Rajkumar Buyya

Rajkumar Buyya
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Rajkumar Buyya

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Computer Science - Distributed; Parallel; and Cluster Computing (48)
Computer Science - Networking and Internet Architecture (7)
Computer Science - Software Engineering (4)
Computer Science - Operating Systems (2)
Computer Science - Programming Languages (1)
Computer Science - Data Structures and Algorithms (1)
Computer Science - Neural and Evolutionary Computing (1)
Computer Science - Performance (1)
Computer Science - Cryptography and Security (1)
Computer Science - Computers and Society (1)
Computer Science - Computational Engineering; Finance; and Science (1)

Publications Authored By Rajkumar Buyya

As technology proceeds and the number of smart devices continues to grow substantially, need for ubiquitous context-aware platforms that support interconnected, heterogeneous, and distributed network of devices has given rise to what is referred today as Internet-of-Things. However, paving the path for achieving aforementioned objectives and making the IoT paradigm more tangible requires integration and convergence of different knowledge and research domains, covering aspects from identification and communication to resource discovery and service integration. Through this chapter, we aim to highlight researches in topics including proposed architectures, security and privacy, network communication means and protocols, and eventually conclude by providing future directions and open challenges facing the IoT development. Read More

Elasticity is a cloud property that enables applications and its execution systems to dynamically acquire and release shared computational resources on demand. Moreover, it unfolds the advantage of economies of scale in the cloud through a drop in the average costs of these shared resources. However, it is still an open challenge to achieve a perfect match between resource demand and provision in autonomous elasticity management. Read More

As billions of devices get connected to the Internet, it will not be sustainable to use the cloud as a centralised server. The way forward is to decentralise computations away from the cloud towards the edge of the network closer to the user. This reduces the latency of communication between a user device and the cloud, and is the premise of 'fog computing' defined in this paper. Read More

In recent years, the number of Internet of Things (IoT) devices/sensors has increased to a great extent. To support the computational demand of real-time latency-sensitive applications of largely geo-distributed IoT devices/sensors, a new computing paradigm named "Fog computing" has been introduced. Generally, Fog computing resides closer to the IoT devices/sensors and extends the Cloud-based computing, storage and networking facilities. Read More

Web application providers have been migrating their applications to cloud data centers, attracted by the emerging cloud computing paradigm. One of the appealing features of the cloud is elasticity. It allows cloud users to acquire or release computing resources on-demand, which enables web application providers to automatically scale the resources provisioned to their applications without human intervention under a dynamic workload to minimize resource cost while satisfying Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. Read More

It is common for cloud data centers meeting unexpected loads like request bursts, which may lead to overloaded situation and performance degradation. Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling and VM consolidation have been proved effective to manage overloads. However, they cannot function when the whole data center is overloaded. Read More

The emergence of cloud computing based on virtualization technologies brings huge opportunities to host virtual resource at low cost without the need of owning any infrastructure. Virtualization technologies enable users to acquire, configure and be charged on pay-per-use basis. However, Cloud data centers mostly comprise heterogeneous commodity servers hosting multiple virtual machines (VMs) with potential various specifications and fluctuating resource usages, which may cause imbalanced resource utilization within servers that may lead to performance degradation and service level agreements (SLAs) violations. Read More

Internet of Things (IoT) aims to bring every object (e.g. smart cameras, wearable, environmental sensors, home appliances, and vehicles) online, hence generating massive amounts of data that can overwhelm storage systems and data analytics applications. Read More

Autoscaling is a hallmark of cloud computing as it allows flexible just-in-time allocation and release of computational resources in response to dynamic and often unpredictable workloads. This is especially important for web applications whose workload is time dependent and prone to flash crowds. Most of them follow the 3-tier architectural pattern, and are divided into presentation, application/domain and data layers. Read More

The Internet of Everything (IoE) solutions gradually bring every object online, and processing data in centralized cloud does not scale to requirements of such environment. This is because, there are applications such as health monitoring and emergency response that require low latency and delay caused by transferring data to the cloud and then back to the application can seriously impact the performance. To this end, Fog computing has emerged, where cloud computing is extended to the edge of the network to decrease the latency and network congestion. Read More

Big Data can mean different things to different people. The scale and challenges of Big Data are often described using three attributes, namely Volume, Velocity and Variety (3Vs), which only reflect some of the aspects of data. In this chapter we review historical aspects of the term "Big Data" and the associated analytics. Read More

Cloud security related issues are relevant for various stakeholders in decision-making for cloud adoption. Apart from data breaches, the attack space is also being re-looked for cloud-specific solutions as it also affects resource management and delivery of service quality. Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack is one such fatal attack in the cloud space. Read More

