R. Schiavilla - Jefferson Laboratory and Old Dominion University

R. Schiavilla
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R. Schiavilla
Jefferson Laboratory and Old Dominion University
United States

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Nuclear Theory (48)
Nuclear Experiment (9)
High Energy Physics - Experiment (5)
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (3)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (2)
Quantum Physics (1)

Publications Authored By R. Schiavilla

Cross sections for inclusive neutrino scattering off deuteron induced by neutral and charge-changing weak currents are calculated from threshold up to 150 MeV energies in a chiral effective field theory including high orders in the power counting. Contributions beyond leading order (LO) in the weak current are found to be small, and increase the cross sections obtained with the LO transition operators by a couple of percent over the whole energy range (0--150) MeV. The cutoff dependence is negligible, and the predicted cross sections are within $\sim 2$\% of, albeit consistently larger than, corresponding predictions obtained in conventional meson-exchange frameworks. Read More

We present fully local versions of the minimally non-local nucleon-nucleon potentials constructed in a previous paper [M.\ Piarulli {\it et al.}, Phys. Read More

We evaluate the Fermi and Gamow-Teller (GT) matrix elements in tritium $\beta$-decay by including in the charge-changing weak current the corrections up to one loop recently derived in nuclear chiral effective field theory ($\chi$ EFT). The trinucleon wave functions are obtained from hyperspherical-harmonics solutions of the Schrodinger equation with two- and three-nucleon potentials corresponding to either $\chi$ EFT (the N3LO/N2LO combination) or meson-exchange phenomenology (the AV18/UIX combination). We find that contributions due to loop corrections in the axial current are, in relative terms, as large as (and in some cases, dominate) those from one-pion exchange, which nominally occur at lower order in the power counting. Read More

The longitudinal and transverse electromagnetic response functions of $^{12}$C are computed in a "first-principles" Green's function Monte Carlo calculation, based on realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions and associated one- and two-body currents. We find excellent agreement between theory and experiment and, in particular, no evidence for the quenching of measured versus calculated longitudinal response. This is further corroborated by a re-analysis of the Coulomb sum rule, in which the contributions from the low-lying $J^\pi\,$=$\, 2^+$, $0^+_2$ (Hoyle), and $4^+$ states in $^{12}$C are accounted for explicitly in evaluating the total inelastic strength. Read More

The development of the chiral dynamics based description of nuclear electroweak currents is reviewed. Gerald E. (Gerry) Brown's role in basing theoretical nuclear physics on chiral Lagrangians is emphasized. Read More

A status report on $\chi$EFT studies of few-nucleon electroweak structure and dynamics is provided, including electromagnetic form factors of few-nucleon systems, the $pp$ weak fusion and muon weak captures on deuteron and $^3$He, and a number of parity-violating processes induced by hadronic weak interactions. Read More

Two-nucleon axial charge and current operators are derived in chiral effective field theory up to one loop. The derivation is based on time-ordered perturbation theory, and accounts for cancellations between the contributions of irreducible diagrams and the contributions due to non-static corrections from energy denominators of reducible diagrams. Ultraviolet divergencies associated with the loop corrections are isolated in dimensional regularization. Read More

Precise measurement of neutrino oscillations, and hence the determination of their masses demands a quantitative understanding of neutrino-nucleus interactions. To this aim, two-body meson-exchange currents have to be accounted for along within realistic models of nuclear dynamics. We summarize our progresses towards the construction of a consistent framework, based on quantum Monte Carlo methods and on the spectral function approach, that can be exploited to accurately describe neutrino interactions with atomic nuclei over the broad kinematical region covered by neutrino experiments. Read More

Experimental form factors of the hydrogen and helium isotopes, extracted from an up-to-date global analysis of cross sections and polarization observables measured in elastic electron scattering from these systems, are compared to predictions obtained in three different theoretical approaches: the first is based on realistic interactions and currents, including relativistic corrections (labeled as the conventional approach); the second relies on a chiral effective field theory description of the strong and electromagnetic interactions in nuclei (labeled $\chi$EFT); the third utilizes a fully relativistic treatment of nuclear dynamics as implemented in the covariant spectator theory (labeled CST). For momentum transfers below $Q \lesssim 5$ fm$^{-1}$ there is satisfactory agreement between experimental data and theoretical results in all three approaches. However, at $Q \gtrsim 5$ fm$^{-1}$, particularly in the case of the deuteron, a relativistic treatment of the dynamics, as is done in the CST, is necessary. Read More

