R. Roth - Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt, Germany

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Name
R. Roth
Affiliation
Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt, Germany
City
Darmstadt
Country
Germany

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Nuclear Theory (37)
 
Nuclear Experiment (10)
 
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (7)
 
High Energy Physics - Experiment (4)
 
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Publications Authored By R. Roth

How does nature hold together protons and neutrons to form the wide variety of complex nuclei in the universe? Describing many-nucleon systems from the fundamental theory of quantum chromodynamics has been the greatest challenge in answering this question. The chiral effective field theory description of the nuclear force now makes this possible but requires certain parameters that are not uniquely determined. Defining the nuclear force needs identification of observables sensitive to the different parametrizations. Read More

A subspace of a finite extension field is called a Sidon space if the product of any two of its elements is unique up to a scalar multiplier from the base field. Sidon spaces were recently introduced by Bachoc et al. as a means to characterize multiplicative properties of subspaces, and yet no explicit constructions were given. Read More

The properties of giant and pygmy resonances are calculated starting from chiral two-and three-nucleon interactions. The aim is to assess the predictive power of modern Hamiltonians and especially the role of the three-nucleon force. Methods based on the random-phase approximation (RPA) provide an optimal description of the modes of interest with minimal computational requirements. Read More

We introduce a hybrid many-body approach that combines the flexibility of the No-Core Shell Model (NCSM) with the efficiency of Multi-Configurational Perturbation Theory (MCPT) to compute ground- and excited-state energies in arbitrary open-shell nuclei in large model spaces. The NCSM in small model spaces is used to define a multi-determinantal reference state that contains the most important multi-particle multi-hole correlations and the second-order MCPT correction is used to capture additional correlation effects from a large model space. We apply this new ab initio approach for the calculation of ground-state and excitation energies of even and odd-mass carbon and oxygen isotopes and find excellent agreement with large-scale NCSM calculations that are computationally much more demanding. Read More

We study WZ production with anomalous couplings at $\bar{n}$NLO QCD using the LoopSim method in combination with the Monte Carlo program VBFNLO. Higher order corrections to WZ production are dominated by additional hard jet radiation. Those contributions are insensitive to anomalous couplings and should thus be removed in analyses. Read More