The Internet of Things (IoT) represents a comprehensive environment that consists of large number of sensors and mediators interconnecting heterogeneous physical objects to the Internet. IoT applications can be found in many areas such as smart city, smart workplace, smart plants, smart agriculture and various ubiquitous computing areas. Meanwhile, Business Process Management Systems (BPMS) has become a successful and efficient solution for coordinated management and optimised utilisation of resources/entities. Read More

Cloud computing has emerged as an important paradigm for managing and delivering services efficiently over the Internet. Convergence of cloud computing with technologies such as wireless sensor networking and mobile computing offers new applications of cloud services but this requires management of Quality of Service (QoS) parameters to efficiently monitor and measure the delivered services. This paper presents a QoS-aware Cloud Based Autonomic Information System for delivering agriculture related information as a service through the use of latest Cloud technologies which manage various types of agriculture related data based on different domains. Read More

Many vendors are offering computing services on subscription basis via Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) model. Users can acquire resources from different providers and get the best of each of them to run their applications. However, deploying applications in multi-cloud environments is a complex task. Read More

The emergence of cloud computing has made dynamic provisioning of elastic capacity to applications on-demand. Cloud data centers contain thousands of physical servers hosting orders of magnitude more virtual machines that can be allocated on demand to users in a pay-as-you-go model. However, not all systems are able to scale up by just adding more virtual machines. Read More

Cloud providers sell their idle capacity on markets through an auction-like mechanism to increase their return on investment. The instances sold in this way are called spot instances. In spite that spot instances are usually 90% cheaper than on-demand instances, they can be terminated by provider when their bidding prices are lower than market prices. Read More

Advances in information technology and its widespread growth in several areas of business, engineering, medical and scientific studies are resulting in information/data explosion. Knowledge discovery and decision making from such rapidly growing voluminous data is a challenging task in terms of data organization and processing, which is an emerging trend known as Big Data Computing; a new paradigm which combines large scale compute, new data intensive techniques and mathematical models to build data analytics. Big Data computing demands a huge storage and computing for data curation and processing that could be delivered from on-premise or clouds infrastructures. Read More

The variety of existing cloud services creates a challenge for service providers to enforce reasonable Software Level Agreements (SLA) stating the Quality of Service (QoS) and penalties in case QoS is not achieved. To avoid such penalties at the same time that the infrastructure operates with minimum energy and resource wastage, constant monitoring and adaptation of the infrastructure is needed. We refer to Software-Defined Cloud Computing, or simply Software-Defined Clouds (SDC), as an approach for automating the process of optimal cloud configuration by extending virtualization concept to all resources in a data center. Read More

This paper discusses approaches and environments for carrying out analytics on Clouds for Big Data applications. It revolves around four important areas of analytics and Big Data, namely (i) data management and supporting architectures; (ii) model development and scoring; (iii) visualisation and user interaction; and (iv) business models. Through a detailed survey, we identify possible gaps in technology and provide recommendations for the research community on future directions on Cloud-supported Big Data computing and analytics solutions. Read More

As Grids are loosely-coupled congregations of geographically distributed heterogeneous resources, the efficient utilization of the resources requires the support of a sound Performance Prediction System (PPS). The performance prediction of grid resources is helpful for both Resource Management Systems and grid users to make optimized resource usage decisions. There have been many PPS projects that span over several grid resources in several dimensions. Read More

Recently, Cloud-based Mobile Augmentation (CMA) approaches have gained remarkable ground from academia and industry. CMA is the state-of-the-art mobile augmentation model that employs resource-rich clouds to increase, enhance, and optimize computing capabilities of mobile devices aiming at execution of resource-intensive mobile applications. Augmented mobile devices envision to perform extensive computations and to store big data beyond their intrinsic capabilities with least footprint and vulnerability. Read More

As Clouds are complex, large-scale, and heterogeneous distributed systems, management of their resources is a challenging task. They need automated and integrated intelligent strategies for provisioning of resources to offer services that are secure, reliable, and cost-efficient. Hence, effective management of services becomes fundamental in software platforms that constitute the fabric of computing Clouds. Read More

Ubiquitous sensing enabled by Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technologies cuts across many areas of modern day living. This offers the ability to measure, infer and understand environmental indicators, from delicate ecologies and natural resources to urban environments. The proliferation of these devices in a communicating-actuating network creates the Internet of Things (IoT), wherein, sensors and actuators blend seamlessly with the environment around us, and the information is shared across platforms in order to develop a common operating picture (COP). Read More

Cloud computing has penetrated the Information Technology industry deep enough to influence major companies to adopt it into their mainstream business. A strong thrust on the use of virtualization technology to realize Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) has led enterprises to leverage subscription-oriented computing capabilities of public Clouds for hosting their application services. In parallel, research in academia has been investigating transversal aspects such as security, software frameworks, quality of service, and standardization. Read More