We report the first measurement of the target single-spin asymmetry, $A_y$, in quasi-elastic scattering from the inclusive reaction $^3$He$^{\uparrow}(e,e^\prime)$ on a $^3$He gas target polarized normal to the lepton scattering plane. Assuming time-reversal invariance, this asymmetry is strictly zero for one-photon exchange. A non-zero $A_y$ can arise from the interference between the one- and two-photon exchange processes which is sensitive to the details of the sub-structure of the nucleon. Read More

Ab initio calculations of the quasi-elastic electromagnetic and neutral-weak response functions of 4He and 12C are carried out for the first time. They are based on a realistic approach to nuclear dynamics, in which the strong interactions are described by two- and three-nucleon potentials and the electroweak interactions with external fields include one- and two-body terms. The Green's function Monte Carlo method is used to calculate directly the Laplace transforms of the response functions, and maximum-entropy techniques are employed to invert the resulting imaginary-time correlation functions with associated statistical errors. Read More

Improvements in theoretical modeling of Short Range structures and phenomena, and comparisons with data, will require sustained collaboration between nuclear theorists and neutrino experimentalists. The extensive history of studying this area of nuclear physics in electron- and hadron-scattering experiments, coupled with the transformative capabilities of LArTPCs to identify neutrinos, will provide a ripe opportunity for new discoveries that will further our understanding of the nucleus. Read More

We construct a coordinate-space chiral potential, including $\Delta$-isobar intermediate states in its two-pion-exchange component. The contact interactions entering at next-to-leading and next-to-next-to-next-to-leading orders ($Q^2$ and $Q^4$, respectively, $Q$ denoting generically the low momentum scale) are rearranged by Fierz transformations to yield terms at most quadratic in the relative momentum operator of the two nucleons. The low-energy constants multiplying these contact interactions are fitted to the 2013 Granada database, consisting of 2309 $pp$ and 2982 $np$ data (including, respectively, 148 and 218 normalizations) in the laboratory-energy range 0--300 MeV. Read More

Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. Read More

We present a precise measurement of double-polarization asymmetries in the $^3\vec{\mathrm{He}}(\vec{\mathrm{e}},\mathrm{e}'\mathrm{d})$ reaction. This particular process is a uniquely sensitive probe of hadron dynamics in $^3\mathrm{He}$ and the structure of the underlying electromagnetic currents. The measurements have been performed in and around quasi-elastic kinematics at $Q^2 = 0. Read More

We report quantum Monte Carlo calculations of electromagnetic transitions in 8Be. The realistic Argonne v18 two-nucleon and Illinois-7 three-nucleon potentials are used to generate the ground state and nine excited states, with energies that are in excellent agreement with experiment. A dozen M1 and eight E2 transition matrix elements between these states are then evaluated. Read More

We reconsider the derivation of the nucleon-nucleon parity-violating (PV) potential within a chiral effective field theory framework. We construct the potential up to next-to-next-to-leading order by including one-pion-exchange, two-pion-exchange, contact, and 1/M (M being the nucleon mass) terms, and use dimensional regularization to renormalize the pion-loop corrections. A detailed analysis of the number of independent low-energy constants (LEC's) entering the potential is carried out. Read More

We present updated calculations for observables in the processes $^3$He($e,e^\prime p$)$^2$H, $^4$He($e,e^\prime p$)$^3$H, and $^4$He($\vec{e},e^\prime \vec{p}\,$)$^3$H. This update entails the implementation of improved nucleon-nucleon ($NN$) amplitudes to describe final state interactions (FSI) within a Glauber approximation and includes full spin-isospin dependence in the profile operator. In addition, an optical potential, which has also been updated since previous work, is utilized to treat FSI for the $^4$He($e,e^\prime p$)$^3$H and $^4$He($\vec{e},e^\prime \vec{p}\,$)$^3$H reactions. Read More

An ab initio calculation of the sum rules of the neutral weak response functions in $^{12}$C is reported, based on a realistic Hamiltonian, including two- and three-nucleon potentials, and on realistic currents, consisting of one- and two-body terms. We find that the sum rules of the response functions associated with the longitudinal and transverse components of the (space-like) neutral current are largest and that a significant portion ($\simeq 30$ %) of the calculated strength is due to two-body terms. This fact may have implications for the MiniBooNE and other neutrino quasi-elastic scattering data on nuclei. Read More

We report variational Monte Carlo calculations of single-nucleon momentum distributions for A <= 12 nuclei and nucleon-pair and nucleon-cluster momentum distributions for A <= 8. The wave functions have been generated for a Hamiltonian containing the Argonne v18 two-nucleon and Urbana X three-nucleon potentials. The single-nucleon and nucleon-pair momentum distributions exhibit universal features attributable to the one-pion-exchange tensor interaction. Read More