2016Oct
Authors: D. de Florian1, C. Grojean2, F. Maltoni3, C. Mariotti4, A. Nikitenko5, M. Pieri6, P. Savard7, M. Schumacher8, R. Tanaka9, R. Aggleton10, M. Ahmad11, B. Allanach12, C. Anastasiou13, W. Astill14, S. Badger15, M. Badziak16, J. Baglio17, E. Bagnaschi18, A. Ballestrero19, A. Banfi20, D. Barducci21, M. Beckingham22, C. Becot23, G. Bélanger24, J. Bellm25, N. Belyaev26, F. U. Bernlochner27, C. Beskidt28, A. Biekötter29, F. Bishara30, W. Bizon31, N. E. Bomark32, M. Bonvini33, S. Borowka34, V. Bortolotto35, S. Boselli36, F. J. Botella37, R. Boughezal38, G. C. Branco39, J. Brehmer40, L. Brenner41, S. Bressler42, I. Brivio43, A. Broggio44, H. Brun45, G. Buchalla46, C. D. Burgard47, A. Calandri48, L. Caminada49, R. Caminal Armadans50, F. Campanario51, J. Campbell52, F. Caola53, C. M. Carloni Calame54, S. Carrazza55, A. Carvalho56, M. Casolino57, O. Cata58, A. Celis59, F. Cerutti60, N. Chanon61, M. Chen62, X. Chen63, B. Chokoufé Nejad64, N. Christensen65, M. Ciuchini66, R. Contino67, T. Corbett68, R. Costa69, D. Curtin70, M. Dall'Osso71, A. David72, S. Dawson73, J. de Blas74, W. de Boer75, P. de Castro Manzano76, C. Degrande77, R. L. Delgado78, F. Demartin79, A. Denner80, B. Di Micco81, R. Di Nardo82, S. Dittmaier83, A. Dobado84, T. Dorigo85, F. A. Dreyer86, M. Dührssen87, C. Duhr88, F. Dulat89, K. Ecker90, K. Ellis91, U. Ellwanger92, C. Englert93, D. Espriu94, A. Falkowski95, L. Fayard96, R. Feger97, G. Ferrera98, A. Ferroglia99, N. Fidanza100, T. Figy101, M. Flechl102, D. Fontes103, S. Forte104, P. Francavilla105, E. Franco106, R. Frederix107, A. Freitas108, F. F. Freitas109, F. Frensch110, S. Frixione111, B. Fuks112, E. Furlan113, S. Gadatsch114, J. Gao115, Y. Gao116, M. V. Garzelli117, T. Gehrmann118, R. Gerosa119, M. Ghezzi120, D. Ghosh121, S. Gieseke122, D. Gillberg123, G. F. Giudice124, E. W. N. Glover125, F. Goertz126, D. Gonçalves127, J. Gonzalez-Fraile128, M. Gorbahn129, S. Gori130, C. A. Gottardo131, M. Gouzevitch132, P. Govoni133, D. Gray134, M. Grazzini135, N. Greiner136, A. Greljo137, J. Grigo138, A. V. Gritsan139, R. Gröber140, S. Guindon141, H. E. Haber142, C. Han143, T. Han144, R. Harlander145, M. A. Harrendorf146, H. B. Hartanto147, C. Hays148, S. Heinemeyer149, G. Heinrich150, M. Herrero151, F. Herzog152, B. Hespel153, V. Hirschi154, S. Hoeche155, S. Honeywell156, S. J. Huber157, C. Hugonie158, J. Huston159, A. Ilnicka160, G. Isidori161, B. Jäger162, M. Jaquier163, S. P. Jones164, A. Juste165, S. Kallweit166, A. Kaluza167, A. Kardos168, A. Karlberg169, Z. Kassabov170, N. Kauer171, D. I. Kazakov172, M. Kerner173, W. Kilian174, F. Kling175, K. Köneke176, R. Kogler177, R. Konoplich178, S. Kortner179, S. Kraml180, C. Krause181, F. Krauss182, M. Krawczyk183, A. Kulesza184, S. Kuttimalai185, R. Lane186, A. Lazopoulos187, G. Lee188, P. Lenzi189, I. M. Lewis190, Y. Li191, S. Liebler192, J. Lindert193, X. Liu194, Z. Liu195, F. J. Llanes-Estrada196, H. E. Logan197, D. Lopez-Val198, I. Low199, G. Luisoni200, P. Maierhöfer201, E. Maina202, B. Mansoulié203, H. Mantler204, M. Mantoani205, A. C. Marini206, V. I. Martinez Outschoorn207, S. Marzani208, D. Marzocca209, A. Massironi210, K. Mawatari211, J. Mazzitelli212, A. McCarn213, B. Mellado214, K. Melnikov215, S. B. Menari216, L. Merlo217, C. Meyer218, P. Milenovic219, K. Mimasu220, S. Mishima221, B. Mistlberger222, S. -O. Moch223, A. Mohammadi224, P. F. Monni225, G. Montagna226, M. Moreno Llácer227, N. Moretti228, S. Moretti229, L. Motyka230, A. Mück231, M. Mühlleitner232, S. Munir233, P. Musella234, P. Nadolsky235, D. Napoletano236, M. Nebot237, C. Neu238, M. Neubert239, R. Nevzorov240, O. Nicrosini241, J. Nielsen242, K. Nikolopoulos243, J. M. No244, C. O'Brien245, T. Ohl246, C. Oleari247, T. Orimoto248, D. Pagani249, C. E. Pandini250, A. Papaefstathiou251, A. S. Papanastasiou252, G. Passarino253, B. D. Pecjak254, M. Pelliccioni255, G. Perez256, L. Perrozzi257, F. Petriello258, G. Petrucciani259, E. Pianori260, F. Piccinini261, M. Pierini262, A. Pilkington263, S. Plätzer264, T. Plehn265, R. Podskubka266, C. T. Potter267, S. Pozzorini268, K. Prokofiev269, A. Pukhov270, I. Puljak271, M. Queitsch-Maitland272, J. Quevillon273, D. Rathlev274, M. Rauch275, E. Re276, M. N. Rebelo277, D. Rebuzzi278, L. Reina279, C. Reuschle280, J. Reuter281, M. Riembau282, F. Riva283, A. Rizzi284, T. Robens285, R. Röntsch286, J. Rojo287, J. C. Romão288, N. Rompotis289, J. Roskes290, R. Roth291, G. P. Salam292, R. Salerno293, M. O. P. Sampaio294, R. Santos295, V. Sanz296, J. J. Sanz-Cillero297, H. Sargsyan298, U. Sarica299, P. Schichtel300, J. Schlenk301, T. Schmidt302, C. Schmitt303, M. Schönherr304, U. Schubert305, M. Schulze306, S. Sekula307, M. Sekulla308, E. Shabalina309, H. S. Shao310, J. Shelton311, C. H. Shepherd-Themistocleous312, S. Y. Shim313, F. Siegert314, A. Signer315, J. P. Silva316, L. Silvestrini317, M. Sjodahl318, P. Slavich319, M. Slawinska320, L. Soffi321, M. Spannowsky322, C. Speckner323, D. M. Sperka324, M. Spira325, O. Stål326, F. Staub327, T. Stebel328, T. Stefaniak329, M. Steinhauser330, I. W. Stewart331, M. J. Strassler332, J. Streicher333, D. M. Strom334, S. Su335, X. Sun336, F. J. Tackmann337, K. Tackmann338, A. M. Teixeira339, R. Teixeira de Lima340, V. Theeuwes341, R. Thorne342, D. Tommasini343, P. Torrielli344, M. Tosi345, F. Tramontano346, Z. Trócsányi347, M. Trott348, I. Tsinikos349, M. Ubiali350, P. Vanlaer351, W. Verkerke352, A. Vicini353, L. Viliani354, E. Vryonidou355, D. Wackeroth356, C. E. M. Wagner357, J. Wang358, S. Wayand359, G. Weiglein360, C. Weiss361, M. Wiesemann362, C. Williams363, J. Winter364, D. Winterbottom365, R. Wolf366, M. Xiao367, L. L. Yang368, R. Yohay369, S. P. Y. Yuen370, G. Zanderighi371, M. Zaro372, D. Zeppenfeld373, R. Ziegler374, T. Zirke375, J. Zupan376
Affiliations: 1eds., 2eds., 3eds., 4eds., 5eds., 6eds., 7eds., 8eds., 9eds., 10The LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group, 11The LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group, 12The LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group, 13The LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group, 14The LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group, 15The LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group, 16The LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group, 17The LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group, 18The LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group, 19The LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group, 20The LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group, 21The LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group, 22The LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group, 23The LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group, 24The LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group, 25The LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group, 26The LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group, 27The LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group, 28The LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group, 29The LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group, 30The LHC Higgs Cross 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This Report summarizes the results of the activities of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group in the period 2014-2016. The main goal of the working group was to present the state-of-the-art of Higgs physics at the LHC, integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. The first part compiles the most up-to-date predictions of Higgs boson production cross sections and decay branching ratios, parton distribution functions, and off-shell Higgs boson production and interference effects. Read More

