Rama Chellappa

Rama Chellappa
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Rama Chellappa

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Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (42)
Statistics - Machine Learning (5)
Computer Science - Learning (5)
Mathematics - Information Theory (1)
Computer Science - Databases (1)
Computer Science - Information Theory (1)

Publications Authored By Rama Chellappa

Adversarial training has been shown to regularize deep neural networks in addition to increasing their robustness to adversarial examples. However, its impact on very deep state of the art networks has not been fully investigated. In this paper, we present an efficient approach to perform adversarial training by perturbing intermediate layer activations and study the use of such perturbations as a regularizer during training. Read More

Convolutional neural networks (CNN) have become the most sought after tools for addressing object recognition problems. Specifically, they have produced state-of-the art results for unconstrained face recognition and verification tasks. While the research community appears to have developed a consensus on the methods of acquiring annotated data, design and training of CNNs, many questions still remain to be answered. Read More

Non-maximum suppression is an integral part of the object detection pipeline. First, it sorts all detection boxes on the basis of their scores. The detection box M with the maximum score is selected and all other detection boxes with a significant overlap (using a pre-defined threshold) with M are suppressed. Read More

Visual Domain adaptation is an actively researched problem in Computer Vision. In this work, we propose an approach that leverages unsupervised data to bring the source and target distributions closer in a learned joint feature space. We accomplish this by inducing a symbiotic relationship between the learned embedding and a generative adversarial framework. Read More

Generic face detection algorithms do not perform well in the mobile domain due to significant presence of occluded and partially visible faces. One promising technique to handle the challenge of partial faces is to design face detectors based on facial segments. In this paper two different approaches of facial segment-based face detection are discussed, namely, proposal-based detection and detection by end-to-end regression. Read More

Recently, Deep Convolution Networks (DCNNs) have been applied to the task of face alignment and have shown potential for learning improved feature representations. Although deeper layers can capture abstract concepts like pose, it is difficult to capture the geometric relationships among the keypoints in DCNNs. In this paper, we propose a novel convolution-deconvolution network for facial keypoint detection. Read More

In recent years, the performance of face verification systems has significantly improved using deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs). A typical pipeline for face verification includes training a deep network for subject classification with softmax loss, using the penultimate layer output as the feature descriptor, and generating a cosine similarity score given a pair of face images. The softmax loss function does not optimize the features to have higher similarity score for positive pairs and lower similarity score for negative pairs, which leads to a performance gap. Read More

In this paper, we propose an unsupervised face clustering algorithm called "Proximity-Aware Hierarchical Clustering" (PAHC) that exploits the local structure of deep representations. In the proposed method, a similarity measure between deep features is computed by evaluating linear SVM margins. SVMs are trained using nearest neighbors of sample data, and thus do not require any external training data. Read More

Keypoint detection is one of the most important pre-processing steps in tasks such as face modeling, recognition and verification. In this paper, we present an iterative method for Keypoint Estimation and Pose prediction of unconstrained faces by Learning Efficient H-CNN Regressors (KEPLER) for addressing the face alignment problem. Recent state of the art methods have shown improvements in face keypoint detection by employing Convolution Neural Networks (CNNs). Read More

Although deep learning has yielded impressive performance for face recognition, many studies have shown that different networks learn different feature maps: while some networks are more receptive to pose and illumination others appear to capture more local information. Thus, in this work, we propose a deep heterogeneous feature fusion network to exploit the complementary information present in features generated by different deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) for template-based face recognition, where a template refers to a set of still face images or video frames from different sources which introduces more blur, pose, illumination and other variations than traditional face datasets. The proposed approach efficiently fuses the discriminative information of different deep features by 1) jointly learning the non-linear high-dimensional projection of the deep features and 2) generating a more discriminative template representation which preserves the inherent geometry of the deep features in the feature space. Read More

Learning a classifier from ambiguously labeled face images is challenging since training images are not always explicitly-labeled. For instance, face images of two persons in a news photo are not explicitly labeled by their names in the caption. We propose a Matrix Completion for Ambiguity Resolution (MCar) method for predicting the actual labels from ambiguously labeled images. Read More

Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNN) have been proven to be effective for various computer vision problems. In this work, we demonstrate its effectiveness on a continuous object orientation estimation task, which requires prediction of 0 to 360 degrees orientation of the objects. We do so by proposing and comparing three continuous orientation prediction approaches designed for the DCNNs. Read More

Generic face detection algorithms do not perform very well in the mobile domain due to significant presence of occluded and partially visible faces. One promising technique to handle the challenge of partial faces is to design face detectors based on facial segments. In this paper two such face detectors namely, SegFace and DeepSegFace, are proposed that detect the presence of a face given arbitrary combinations of certain face segments. Read More

