# R. Pan

## Contact Details

NameR. Pan |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesPhysics - Physics and Society (32) Physics - Data Analysis; Statistics and Probability (19) Computer Science - Digital Libraries (8) Mathematics - Analysis of PDEs (6) Physics - Disordered Systems and Neural Networks (6) Physics - Other (5) Mathematics - Combinatorics (5) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (5) Physics - Biological Physics (4) Quantitative Biology - Neurons and Cognition (2) Computer Science - Computation and Language (2) High Energy Physics - Experiment (1) Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (1) Physics - Soft Condensed Matter (1) Physics - Accelerator Physics (1) Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (1) Nonlinear Sciences - Adaptation and Self-Organizing Systems (1) Computer Science - Networking and Internet Architecture (1) Physics - Computational Physics (1) Computer Science - Information Retrieval (1) Statistics - Machine Learning (1) Computer Science - Computers and Society (1) Computer Science - Numerical Analysis (1) Mathematics - Numerical Analysis (1) Computer Science - Learning (1) |

## Publications Authored By R. Pan

In this paper, we study the global existence of classical solutions to the three dimensional incompressible viscous magneto-hydrodynamical system without magnetic diffusion on periodic boxes, i.e., with periodic boundary conditions. Read More

OCR character segmentation for multilingual printed documents is difficult due to the diversity of different linguistic characters. Previous approaches mainly focus on monolingual texts and are not suitable for multilingual-lingual cases. In this work, we particularly tackle the Chinese/English mixed case by reframing it as a semantic segmentation problem. Read More