We merge two successful ab initio nuclear-structure methods, the no-core shell model (NCSM) and the multi-reference in-medium similarity renormalization group (IM-SRG) to define a new many-body approach for the comprehensive description of ground and excited states of closed and open-shell nuclei. Building on the key advantages of the two methods---the decoupling of excitations at the many-body level in the IM-SRG and the access to arbitrary nuclei, eigenstates, and observables in the NCSM---their combination enables fully converged no-core calculations for an unprecedented range of nuclei and observables at moderate computational cost. We present applications in the carbon and oxygen isotopic chains, where conventional NCSM calculations are still feasible and provide an important benchmark. Read More

The weakly bound exotic ${}^{11}$Be nucleus, famous for its ground-state parity inversion and distinct n+ ${}^{10}$Be halo structure, is investigated from first principles using chiral two- and three-nucleon forces. An explicit treatment of continuum effects is found to be indispensable. We study the sensitivity of the ${}^{11}$Be spectrum to the details of the three-nucleon force and demonstrate that only certain chiral interactions are capable of reproducing the parity inversion. Read More

We utilize various {\em ab initio} approaches to search for a low-lying resonance in the four-neutron ($4n$) system using the JISP16 realistic $NN$ interaction. Our most accurate prediction is obtained using a $J$-matrix extension of the No-Core Shell Model and suggests a $4n$ resonant state at an energy near $E_r = 0.8$ MeV with a width of approximately $\Gamma = 1. Read More

We present a nucleus-dependent valence-space approach for calculating ground and excited states of nuclei, which generalizes the shell-model in-medium similarity renormalization group to an ensemble reference with fractionally filled orbitals. Because the ensemble is used only as a reference, and not to represent physical states, no symmetry restoration is required. This allows us to capture 3N forces among valence nucleons with a valence-space Hamiltonian specifically targeted to each nucleus of interest. Read More