Cloud computing systems promise to offer subscription-oriented, enterprise-quality computing services to users worldwide. With the increased demand for delivering services to a large number of users, they need to offer differentiated services to users and meet their quality expectations. Existing resource management systems in data centers are yet to support Service Level Agreement (SLA)-oriented resource allocation, and thus need to be enhanced to realize cloud computing and utility computing. Read More

Cloud computing providers are now offering their unused resources for leasing in the spot market, which has been considered the first step towards a full-fledged market economy for computational resources. Spot instances are virtual machines (VMs) available at lower prices than their standard on-demand counterparts. These VMs will run for as long as the current price is lower than the maximum bid price users are willing to pay per hour. Read More

Infrastructure-as-a-Service providers are offering their unused resources in the form of variable-priced virtual machines (VMs), known as "spot instances", at prices significantly lower than their standard fixed-priced resources. To lease spot instances, users specify a maximum price they are willing to pay per hour and VMs will run only when the current price is lower than the user's bid. This paper proposes a resource allocation policy that addresses the problem of running deadline-constrained compute-intensive jobs on a pool of composed solely of spot instances, while exploiting variations in price and performance to run applications in a fast and economical way. Read More

Virtualization has become commonplace in modern data centers, often referred as "computing clouds". The capability of virtual machine live migration brings benefits such as improved performance, manageability and fault tolerance, while allowing workload movement with a short service downtime. However, service levels of applications are likely to be negatively affected during a live migration. Read More

Cloud computing is rapidly emerging as a new paradigm for delivering IT services as utlity-oriented services on subscription-basis. The rapid development of applications and their deployment in Cloud computing environments in efficient manner is a complex task. In this article, we give a brief introduction to Cloud computing technology and Platform as a Service, we examine the offerings in this category, and provide the basis for helping readers to understand basic application platform opportunities in Cloud by technologies such as Microsoft Azure, Sales Force, Google App, and Aneka for Cloud computing. Read More

Aneka is an Application Platform-as-a-Service (Aneka PaaS) for Cloud Computing. It acts as a framework for building customized applications and deploying them on either public or private Clouds. One of the key features of Aneka is its support for provisioning resources on different public Cloud providers such as Amazon EC2, Windows Azure and GoGrid. Read More

In recent years, extensive research has been conducted in the area of Service Level Agreement (SLA) for utility computing systems. An SLA is a formal contract used to guarantee that consumers' service quality expectation can be achieved. In utility computing systems, the level of customer satisfaction is crucial, making SLAs significantly important in these environments. Read More

Traditionally, the development of computing systems has been focused on performance improvements driven by the demand of applications from consumer, scientific and business domains. However, the ever increasing energy consumption of computing systems has started to limit further performance growth due to overwhelming electricity bills and carbon dioxide footprints. Therefore, the goal of the computer system design has been shifted to power and energy efficiency. Read More

Cloud computing is offering utility-oriented IT services to users worldwide. Based on a pay-as-you-go model, it enables hosting of pervasive applications from consumer, scientific, and business domains. However, data centers hosting Cloud applications consume huge amounts of energy, contributing to high operational costs and carbon footprints to the environment. Read More

Cloud computing providers have setup several data centers at different geographical locations over the Internet in order to optimally serve needs of their customers around the world. However, existing systems do not support mechanisms and policies for dynamically coordinating load distribution among different Cloud-based data centers in order to determine optimal location for hosting application services to achieve reasonable QoS levels. Further, the Cloud computing providers are unable to predict geographic distribution of users consuming their services, hence the load coordination must happen automatically, and distribution of services must change in response to changes in the load. Read More

This keynote paper: (1) presents the 21st century vision of computing and identifies various IT paradigms promising to deliver computing as a utility; (2) defines the architecture for creating market-oriented Clouds and computing atmosphere by leveraging technologies such as virtual machines; (3) provides thoughts on market-based resource management strategies that encompass both customer-driven service management and computational risk management to sustain SLA-oriented resource allocation; (4) presents the work carried out as part of our new Cloud Computing initiative, called Cloudbus: (i) Aneka, a Platform as a Service software system containing SDK (Software Development Kit) for construction of Cloud applications and deployment on private or public Clouds, in addition to supporting market-oriented resource management; (ii) internetworking of Clouds for dynamic creation of federated computing environments for scaling of elastic applications; (iii) creation of 3rd party Cloud brokering services for building content delivery networks and e-Science applications and their deployment on capabilities of IaaS providers such as Amazon along with Grid mashups; (iv) CloudSim supporting modelling and simulation of Clouds for performance studies; (v) Energy Efficient Resource Allocation Mechanisms and Techniques for creation and management of Green Clouds; and (vi) pathways for future research. Read More

