (100 - 300 K) and frequency (75 kHz to 1 MHz). The dielectric constant (e) exhibits a two step increase (two peaks) in e(T) with increasing temperature from 100 to 300 K. The first peak is seen around 150 K and the second one around 210 K (both for 75 kHz). Read More

The Lp regression problem takes as input a matrix $A \in \Real^{n \times d}$, a vector $b \in \Real^n$, and a number $p \in [1,\infty)$, and it returns as output a number ${\cal Z}$ and a vector $x_{opt} \in \Real^d$ such that ${\cal Z} = \min_{x \in \Real^d} ||Ax -b||_p = ||Ax_{opt}-b||_p$. In this paper, we construct coresets and obtain an efficient two-stage sampling-based approximation algorithm for the very overconstrained ($n \gg d$) version of this classical problem, for all $p \in [1, \infty)$. The first stage of our algorithm non-uniformly samples $\hat{r}_1 = O(36^p d^{\max\{p/2+1, p\}+1})$ rows of $A$ and the corresponding elements of $b$, and then it solves the Lp regression problem on the sample; we prove this is an 8-approximation. Read More

We establish a correlation between the internal stress in InN epilayers and their optical properties such as the measured absorption band edge and photoluminescence emission wavelength. By a careful evaluation of the lattice constants of InN epilayers grown on c-plane sapphire substrates under various conditions by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy we find that the films are under primarily hydrostatic stress. This results in a shift in the band edge to higher energy. Read More

From a detailed analysis of InN epilayers deposited in a close-coupled showerhead metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) system under various conditions we investigate the effect of growth parameters on the lattice constants of the InN layer. The layers are under significant internal hydrostatic stress which influences the optical properties. Samples typically fall into two broad categories of stress, with resultant luminescence emission around 0. Read More

Epitaxial thin films of La0.7Ba0.3MnO3 manganite, deposited using Chemical Solution Deposition technique, were irradiated by 200 MeV Ag+15 ions with a maximum ion dose up to 1x10^12 ions/cm2. Read More

We study the effect of 100 MeV Silicon and 200 MeV Gold ion irradiation on the inter and intra grain properties of superconducting thin films of Magnesium Diboride. Substantial decrease in inter-grain connectivity is observed, depending on irradiation dose and type of ions used. We establish that modification of sigma band scattering mechanism, and consequently the upper critical field and anisotropy, depends on the size and directional properties of the extrinsic defects. Read More

Modification induced by 110 MeV Ni ion irradiated thin film samples of C60 on Si and quartz substrates were studied at various fluences. The pristine and irradiated samples were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, electrical conductivity and optical absorption spectroscopy. The Raman data and band gap measurements indicate that swift ions at low fluences result in formations that involve multiple molecular units like dimer or polymer. Read More