We present the first ab initio calculations for $p$-shell hypernuclei including hyperon-nucleon-nucleon (YNN) contributions induced by a Similarity Renormalization Group transformation of the initial hyperon-nucleon interaction. The transformation including the YNN terms conserves the spectrum of the Hamiltonian while drastically improving model-space convergence of the Importance-Truncated No-Core Shell Model, allowing a precise extraction of binding and excitation energies. Results using a hyperon-nucleon interaction at leading order in chiral effective field theory for lower- to mid-$p$-shell hypernuclei show a good reproduction of experimental excitation energies while hyperon binding energies are typically overestimated. Read More

Hard spheres are a central and important model reference system for both homogeneous and inhomogeneous fluid systems. In this paper we present new high-precision molecular-dynamics computer simulations for a hard sphere fluid at a planar hard wall. For this system we present benchmark data for the density profile $\rho(z)$ at various bulk densities, the wall surface free energy $\gamma$, the excess adsorption $\Gamma$, and the excess volume $v_{ex}$, which is closely related to $\Gamma$. Read More

Starting from a set of different two- and three-nucleon interactions from chiral effective field theory, we use the importance-truncated no-core shell model for ab initio calculations of excitation energies as well as electric quadrupole (E2) and magnetic dipole (M1) moments and transition strengths for selected p-shell nuclei. We explore the sensitivity of the excitation energies to the chiral interactions as a first step towards and systematic uncertainty propagation from chiral inputs to nuclear structure observables. The uncertainty band spanned by the different chiral interactions is typically in agreement with experimental excitation energies, but we also identify observables with notable discrepancies beyond the theoretical uncertainty that reveal insufficiencies in the chiral interactions. Read More

We investigate the order-by-order convergence behavior of many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) as a simple and efficient tool to approximate the ground-state energy of closed-shell nuclei. To address the convergence properties directly, we explore perturbative corrections up to 30th order and highlight the role of the partitioning for convergence. The use of a simple Hartree-Fock solution to construct the unperturbed basis leads to a convergent MBPT series for soft interactions, in contrast to, e. Read More

We discuss the approximate inclusion of three-nucleon interactions into ab initio nuclear structure calculations using a multi-reference formulation of normal ordering and Wick's theorem. Following the successful application of single-reference normal ordering for the study of ground states of closed-shell nuclei, e.g. Read More

In these proceedings, we review results for several di-boson production processes beyond NLO QCD at high transverse momenta using the VBFNLO Monte-Carlo program together with the LOOPSIM method. Additionally, we show for the WZ production process how higher order QCD corrections can resemble anomalous coupling effects. Read More

2015Sep
Affiliations: 1LLNL, 2IN2P3/CNRS, 3TRIUMF, 4TRIUMF, 5TU Darmstadt
Category: Nuclear Theory

An {\em ab initio} (i.e., from first principles) theoretical framework capable of providing a unified description of the structure and low-energy reaction properties of light nuclei is desirable to further our understanding of the fundamental interactions among nucleons, and provide accurate predictions of crucial reaction rates for nuclear astrophysics, fusion-energy research, and other applications. Read More

We propose an importance-truncation scheme for the large-scale nuclear shell model that extends its range of applicability to larger valence spaces and mid-shell nuclei. It is based on a perturbative measure for the importance of individual basis states that acts as an additional truncation for the many-body model space in which the eigenvalue problem of the Hamiltonian is solved numerically. Through a posteriori extrapolations of all observables to vanishing importance threshold, the full shell-model results can be recovered. Read More

There has been significant recent progress in solving the long-standing problems of how nuclear shell structure and collective motion emerge from underlying microscopic inter-nucleon interactions. We review a selection of recent significant results within the ab initio No Core Shell Model (NCSM) closely tied to three major factors enabling this progress: (1) improved nuclear interactions that accurately describe the experimental two-nucleon and three-nucleon interaction data; (2) advances in algorithms to simulate the quantum many-body problem with strong interactions; and (3) continued rapid development of high-performance computers now capable of performing $20 \times 10^{15}$ floating point operations per second. We also comment on prospects for further developments. Read More

We study theoretically the electric dipole transitions of even Ni isotopes at low energies, using the self-consistent quasi-particle random-phase approximation (RPA) with the D1S Gogny interaction and a continuum-RPA model with the SLy4 Skyrme force. We analyze isoscalar states, isovector states, and the dipole polarizability. We define a reference value for the polarizability, to remove a trivial dependence on the mass number. Read More