An "ab initio" calculation of the Carbon-12 elastic form factor, and sum rules of longitudinal and transverse response functions measured in inclusive (e,e') scattering, is reported, based on realistic nuclear potentials and electromagnetic currents. The longitudinal elastic form factor and sum rule are found to be in satisfactory agreement with available experimental data. A direct comparison between theory and experiment is difficult for the transverse sum rule. Read More

The astrophysical S-factor for proton-proton weak capture is calculated in chiral effective field theory over the center-of-mass relative-energy range 0--100 keV. The chiral two-nucleon potential derived up to next-to-next-to-next-to leading order is augmented by the full electromagnetic interaction including, beyond Coulomb, two-photon and vacuum-polarization corrections. The low-energy constants (LEC's) entering the weak current operators are fixed so as to reproduce the A=3 binding energies and magnetic moments, and the Gamow-Teller matrix element in tritium beta decay. Read More

We present recent Green's function Monte Carlo calculations of magnetic moments and M1 transitions in $A \leq 9$ nuclei, which include corrections arising from two-body meson-exchange electromagnetic currents. Two-body effects provide significant corrections to the calculated observables, bringing them in excellent agreement with the experimental data. In particular, we find that two-body corrections are especially large in the A=9, $T=3/2$ systems, in which they account for up to $\sim 20%$ ($\sim 40 %$) of the total predicted value for the $^9$Li ($^9$C) magnetic moment. Read More

Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of electromagnetic moments and transitions are reported for A <= 9 nuclei. The realistic Argonne v18 two-nucleon and Illinois-7 three-nucleon potentials are used to generate the nuclear wave functions. Contributions of two-body meson-exchange current (MEC) operators are included for magnetic moments and M1 transitions. Read More

The objectives of the present work are twofold. The first is to address and resolve some of the differences present in independent, chiral-effective-field-theory (\chiEFT) derivations up to one loop, recently appeared in the literature, of the nuclear charge and current operators. The second objective is to provide a complete set of \chiEFT predictions for the structure functions and tensor polarization of the deuteron, for the charge and magnetic form factors of 3He and 3H, and for the charge and magnetic radii of these few-nucleon systems. Read More

We present Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of magnetic moments and M1 transitions in $A\le 9$ nuclei which take into account contributions of two-body electromagnetic currents. The Hamiltonian utilized to generate the nuclear wave functions includes the realistic Argonne-{\it v}$_{18}$ two-nucleon and the Illinois-7 three-nucleon interactions. The nuclear two-body electromagnetic currents are derived from a pionful chiral effective field theory including up to one-loop corrections. Read More

Background: Neutrino-nucleus quasi-elastic scattering is crucial to interpret the neutrino oscillation results in long baseline neutrino experiments. There are rather large uncertainties in the cross section, due to insufficient knowledge on the role of two-body weak currents. Purpose: Determine the role of two-body weak currents in neutrino-deuteron quasi-elastic scattering up to GeV energies. Read More

The muon-capture reactions 2H(\mu^-,\nu_\mu)nn and 3He(\mu^-,\nu_\mu)3H are studied with nuclear strong-interaction potentials and charge-changing weak currents, derived in chiral effective field theory. The low-energy constants (LEC's) c_D and c_E, present in the three-nucleon potential and (c_D) axial-vector current, are constrained to reproduce the A=3 binding energies and the triton Gamow-Teller matrix element. The vector weak current is related to the isovector component of the electromagnetic current via the conserved-vector-current constraint, and the two LEC's entering the contact terms in the latter are constrained to reproduce the A=3 magnetic moments. Read More

The electromagnetic charge operator in a two-nucleon system is derived in chiral effective field theory ($\chi$EFT) up to order $e\, Q$ (or N4LO), where $Q$ denotes the low-momentum scale and $e$ is the electric charge. The specific form of the N3LO and N4LO corrections from, respectively, one-pion-exchange and two-pion-exchange depends on the off-the-energy-shell prescriptions adopted for the non-static terms in the corresponding potentials. We show that different prescriptions lead to unitarily equivalent potentials and accompanying charge operators. Read More

The muon capture reactions 2H(\mu^-,\nu_\mu)nn and 3He(\mu^-,\nu_\mu)3H are studied with conventional or chiral realistic potentials and consistent weak currents. The initial and final A=2 and 3 nuclear wave functions are obtained from the Argonne v18 or chiral N3LO two-nucleon potential, in combination with, respectively, the Urbana IX or chiral N2LO three-nucleon potential in the case of A=3. The weak current consists of polar- and axial-vector components. Read More