**Authors:**The CLIC, CLICdp collaborations, :, M. J. Boland, U. Felzmann, P. J. Giansiracusa, T. G. Lucas, R. P. Rassool, C. Balazs, T. K. Charles, K. Afanaciev, I. Emeliantchik, A. Ignatenko, V. Makarenko, N. Shumeiko, A. Patapenka, I. Zhuk, A. C. Abusleme Hoffman, M. A. Diaz Gutierrez, M. Vogel Gonzalez, Y. Chi, X. He, G. Pei, S. Pei, G. Shu, X. Wang, J. Zhang, F. Zhao, Z. Zhou, H. Chen, Y. Gao, W. Huang, Y. P. Kuang, B. Li, Y. Li, J. Shao, J. Shi, C. Tang, X. Wu, L. Ma, Y. Han, W. Fang, Q. Gu, D. Huang, X. Huang, J. Tan, Z. Wang, Z. Zhao, T. Laštovička, U. Uggerhoj, T. N. Wistisen, A. Aabloo, K. Eimre, K. Kuppart, S. Vigonski, V. Zadin, M. Aicheler, E. Baibuz, E. Brücken, F. Djurabekova, P. Eerola, F. Garcia, E. Haeggström, K. Huitu, V. Jansson, V. Karimaki, I. Kassamakov, A. Kyritsakis, S. Lehti, A. Meriläinen, R. Montonen, T. Niinikoski, K. Nordlund, K. Österberg, M. Parekh, N. A. Törnqvist, J. Väinölä, M. Veske, W. Farabolini, A. Mollard, O. Napoly, F. Peauger, J. Plouin, P. Bambade, I. Chaikovska, R. Chehab, M. Davier, W. Kaabi, E. Kou, F. LeDiberder, R. Pöschl, D. Zerwas, B. Aimard, G. Balik, J. -P. Baud, J. -J. Blaising, L. Brunetti, M. Chefdeville, C. Drancourt, N. Geoffroy, J. Jacquemier, A. Jeremie, Y. Karyotakis, J. M. Nappa, S. Vilalte, G. Vouters, A. Bernard, I. Peric, M. Gabriel, F. Simon, M. Szalay, N. van der Kolk, T. Alexopoulos, E. N. Gazis, N. Gazis, E. Ikarios, V. Kostopoulos, S. Kourkoulis, P. D. Gupta, P. Shrivastava, H. Arfaei, M. K. Dayyani, H. Ghasem, S. S. Hajari, H. Shaker, Y. Ashkenazy, H. Abramowicz, Y. Benhammou, O. Borysov, S. Kananov, A. Levy, I. Levy, O. Rosenblat, G. D'Auria, S. Di Mitri, T. Abe, A. Aryshev, T. Higo, Y. Makida, S. Matsumoto, T. Shidara, T. Takatomi, Y. Takubo, T. Tauchi, N. Toge, K. Ueno, J. Urakawa, A. Yamamoto, M. Yamanaka, R. Raboanary, R. Hart, H. van der Graaf, G. Eigen, J. Zalieckas, E. Adli, R. Lillestøl, L. Malina, J. Pfingstner, K. N. Sjobak, W. Ahmed, M. I. Asghar, H. Hoorani, S. Bugiel, R. Dasgupta, M. Firlej, T. A. Fiutowski, M. Idzik, M. Kopec, M. Kuczynska, J. Moron, K. P. Swientek, W. Daniluk, B. Krupa, M. Kucharczyk, T. Lesiak, A. Moszczynski, B. Pawlik, P. Sopicki, T. Wojtoń, L. Zawiejski, J. Kalinowski, M. Krawczyk, A. F. Żarnecki, E. Firu, V. Ghenescu, A. T. Neagu, T. Preda, I-S. Zgura, A. Aloev, N. Azaryan, J. Budagov, M. Chizhov, M. Filippova, V. Glagolev, A. Gongadze, S. Grigoryan, D. Gudkov, V. Karjavine, M. Lyablin, A. Olyunin, A. Samochkine, A. Sapronov, G. Shirkov, V. Soldatov, A. Solodko, E. Solodko, G. Trubnikov, I. Tyapkin, V. Uzhinsky, A. Vorozhtov, E. Levichev, N. Mezentsev, P. Piminov, D. Shatilov, P. Vobly, K. Zolotarev, I. Bozovic Jelisavcic, G. Kacarevic, S. Lukic, G. Milutinovic-Dumbelovic, M. Pandurovic, U. Iriso, F. Perez, M. Pont, J. Trenado, M. Aguilar-Benitez, J. Calero, L. Garcia-Tabares, D. Gavela, J. L. Gutierrez, D. Lopez, F. Toral, D. Moya, A. Ruiz Jimeno, I. Vila, T. Argyropoulos, C. Blanch Gutierrez, M. Boronat, D. Esperante, A. Faus-Golfe, J. Fuster, N. Fuster Martinez, N. Galindo Muñoz, I. García, J. Giner Navarro, E. Ros, M. Vos, R. Brenner, T. Ekelöf, M. Jacewicz, J. Ögren, M. Olvegård, R. Ruber, V. Ziemann, D. Aguglia, N. Alipour Tehrani, A. Andersson, F. Andrianala, F. Antoniou, K. Artoos, S. Atieh, R. Ballabriga Sune, M. J. Barnes, J. Barranco