We apply improved nucleon-nucleon potentials up to fifth order in chiral effective field theory, along with a new analysis of the theoretical truncation errors, to study nucleon-deuteron (Nd) scattering and selected low-energy observables in 3H, 4He, and 6Li. Calculations beyond second order differ from experiment well outside the range of quantified uncertainties, providing truly unambiguous evidence for missing three-nucleon forces within the employed framework. The sizes of the required three-nucleon force contributions agree well with expectations based on Weinberg's power counting. Read More

This paper describes some applications of GPU acceleration in ab initio nuclear structure calculations. Specifically, we discuss GPU acceleration of the software package MFDn, a parallel nuclear structure eigensolver. We modify the matrix construction stage to run partly on the GPU. Read More

We extend the recently proposed ab initio no-core shell model with continuum to include three-nucleon (3N) interactions beyond the few-body domain. The extended approach allows for the assessment of effects of continuum degrees of freedom as well as of the 3N force in ab initio calculations of structure and reaction observables of p- and lower-sd-shell nuclei. As first application we concentrate on energy levels of the 9Be system for which all excited states lie above the n-8Be threshold. Read More

We study QCD radiation for the WH and WZ production processes at the LHC. We identify the regions sensitive to anomalous couplings, by considering jet observables, computed at NLO QCD with the use of the Monte Carlo program VBFNLO. Based on these observations, we propose the use of a dynamical jet veto. Read More

We solve three-nucleon Faddeev equations with nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon forces derived consistently in the framework of chiral perturbation theory at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order in the chiral expansion. In this first investigation we include only matrix elements of the three-nucleon force for partial waves with the total two-nucleon (three-nucleon) angular momenta up to 3 (5/2). Low-energy neutron-deuteron elastic scattering and deuteron breakup reaction are studied. Read More

he inhomogeneous structure of a fluid at a wall can be characterized in several ways. Within a thermodynamic description the surface free energy $\gamma$ and the excess adsorption $\Gamma$ are of central importance. For theoretical studies closed expression of $\gamma$ and $\Gamma$ can be very valuable; however, even for a well-studied model system such as a hard-sphere fluid at a planar hard wall, the accuracy of existing expressions for $\gamma$ and $\Gamma$, compared to precise computer simulation data, can still be improved. Read More

2014Sep
Affiliations: 1Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700, South Africa, 2Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt, Germany, 3Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047, Japan, 4Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt, Germany, 5Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt, Germany, 6Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt, Germany, 7Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047, Japan

A set of high resolution zero-degree inelastic proton scattering data on 24Mg, 28Si, 32S, and 40Ca provides new insight into the long-standing puzzle of the origin of fragmentation of the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) in sd-shell nuclei. Understanding is provided by state-of-the-art theoretical Random Phase Approximation (RPA) calculatios for deformed nuclei using for the first time a realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction derived from the Argonne V18 potential with the unitary correlation operator method and supplemented by a phenomenological three-nucleon contact interaction. A wavelet analysis allows to extract significant scales both in the data and calculations characterizing the fine structure of the GDR. Read More

Background: Collective excitations of nuclei and their theoretical descriptions provide an insight into the structure of nuclei. Replacing traditional phenomenological interactions with unitarily transformed realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions increases the predictive power of the theoretical calculations for exotic or deformed nuclei. Purpose: Extend the application of realistic interactions to deformed nuclei and compare the performance of different interactions, including phenomenological interactions, for collective excitations in the sd-shell. Read More

We use the newly developed Multi-Reference In-Medium Similarity Renormalization Group to study all even isotopes of the calcium and nickel isotopic chains, based on two- plus three-nucleon interactions derived from chiral effective field theory. We present results for ground-state and two-neutron separation energies and quantify their theoretical uncertainties. At shell closures, we find excellent agreement with Coupled Cluster results obtained with the same Hamiltonians. Read More

We report ab initio calculations for neutron drops in a 10 MeV external harmonic-oscillator trap using chiral nucleon-nucleon plus three-nucleon interactions. We present total binding energies, internal energies, radii and odd-even energy differences for neutron numbers N = 2 - 18 using the no-core shell model with and without importance truncation. Furthermore, we present total binding energies for N = 8, 16, 20, 28, 40, 50 obtained in a coupled-cluster approach. Read More