We report on a study of the $nd$ and $n\,^3$He radiative captures at thermal neutron energies, using wave functions obtained from either chiral or conventional two- and three-nucleon realistic potentials with the hyperspherical harmonics method, and electromagnetic currents derived in chiral effective field theory up to one loop. The predicted $nd$ and $n\,^3$He cross sections are in good agreement with data, but exhibit a significant dependence on the input Hamiltonian. A comparison is also made between these and new results for the $nd$ and $n\,^3$He cross sections obtained in the conventional framework for both potentials and currents. Read More

The longitudinal asymmetry induced by parity-violating (PV) components in the nucleon-nucleon potential is studied in the charge-exchange reaction 3He(n,p)3H at vanishing incident neutron energies. An expression for the PV observable is derived in terms of T-matrix elements for transitions from the {2S+1}L_J=1S_0 and 3S_1 states in the incoming n-3He channel to states with J=0 and 1 in the outgoing p-3H channel. The T-matrix elements involving PV transitions are obtained in first-order perturbation theory in the hadronic weak-interaction potential, while those connecting states of the same parity are derived from solutions of the strong-interaction Hamiltonian with the hyperspherical-harmonics method. Read More

We summarize and critically evaluate the available data on nuclear fusion cross sections important to energy generation in the Sun and other hydrogen-burning stars and to solar neutrino production. Recommended values and uncertainties are provided for key cross sections, and a recommended spectrum is given for 8B solar neutrinos. We also discuss opportunities for further increasing the precision of key rates, including new facilities, new experimental techniques, and improvements in theory. Read More

We construct the most general, relativistically invariant, contact Lagrangian at order Q^2 in the power counting, Q denoting the low momentum scale. A complete, but non-minimal, set of (contact) interaction terms is identified, which upon non-relativistic reduction generate 2 leading independent operator combinations of order Q^0 and 7 sub-leading ones of order Q^2 - a result derived previously in the heavy-baryon formulation of effective field theories (EFT's). We show that Poincare covariance of the theory requires that additional terms with fixed coefficients be included, in order to describe the two-nucleon potential in reference frames other than the center-of-mass frame. Read More

We summarize our recent work dealing with the construction of the nucleon-nucleon potential and associated electromagnetic currents up to one loop in chiral effective field theory ($\chi$EFT). The magnetic dipole operators derived from these currents are then used in hybrid calculations of static properties and low-energy radiative capture processes in few-body nuclei. A preliminary set of results are presented for the magnetic moments of the deuteron and trinucleons and thermal neutron captures on $p$, $d$, and $^3$He. Read More

Recently, we have derived a two--nucleon potential and consistent nuclear electromagnetic currents in chiral effective field theory with pions and nucleons as explicit degrees of freedom. The calculation of the currents has been carried out to include N$^3$LO corrections, consisting of two--pion exchange and contact contributions. The latter involve unknown low-energy constants (LECs), some of which have been fixed by fitting the $np$ S- and P-wave phase shifts up to 100 MeV lab energies. Read More

A two-nucleon potential and consistent electromagnetic currents are derived in chiral effective field theory ($\chi$EFT) at, respectively, $Q^{2}$ (or N$^2$LO) and $e Q$ (or N$^3$LO), where $Q$ generically denotes the low-momentum scale and $e$ is the electric charge. Dimensional regularization is used to renormalize the pion-loop corrections. A simple expression is derived for the magnetic dipole ($M1$) operator associated with pion loops, consisting of two terms, one of which is determined, uniquely, by the isospin-dependent part of the two-pion-exchange potential. Read More

Nuclear electromagnetic currents are derived in time-ordered perturbation theory within an effective-field-theory framework including explicit nucleons, $\Delta$ isobars, and pions up to one loop, or N$^3$LO. The currents obtained at N$^2$LO, {\it i.e. Read More

Green's function Monte Carlo calculations of magnetic moments and M1 transitions including two-body meson-exchange current (MEC) contributions are reported for A<=7 nuclei. The realistic Argonne v18 two-nucleon and Illinois-2 three-nucleon potentials are used to generate the nuclear wave functions. The two-body meson-exchange operators are constructed to satisfy the continuity equation with the Argonne v18 potential. Read More

Nuclear electromagnetic currents derived in a chiral-effective-field-theory framework including explicit nucleons, $\Delta$ isobars, and pions up to N$^2$LO, {\it i.e.} ignoring loop corrections, are used in a study of neutron radiative captures on protons and deuterons at thermal energies, and of $A$=2 and 3 nuclei magnetic moments. Read More