Garcia, H. Bartosik, C. Belver-Aguilar, A. Benot Morell, D. R. Bett, S. Bettoni, G. Blanchot, O. Blanco Garcia, X. A. Bonnin, O. Brunner, H. Burkhardt, S. Calatroni, M. Campbell, N. Catalan Lasheras, M. Cerqueira Bastos, A. Cherif, E. Chevallay, B. Constance, R. Corsini, B. Cure, S. Curt, B. Dalena, D. Dannheim, G. De Michele, L. De Oliveira, N. Deelen, J. P. Delahaye, T. Dobers, S. Doebert, M. Draper, F. Duarte Ramos, A. Dubrovskiy, K. Elsener, J. Esberg, M. Esposito, V. Fedosseev, P. Ferracin, A. Fiergolski, K. Foraz, A. Fowler, F. Friebel, J-F. Fuchs, C. A. Fuentes Rojas, A. Gaddi, L. Garcia Fajardo, H. Garcia Morales, C. Garion, L. Gatignon, J-C. Gayde, H. Gerwig, A. N. Goldblatt, C. Grefe, A. Grudiev, F. G. Guillot-Vignot, M. L. Gutt-Mostowy, M. Hauschild, C. Hessler, J. K. Holma, E. Holzer, M. Hourican, D. Hynds, Y. Inntjore Levinsen, B. Jeanneret, E. Jensen, M. Jonker, M. Kastriotou, J. M. K. Kemppinen, R. B. Kieffer, W. Klempt, O. Kononenko, A. Korsback, E. Koukovini Platia, J. W. Kovermann, C-I. Kozsar, I. Kremastiotis, S. Kulis, A. Latina, F. Leaux, P. Lebrun, T. Lefevre, L. Linssen, X. Llopart Cudie, A. A. Maier, H. Mainaud Durand, E. Manosperti, C. Marelli, E. Marin Lacoma, R. Martin, S. Mazzoni, G. Mcmonagle, O. Mete, L. M. Mether, M. Modena, R. M. Münker, T. Muranaka, E. Nebot Del Busto, N. Nikiforou, D. Nisbet, J-M. Nonglaton, F. X. Nuiry, A. Nürnberg, M. Olvegard, J. Osborne, S. Papadopoulou, Y. Papaphilippou, A. Passarelli, M. Patecki, L. Pazdera, D. Pellegrini, K. Pepitone, E. Perez Codina, A. Perez Fontenla, T. H. B. Persson, M. Petrič, F. Pitters, S. Pittet, F. Plassard, R. Rajamak, S. Redford, Y. Renier, S. F. Rey, G. Riddone, L. Rinolfi, E. Rodriguez Castro, P. Roloff, C. Rossi, V. Rude, G. Rumolo, A. Sailer, E. Santin, D. Schlatter, H. Schmickler, D. Schulte, N. Shipman, E. Sicking, R. Simoniello, P. K. Skowronski, P. Sobrino Mompean, L. Soby, M. P. Sosin, S. Sroka, S. Stapnes, G. Sterbini, R. Ström, I. Syratchev, F. Tecker, P. A. Thonet, L. Timeo, H. Timko, R. Tomas Garcia, P. Valerio, A. L. Vamvakas, A. Vivoli, M. A. Weber, R. Wegner, M. Wendt, B. Woolley, W. Wuensch, J. Uythoven, H. Zha, P. Zisopoulos, M. Benoit, M. Vicente Barreto Pinto, M. Bopp, H. H. Braun, M. Csatari Divall, M. Dehler, T. Garvey, J. Y. Raguin, L. Rivkin, R. Zennaro, A. Aksoy, Z. Nergiz, E. Pilicer, I. Tapan, O. Yavas, V. Baturin, R. Kholodov, S. Lebedynskyi, V. Miroshnichenko, S. Mordyk, I. Profatilova, V. Storizhko, N. Watson, A. Winter, J. Goldstein, S. Green, J. S. Marshall, M. A. Thomson, B. Xu, W. A. Gillespie, R. Pan, M. A Tyrk, D. Protopopescu, A. Robson, R. Apsimon, I. Bailey, G. Burt, D. Constable, A. Dexter, S. Karimian, C. Lingwood, M. D. Buckland, G. Casse, J. Vossebeld, A. Bosco, P. Karataev, K. Kruchinin, K. Lekomtsev, L. Nevay, J. Snuverink, E. Yamakawa, V. Boisvert, S. Boogert, G. Boorman, S. Gibson, A. Lyapin, W. Shields, P. Teixeira-Dias, S. West, R. Jones, N. Joshi, R. Bodenstein, P. N. Burrows, G. B. Christian, D. Gamba, C. Perry, J. Roberts, J. A. Clarke, N. A. Collomb, S. P. Jamison, B. J. A. Shepherd, D. Walsh, M. Demarteau, J. Repond, H. Weerts, L. Xia, J. D. Wells, C. Adolphsen, T. Barklow, M. Breidenbach, N. Graf, J. Hewett, T. Markiewicz, D. McCormick, K. Moffeit, Y. Nosochkov, M. Oriunno, N. Phinney, T. Rizzo, S. Tantawi, F. Wang, J. Wang, G. White, M. Woodley