We investigate selected static and transition properties of $^{12}$C using ab initio No-Core Shell Model (NCSM) methods with chiral two- and three-nucleon interactions. We adopt the Similarity Renormalization Group (SRG) to assist convergence including up to three-nucleon (3N) contributions. We examine the dependences of the $^{12}$C observables on the SRG evolution scale and on the model-space parameters. Read More

VBFNLO is a flexible parton level Monte Carlo program for the simulation of vector boson fusion (VBF), double and triple vector boson (plus jet) production as well as QCD-induced single and double vector boson production plus two jets in hadronic collisions at next-to-leading order (NLO) in the strong coupling constant. Furthermore, Higgs boson plus two jet production via gluon fusion at the one-loop level is included. This note briefly describes the main additional features and processes that have been added in the new release -- VBFNLO Version 2. Read More

We present the first ab initio calculations for p-shell single-Lambda hypernuclei. For the solution of the many-baryon problem, we develop two variants of the no-core shell model with explicit $\Lambda$ and $\Sigma^+$, $\Sigma^0$, $\Sigma^-$ hyperons including $\Lambda$-$\Sigma$ conversion, optionally supplemented by a similarity renormalization group transformation to accelerate model-space convergence. In addition to state-of-the-art chiral two- and three-nucleon interactions, we use leading-order chiral hyperon-nucleon interactions and a recent meson-exchange hyperon-nucleon interaction. Read More

Aims. The Sun shows strong variability in its magnetic activity, from Grand minima to Grand maxima, but the nature of the variability is not fully understood, mostly because of the insufficient length of the directly observed solar activity records and of uncertainties related to long-term reconstructions. Here we present a new adjustment-free reconstruction of solar activity over three millennia and study its different modes. Read More

The influence of lateral vibrations on the stick-slip motion of a nanotip elastically pulled on a flat crystal surface is studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on a NaCl(001) surface in ultra-high vacuum. The slippage of the nanotip across the crystal lattice is anticipated at increasing driving amplitude, similarly to what is observed in presence of normal vibrations. This lowers the average friction force, as explained by the Prandtl-Tomlinson model with lateral vibrations superimposed at finite temperature. Read More

We present the first ab initio construction of valence-space Hamiltonians for medium-mass nuclei based on chiral two- and three-nucleon interactions using the in-medium similarity renormalization group. When applied to the oxygen isotopes, we find experimental ground-state energies are well reproduced, including the flat trend beyond the drip line at 24O. Similarly, natural-parity spectra in 21,22,23,24O are in agreement with experiment, and we present predictions for excited states in 25,26O. Read More

Two different experimental approaches were combined to study the electric dipole strength in the doubly-magic nucleus 48Ca below the neutron threshold. Real-photon scattering experiments using bremsstrahlung up to 9.9 MeV and nearly mono-energetic linearly polarized photons with energies between 6. Read More

The description of structural and dynamical properties of nuclei starting from the fundamental interaction between nucleons has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. The ab initio No-Core Shell Model combined with the Resonating-Group Method (NCSM/RGM) is capable of addressing both structural and reaction properties of light-nuclei. While promising results have already been achieved starting from a two-body Hamiltonian, a truly realistic prediction of nuclear observables requires the treatment of the three-nucleon interaction. Read More

We present the first ab initio calculations of nuclear ground states up into the domain of heavy nuclei, spanning the range from 16-O to 132-Sn based on two- plus three-nucleon interactions derived within chiral effective field theory. We employ the similarity renormalization group for preparing the Hamiltonian and use coupled-cluster theory to solve the many-body problem for nuclei with closed sub-shells. Through an analysis of theoretical uncertainties resulting from various truncations in this framework, we identify and eliminate the technical hurdles that previously inhibited the step beyond medium-mass nuclei, allowing for reliable validations of nuclear Hamiltonians in the heavy regime. Read More

We report on a novel ab initio approach for nuclear few- and many-body systems with strangeness. Recently, we developed a relevant no-core shell model technique which we successfully applied in first calculations of lightest $\Lambda$ hypernuclei. The use of a translationally invariant finite harmonic oscillator basis allows us to employ large model spaces, compared to traditional shell model calculations, and use realistic nucleon-nucleon and nucleon-hyperon interactions (such as those derived from EFT). Read More