Recent progress in face detection (including keypoint detection), and recognition is mainly being driven by (i) deeper convolutional neural network architectures, and (ii) larger datasets. However, most of the large datasets are maintained by private companies and are not publicly available. The academic computer vision community needs larger and more varied datasets to make further progress. Read More

We present a multi-purpose algorithm for simultaneous face detection, face alignment, pose estimation, gender recognition, smile detection, age estimation and face recognition using a single deep convolutional neural network (CNN). The proposed method employs a multi-task learning framework that regularizes the shared parameters of CNN and builds a synergy among different domains and tasks. Extensive experiments show that the network has a better understanding of face and achieves state-of-the-art result for most of these tasks. Read More

In this paper, automated user verification techniques for smartphones are investigated. A unique non-commercial dataset, the University of Maryland Active Authentication Dataset 02 (UMDAA-02) for multi-modal user authentication research is introduced. This paper focuses on three sensors - front camera, touch sensor and location service while providing a general description for other modalities. Read More

In this paper, a solution to the problem of Active Authentication using trace histories is addressed. Specifically, the task is to perform user verification on mobile devices using historical location traces of the user as a function of time. Considering the movement of a human as a Markovian motion, a modified Hidden Markov Model (HMM)-based solution is proposed. Read More

Relatively small data sets available for expression recognition research make the training of deep networks for expression recognition very challenging. Although fine-tuning can partially alleviate the issue, the performance is still below acceptable levels as the deep features probably contain redun- dant information from the pre-trained domain. In this paper, we present FaceNet2ExpNet, a novel idea to train an expression recognition network based on static images. Read More

Large-scale supervised classification algorithms, especially those based on deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs), require vast amounts of training data to achieve state-of-the-art performance. Decreasing this data requirement would significantly speed up the training process and possibly improve generalization. Motivated by this objective, we consider the task of adaptively finding concise training subsets which will be iteratively presented to the learner. Read More

Over the last four years, methods based on Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNNs) have shown impressive performance improvements for object detection and recognition problems. This has been made possible due to the availability of large annotated datasets, a better understanding of the non-linear mapping between input images and class labels as well as the affordability of GPUs. In this paper, we present the design details of a deep learning system for end-to-end unconstrained face verification/recognition. Read More

We present a Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) architecture for the task of continuous authentication on mobile devices. To deal with the limited resources of these devices, we reduce the complexity of the networks by learning intermediate features such as gender and hair color instead of identities. We present a multi-task, part-based DCNN architecture for attribute detection that performs better than the state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy. Read More

Attributes, or semantic features, have gained popularity in the past few years in domains ranging from activity recognition in video to face verification. Improving the accuracy of attribute classifiers is an important first step in any application which uses these attributes. In most works to date, attributes have been considered to be independent. Read More

Despite significant progress made over the past twenty five years, unconstrained face verification remains a challenging problem. This paper proposes an approach that couples a deep CNN-based approach with a low-dimensional discriminative embedding learned using triplet probability constraints to solve the unconstrained face verification problem. Aside from yielding performance improvements, this embedding provides significant advantages in terms of memory and for post-processing operations like subject specific clustering. Read More

In this paper, a part-based technique for real time detection of users' faces on mobile devices is proposed. This method is specifically designed for detecting partially cropped and occluded faces captured using a smartphone's front-facing camera for continuous authentication. The key idea is to detect facial segments in the frame and cluster the results to obtain the region which is most likely to contain a face. Read More

We present an algorithm for simultaneous face detection, landmarks localization, pose estimation and gender recognition using deep convolutional neural networks (CNN). The proposed method called, Hyperface, fuses the intermediate layers of a deep CNN using a separate CNN and trains multi-task loss on the fused features. It exploits the synergy among the tasks which boosts up their individual performances. Read More

We propose a deep feature-based face detector for mobile devices to detect user's face acquired by the front facing camera. The proposed method is able to detect faces in images containing extreme pose and illumination variations as well as partial faces. The main challenge in developing deep feature-based algorithms for mobile devices is the constrained nature of the mobile platform and the non-availability of CUDA enabled GPUs on such devices. Read More

In this work, we present an unconstrained face verification algorithm and evaluate it on the recently released IJB-A dataset that aims to push the boundaries of face verification methods. The proposed algorithm couples a deep CNN-based approach with a low-dimensional discriminative embedding learnt using triplet similarity constraints in a large margin fashion. Aside from yielding performance improvement, this embedding provides significant advantages in terms of memory and post-processing operations like hashing and visualization. Read More

It is proven that encoding images and videos through Symmetric Positive Definite (SPD) matrices, and considering the Riemannian geometry of the resulting space, can lead to increased classification performance. Taking into account manifold geometry is typically done via embedding the manifolds in tangent spaces, or Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces (RKHS). Recently, it was shown that embedding such manifolds into a Random Projection Spaces (RPS), rather than RKHS or tangent space, leads to higher classification and clustering performance. Read More