The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a multi-TeV high-luminosity linear e+e- collider under development. For an optimal exploitation of its physics potential, CLIC is foreseen to be built and operated in a staged approach with three centre-of-mass energy stages ranging from a few hundred GeV up to 3 TeV. The first stage will focus on precision Standard Model physics, in particular Higgs and top-quark measurements. Read More

Science is a growing system, exhibiting ~4% annual growth in publications and ~1.8% annual growth in the number of references per publication. Combined these trends correspond to a 12-year doubling period in the total supply of references, thereby challenging traditional methods of evaluating scientific production, from researchers to institutions. Read More

This work investigates the spectrum parameterization problem using deep neural networks (DNNs). The proposed scheme consists of the following procedures: first, the configuration of a DNN is initialized using a series of autoencoder neural networks; second, the DNN is fine-tuned using a gradient descent scheme; third, stellar parameters ($T_{eff}$, log$~g$, and [Fe/H]) are estimated using the obtained DNN. This scheme was evaluated on both real spectra from SDSS/SEGUE and synthetic spectra calculated from Kurucz's new opacity distribution function models. Read More

**Category:**Mathematics - Combinatorics

Let $\mathcal{L}_n$ denote the set of all paths from $[0,0]$ to $[n, n]$ which consist of either unit north steps $N$ or unit east steps $E$ or, equivalently, the set of all words $L \in \{E,N\}^*$ with $n$ $E$'s and $n$ $N$'s. Given $L \in \mathcal{L}_n$ and a subset $A$ of $[n] = \{1, \ldots, n\}$, we let $ps_{L}(A)$ denote the word that results from $L$ by removing the $i^{th}$ occurrence of $E$ and the $i^{th}$ occurrence of $N$ in $L$ for all $i \in [n]-A$, reading from left to right. Then we say that a paired pattern $P \in \mathcal{L}_k$ occurs in $L$ is that there is some $A \subseteq [n]$ of size $k$ such that $ps_L(A) = P$. Read More

A permutation $\tau$ in the symmetric group $S_j$ is minimally overlapping if any two consecutive occurrences of $\tau$ in a permutation $\sigma$ can share at most one element. B\'ona \cite{B} showed that the proportion of minimal overlapping patterns in $S_j$ is at least $3 -e$. Given a permutation $\sigma$, we let $\text{Des}(\sigma)$ denote the set of descents of $\sigma$. Read More

In this short note, we give basic enumerative results on colored integer partitions. Read More

To date, there have been massive Semi-Structured Documents (SSDs) during the evolution of the Internet. These SSDs contain both unstructured features (e.g. Read More

In this paper, we consider the three-dimensional isentropic Navier-Stokes equations for compressible fluids with viscosities depending on density in a power law and allowing initial vacuum. We introduce the notion of regular solutions and prove the local-in-time well-posedness of solutions with arbitrarily large initial data and vacuum in this class, which is a long-standing open problem due to the very high degeneracy caused by vacuum. Moreover, for certain classes of initial data with local vacuum, we show that the regular solution that we obtained will break down in finite time, no matter how small and smooth the initial data are. Read More

Background: Previous functional connectivity studies have found both hypo- and hyper-connectivity in brains of individuals having autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here we studied abnormalities in functional brain subnetworks in high-functioning individuals with ASD during free viewing of a movie containing social cues and interactions. Methods: Thirteen subjects with ASD and 13 matched-pair controls watched a 68 minutes movie during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Read More

The exponential growth in the number of scientific papers makes it increasingly difficult for researchers to keep track of all the publications relevant to their work. Consequently, the attention that can be devoted to individual papers, measured by their citation counts, is bound to decay rapidly. In this work we make a thorough study of the life-cycle of papers in different disciplines. Read More

Tensor transpose is a higher order generalization of matrix transpose. In this paper, we use permutations and symmetry group to define? the tensor transpose. Then we discuss the classification and composition of tensor transposes. Read More

For the Euler equations of isentropic gas dynamics in one space dimension, also knowns as p-system in Lagrangian coordinate, it is known that the density can be arbitrarily close to zero as time goes to infinity, even when initial density is uniformly away from zero. In this paper, for uniform positive initial density, we prove the density in any Lipschitz continuous solutions for Cauchy problem has a sharp positive lower bound in the order of O(1/(1+t)), which is identified by explicit examples in [9](Courant and Friedrichs, Supersonic Flow and Shock Waves, 1948.). Read More

It is well-known that shock will form in finite time for hyperbolic conservation laws from initial nonlinear compression no matter how small and smooth the data are. Classical results, including Lax [14], Liu [22], Li-Zhou-Kong [16], confirm that when initial data are small smooth perturbations near constant states, blowup in gradient of solutions occurs in finite time if and only if intial data contain any compression in some truly nonlinear characteristic field. A natural puzzle is that: Will this picture keep true for large data problem of physical systems such as compressible Euler equations? One of the key issues is how to find an effective way to obtain sharp enough control on density lower bound. Read More

In this paper, the $2$-D isentropic Navier-Stokes systems for compressible fluids with density-dependent viscosity coefficients are considered. In particular, we assume that the viscosity coefficients are proportional to density. These equations, including several models in $2$-D shallow water theory, are degenerate when vacuum appears. Read More