We discuss the building blocks for a consistent inclusion of chiral three-nucleon (3N) interactions into ab initio nuclear structure calculations beyond the lower p-shell. We highlight important technical developments, such as the similarity renormalization group (SRG) evolution in the 3N sector, a JT-coupled storage scheme for 3N matrix elements with efficient on-the-fly decoupling, and the importance truncated no-core shell model with 3N interactions. Together, these developments make converged ab initio calculations with explicit 3N interactions possible also beyond the lower p-shell. Read More

We study the low-energy dipole (LED) strength distribution along the Sn isotopic chain in both the isoscalar (IS) and the isovector (IV, or E1) electric channels, to provide testable predictions and guidance for new experiments with stable targets and radioactive beams. We use the self-consistent Quasi-particle Random-Phase Approximation (QRPA) with finite-range interactions and mainly the Gogny D1S force. We analyze also the performance of a realistic two-body interaction supplemented by a phenomenological three-body contact term. Read More

The Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC) has developed hundreds of data corpora for natural language processing (NLP) research. Among these are a number of annotated treebank corpora for Arabic. Typically, these corpora consist of a single collection of annotated documents. Read More

We generalize the coupled-cluster (CC) approach with singles, doubles, and the non-iterative treatment of triples termed $\Lambda$CCSD(T) to Hamiltonians containing three-body interactions. The resulting method and the underlying CC approach with singles and doubles only (CCSD) are applied to the medium-mass closed-shell nuclei O16, O24, and Ca40. By comparing the results of CCSD and $\Lambda$CCSD(T) calculations with explicit treatment of three-nucleon interactions to those obtained using an approximate treatment in which they are included effectively via the zero-, one-, and two-body components of the Hamiltonian in normal-ordered form, we quantify the contributions of the residual three-body interactions neglected in the approximate treatment. Read More

We extend the ab initio no-core shell model/resonating-group method to include three-nucleon (3N) interactions for the description of nucleon-nucleus collisions. We outline the formalism, give algebraic expressions for the 3N-force integration kernels, and discuss computational aspects of two alternative implementations. The extended theoretical framework is then applied to nucleon-4He scattering using similarity-renormalization-group (SRG) evolved nucleon-nucleon plus three-nucleon potentials derived from chiral effective field theory. Read More

One of the most challenging recommendation tasks is recommending to a new, previously unseen user. This is known as the 'user cold start' problem. Assuming certain features or attributes of users are known, one approach for handling new users is to initially model them based on their features. Read More

We investigate giant resonances of spherical nuclei on the basis of the Argonne V18 potential after unitary transformation within the Similarity Renormalization Group or the Unitary Correlation Operator Method supplemented by a phenomenological three-body contact interaction. Such Hamiltonians can provide a good description of ground-state energies and radii within Hartree-Fock plus low-order many-body perturbation theory. The standard Random Phase Approximation is applied here to calculate the isoscalar monopole, isovector dipole, and isoscalar quadrupole excitation modes of the 40Ca, 90Zr, and 208Pb nuclei. Read More

We formulate the In-Medium Similarity Renormalization Group (IM-SRG) for open-shell nuclei using a multi-reference formalism based on a generalized Wick theorem introduced in quantum chemistry. The resulting multi-reference IM-SRG (MR-IM-SRG) is used to perform the first ab initio study of even oxygen isotopes with chiral NN and 3N Hamiltonians, from the proton to the neutron drip lines. We obtain an excellent reproduction of experimental ground-state energies with quantified uncertainties, which is validated by results from the Importance-Truncated No-Core Shell Model and the Coupled Cluster method. Read More

We design low-complexity error correction coding schemes for channels that introduce different types of errors and erasures: on the one hand, the proposed schemes can successfully deal with symbol errors and erasures, and, on the other hand, they can also successfully handle phased burst errors and erasures. Read More

We use the recently proposed In-Medium Similarity Renormalization Group (IM-SRG) to carry out a systematic study of closed-shell nuclei up to $\nuc{Ni}{56}$, based on chiral two- plus three-nucleon interactions. We analyze the capabilities of the IM-SRG by comparing our results for the ground-state energy to Coupled Cluster calculations, as well as to quasi-exact results from the Importance-Truncated No-Core Shell Model. Using chiral two- plus three-nucleon Hamiltonians whose resolution scales are lowered by free-space SRG evolution, we obtain good agreement with experimental binding energies in $\nuc{He}{4}$ and the closed-shell oxygen isotopes, while the calcium and nickel isotopes are somewhat overbound. Read More