Two-nucleon momentum distributions are calculated for the ground states of 3He and 4He as a function of the nucleons' relative and total momenta. We use variational Monte Carlo wave functions derived from a realistic Hamiltonian with two- and three-nucleon potentials. The momentum distribution of pp pairs is found to be much smaller than that of pn pairs for values of the relative momentum in the range (300--500) MeV/c and vanishing total momentum. Read More

The neutron spin rotation induced by parity-violating (PV) components in the nucleon-nucleon potential is studied in \vec{n}-d scattering at zero energy. Results are obtained corresponding to the Argonne v_{18} two-nucleon and Urbana-IX three-nucleon strong-interaction potentials in combination with either the DDH or pionless EFT model for the weak-interaction potential. We find that this observable is dominated by the contribution of the long-range part of the PV potential associated with pion exchange. Read More

The threshold electrodisintegration of the deuteron at backward angles is studied with a relativistic Hamiltonian, including a relativistic one-pion-exchange potential (OPEP) with off-shell terms as predicted by pseudovector coupling of pions to nucleons. The bound and scattering states are obtained in the center-of-mass frame, and then boosted from it to the Breit frame, where the evaluation of the relevant matrix elements of the electromagnetic current operator is carried out. The latter includes, in addition to one-body, also two-body terms due to pion exchange, as obtained, consistently with the OPEP, in pseudovector pion-nucleon coupling theory. Read More

In order to isolate the contribution of the nucleon strange electric form factor to the parity-violating asymmetry measured in 4He(\vec e,e')4He experiments, it is crucial to have a reliable estimate of the magnitude of isospin-symmetry-breaking (ISB) corrections in both the nucleon and 4He. We examine this issue in the present letter. Isospin admixtures in the nucleon are determined in chiral perturbation theory, while those in 4He are derived from nuclear interactions, including explicit ISB terms. Read More

Two-nucleon momentum distributions are calculated for the ground states of nuclei with mass number $A\leq 8$, using variational Monte Carlo wave functions derived from a realistic Hamiltonian with two- and three-nucleon potentials. The momentum distribution of $np$ pairs is found to be much larger than that of $pp$ pairs for values of the relative momentum in the range (300--600) MeV/c and vanishing total momentum. This order of magnitude difference is seen in all nuclei considered and has a universal character originating from the tensor components present in any realistic nucleon-nucleon potential. Read More

The $^3$He$(e,e^\prime p)$$d$ reaction is studied using an accurate three-nucleon bound state wave function, a model for the electromagnetic current operator including one- and two-body terms, and the Glauber approximation for the treatment of final state interactions. In contrast to earlier studies, the profile operator in the Glauber expansion is derived from a nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude, which retains its full spin and isospin dependence and is consistent with phase-shift analyses of two-nucleon scattering data. The amplitude is boosted from the center-of-mass frame, where parameterizations for it are available, to the frame where rescattering occurs. Read More

The induced polarization, $P^\prime_y$, of the neutron in the deuteron photo-disintegration from threshold up to 30 MeV is calculated using a variety of different, latest-generation potentials--Argonne $v_{18}$, Bonn 2000, and Nijmegen I-- and a realistic model for the nuclear electromagnetic current operator, including one- and two-body terms. The model dependence of the theoretical predictions is found to be very small. These predictions are systematically larger in magnitude than the measured $P^\prime_y$ values, and corroborate the conclusions of an earlier, and much older, study. Read More

Different models for conserved two- and three-body electromagnetic currents are constructed from two- and three-nucleon interactions, using either meson-exchange mechanisms or minimal substitution in the momentum dependence of these interactions. The connection between these two different schemes is elucidated. A number of low-energy electronuclear observables, including (i) $np$ radiative capture at thermal neutron energies and deuteron photodisintegration at low energies, (ii) $nd$ and $pd$ radiative capture reactions, and (iii) isoscalar and isovector magnetic form factors of $^3$H and $^3$He, are calculated in order to make a comparative study of these models for the current operator. Read More

Polarization observables in the $^4$He$(\vec{e},e^\prime\vec{p})$$^3$H reaction are calculated using accurate three- and four-nucleon bound-state wave functions, a realistic model for the nuclear electromagnetic current operator, and a treatment of final-state-interactions with an optical potential. In contrast to earlier studies, no significant discrepancies are found between theory and experiment both for the ratio of transverse to longitudinal polarization transfers and for the induced polarization, when free-nucleon electromagnetic form factors are used in the current operator. The present results challenge the current interpretation of the experimental data in terms of medium-modified form factors. Read More

Recent advances in the study of pd radiative capture in a wide range of center-of-mass energy below and above deuteron breakup threshold are presented and discussed. Read More