Scientific computing often requires the availability of a massive number of computers for performing large scale experiments. Traditionally, these needs have been addressed by using high-performance computing solutions and installed facilities such as clusters and super computers, which are difficult to setup, maintain, and operate. Cloud computing provides scientists with a completely new model of utilizing the computing infrastructure. Read More

The use of High Performance Computing (HPC) in commercial and consumer IT applications is becoming popular. They need the ability to gain rapid and scalable access to high-end computing capabilities. Cloud computing promises to deliver such a computing infrastructure using data centers so that HPC users can access applications and data from a Cloud anywhere in the world on demand and pay based on what they use. Read More

The proprietary nature of existing Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) means they are closed and do not naturally cooperate. A CDN is expected to provide high performance Internet content delivery through global coverage, which might be an obstacle for new CDN providers, as well as affecting commercial viability of existing ones. Finding ways for distinct CDNs to coordinate and cooperate with other CDNs is necessary to achieve better overall service, as perceived by end-users, at lower cost. Read More

Cloud computing aims to power the next generation data centers and enables application service providers to lease data center capabilities for deploying applications depending on user QoS (Quality of Service) requirements. Cloud applications have different composition, configuration, and deployment requirements. Quantifying the performance of resource allocation policies and application scheduling algorithms at finer details in Cloud computing environments for different application and service models under varying load, energy performance (power consumption, heat dissipation), and system size is a challenging problem to tackle. Read More

Cloud computing focuses on delivery of reliable, secure, fault-tolerant, sustainable, and scalable infrastructures for hosting Internet-based application services. These applications have different composition, configuration, and deployment requirements. Quantifying the performance of scheduling and allocation policy on a Cloud infrastructure (hardware, software, services) for different application and service models under varying load, energy performance (power consumption, heat dissipation), and system size is an extremely challenging problem to tackle. Read More

In this paper, we present a distributed implementation of a network based multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, called EMO, by using Offspring. Network based evolutionary algorithms have proven to be effective for multi-objective problem solving. They feature a network of connections between individuals that drives the evolution of the algorithm. Read More

This paper presents a Grid portal for protein secondary structure prediction developed by using services of Aneka, a .NET-based enterprise Grid technology. The portal is used by research scientists to discover new prediction structures in a parallel manner. Read More

The user-level brokers in grids consider individual application QoS requirements and minimize their cost without considering demands from other users. This results in contention for resources and sub-optimal schedules. Meta-scheduling in grids aims to address this scheduling problem, which is NP hard due to its combinatorial nature. Read More

This chapter describes Aneka-Federation, a decentralized and distributed system that combines enterprise Clouds, overlay networking, and structured peer-to-peer techniques to create scalable wide-area networking of compute nodes for high-throughput computing. The Aneka-Federation integrates numerous small scale Aneka Enterprise Cloud services and nodes that are distributed over multiple control and enterprise domains as parts of a single coordinated resource leasing abstraction. The system is designed with the aim of making distributed enterprise Cloud resource integration and application programming flexible, efficient, and scalable. Read More

This keynote paper: presents a 21st century vision of computing; identifies various computing paradigms promising to deliver the vision of computing utilities; defines Cloud computing and provides the architecture for creating market-oriented Clouds by leveraging technologies such as VMs; provides thoughts on market-based resource management strategies that encompass both customer-driven service management and computational risk management to sustain SLA-oriented resource allocation; presents some representative Cloud platforms especially those developed in industries along with our current work towards realising market-oriented resource allocation of Clouds by leveraging the 3rd generation Aneka enterprise Grid technology; reveals our early thoughts on interconnecting Clouds for dynamically creating an atmospheric computing environment along with pointers to future community research; and concludes with the need for convergence of competing IT paradigms for delivering our 21st century vision. Read More

Grids provide uniform access to aggregations of heterogeneous resources and services such as computers, networks and storage owned by multiple organizations. However, such a dynamic environment poses many challenges for application composition and deployment. In this paper, we present the design of the Gridbus Grid resource broker that allows users to create applications and specify different objectives through different interfaces without having to deal with the complexity of Grid infrastructure. Read More

Existing Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) exhibit the nature of closed delivery networks which do not cooperate with other CDNs and in practice, islands of CDNs are formed. The logical separation between contents and services in this context results in two content networking domains. In addition to that, meeting the Quality of Service requirements of users according to negotiated Service Level Agreement is crucial for a CDN. Read More

Grid superscheduling requires support for efficient and scalable discovery of resources. Resource discovery activities involve searching for the appropriate resource types that match the user's job requirements. To accomplish this goal, a resource discovery system that supports the desired look-up operation is mandatory. Read More