Over many decades, researchers working in object recognition have longed for an end-to-end automated system that will simply accept 2D or 3D image or videos as inputs and output the labels of objects in the input data. Computer vision methods that use representations derived based on geometric, radiometric and neural considerations and statistical and structural matchers and artificial neural network-based methods where a multi-layer network learns the mapping from inputs to class labels have provided competing approaches for image recognition problems. Over the last four years, methods based on Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNNs) have shown impressive performance improvements on object detection/recognition challenge problems. Read More

We present an algorithm for extracting key-point descriptors using deep convolutional neural networks (CNN). Unlike many existing deep CNNs, our model computes local features around a given point in an image. We also present a face alignment algorithm based on regression using these local descriptors. Read More

Periodic inspections are necessary to keep railroad tracks in state of good repair and prevent train accidents. Automatic track inspection using machine vision technology has become a very effective inspection tool. Because of its non-contact nature, this technology can be deployed on virtually any railway vehicle to continuously survey the tracks and send exception reports to track maintenance personnel. Read More

Railroad tracks need to be periodically inspected and monitored to ensure safe transportation. Automated track inspection using computer vision and pattern recognition methods have recently shown the potential to improve safety by allowing for more frequent inspections while reducing human errors. Achieving full automation is still very challenging due to the number of different possible failure modes as well as the broad range of image variations that can potentially trigger false alarms. Read More

We present a face detection algorithm based on Deformable Part Models and deep pyramidal features. The proposed method called DP2MFD is able to detect faces of various sizes and poses in unconstrained conditions. It reduces the gap in training and testing of DPM on deep features by adding a normalization layer to the deep convolutional neural network (CNN). Read More

In this paper, we present an algorithm for unconstrained face verification based on deep convolutional features and evaluate it on the newly released IARPA Janus Benchmark A (IJB-A) dataset. The IJB-A dataset includes real-world unconstrained faces from 500 subjects with full pose and illumination variations which are much harder than the traditional Labeled Face in the Wild (LFW) and Youtube Face (YTF) datasets. The deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) is trained using the CASIA-WebFace dataset. Read More

In the recent past, automatic selection or combination of kernels (or features) based on multiple kernel learning (MKL) approaches has been receiving significant attention from various research communities. Though MKL has been extensively studied in the context of support vector machines (SVM), it is relatively less explored for ratio-trace problems. In this paper, we show that MKL can be formulated as a convex optimization problem for a general class of ratio-trace problems that encompasses many popular algorithms used in various computer vision applications. Read More

We provide two novel adaptive-rate compressive sensing (CS) strategies for sparse, time-varying signals using side information. Our first method utilizes extra cross-validation measurements, and the second one exploits extra low-resolution measurements. Unlike the majority of current CS techniques, we do not assume that we know an upper bound on the number of significant coefficients that comprise the images in the video sequence. Read More

In this work, we propose a novel node splitting method for regression trees and incorporate it into the regression forest framework. Unlike traditional binary splitting, where the splitting rule is selected from a predefined set of binary splitting rules via trial-and-error, the proposed node splitting method first finds clusters of the training data which at least locally minimize the empirical loss without considering the input space. Then splitting rules which preserve the found clusters as much as possible are determined by casting the problem into a classification problem. Read More

We present a dictionary learning approach to compensate for the transformation of faces due to changes in view point, illumination, resolution, etc. The key idea of our approach is to force domain-invariant sparse coding, i.e. Read More

We present an approach for dictionary learning of action attributes via information maximization. We unify the class distribution and appearance information into an objective function for learning a sparse dictionary of action attributes. The objective function maximizes the mutual information between what has been learned and what remains to be learned in terms of appearance information and class distribution for each dictionary atom. Read More

Recognizing group activities is challenging due to the difficulties in isolating individual entities, finding the respective roles played by the individuals and representing the complex interactions among the participants. Individual actions and group activities in videos can be represented in a common framework as they share the following common feature: both are composed of a set of low-level features describing motions, e.g. Read More

We present a two-stage approach for learning dictionaries for object classification tasks based on the principle of information maximization. The proposed method seeks a dictionary that is compact, discriminative, and generative. In the first stage, dictionary atoms are selected from an initial dictionary by maximizing the mutual information measure on dictionary compactness, discrimination and reconstruction. Read More

Compressive sensing (CS) is a new approach for the acquisition and recovery of sparse signals and images that enables sampling rates significantly below the classical Nyquist rate. Despite significant progress in the theory and methods of CS, little headway has been made in compressive video acquisition and recovery. Video CS is complicated by the ephemeral nature of dynamic events, which makes direct extensions of standard CS imaging architectures and signal models difficult. Read More