In this paper, we investigate some relations between the invariants (including vertex and edge connectivity and forwarding indices) of a graph and its Laplacian eigenvalues. In addition, we present a sufficient condition for the existence of Hamiltonicity in a graph involving its Laplacian eigenvalues. Read More

The time lag between the publication of a Nobel discovery and the conferment of the prize has been rapidly increasing for all disciplines, especially for Physics. Does this mean that fundamental science is running out of groundbreaking discoveries? Read More

Understanding the patterns of mobility of individuals is crucial for a number of reasons, from city planning to disaster management. There are two common ways of quantifying the amount of travel between locations: by direct observations that often involve privacy issues, e.g. Read More

A person's decision to adopt an idea or product is often driven by the decisions of peers, mediated through a network of social ties. A common way of modeling adoption dynamics is to use threshold models, where a node may become an adopter given a high enough rate of contacts with adopted neighbors. We study the dynamics of threshold models that take both the network topology and the timings of contacts into account, using empirical contact sequences as substrates. Read More

The impact factor (IF) of scientific journals has acquired a major role in the evaluations of the output of scholars, departments and whole institutions. Typically papers appearing in journals with large values of the IF receive a high weight in such evaluations. However, at the end of the day one is interested in assessing the impact of individuals, rather than papers. Read More

Correctly assessing a scientist's past research impact and potential for future impact is key in recruitment decisions and other evaluation processes. While a candidate's future impact is the main concern for these decisions, most measures only quantify the impact of previous work. Recently, it has been argued that linear regression models are capable of predicting a scientist's future impact. Read More

Today, the technology for video streaming over the Internet is converging towards a paradigm named HTTP-based adaptive streaming (HAS). HAS comes with two unique flavors. First, by riding on top of HTTP/TCP, it leverages the network-friendly TCP to achieve firewall/NATS traversal and bandwidth sharing. Read More

We stress-test the career predictability model proposed by Acuna et al. [Nature 489, 201-202 2012] by applying their model to a longitudinal career data set of 100 Assistant professors in physics, two from each of the top 50 physics departments in the US. The Acuna model claims to predict h(t+\Delta t), a scientist's h-index \Delta t years into the future, using a linear combination of 5 cumulative career measures taken at career age t. Read More

Reputation is an important social construct in science, which enables informed quality assessments of both publications and careers of scientists in the absence of complete systemic information. However, the relation between reputation and career growth of an individual remains poorly understood, despite recent proliferation of quantitative research evaluation methods. Here we develop an original framework for measuring how a publication's citation rate $\Delta c$ depends on the reputation of its central author $i$, in addition to its net citation count $c$. Read More

To understand the origin of bursty dynamics in natural and social processes we provide a general analysis framework, in which the temporal process is decomposed into sub-processes and then the bursts in sub-processes, called contextual bursts, are combined to collective bursts in the original process. For the combination of sub-processes, it is required to consider the distribution of different contexts over the original process. Based on minimal assumptions for inter-event time statistics, we present a theoretical analysis for the relationship between contextual and collective inter-event time distributions. Read More

Modern information and communication technologies, especially the Internet, have diminished the role of spatial distances and territorial boundaries on the access and transmissibility of information. This has enabled scientists for closer collaboration and internationalization. Nevertheless, geography remains an important factor affecting the dynamics of science. Read More

Science, being a social enterprise, is subject to fragmentation into groups that focus on specialized areas or topics. Often new advances occur through cross-fertilization of ideas between sub-fields that otherwise have little overlap as they study dissimilar phenomena using different techniques. Thus to explore the nature and dynamics of scientific progress one needs to consider the large-scale organization and interactions between different subject areas. Read More

In temporal networks, both the topology of the underlying network and the timings of interaction events can be crucial in determining how some dynamic process mediated by the network unfolds. We have explored the limiting case of the speed of spreading in the SI model, set up such that an event between an infectious and susceptible individual always transmits the infection. The speed of this process sets an upper bound for the speed of any dynamic process that is mediated through the interaction events of the network. Read More

The paper is a brief survey of some recent new results and progress of the Laplacian spectra of graphs and complex networks (in particular, random graph and the small world network). The main contents contain the spectral radius of the graph Laplacian for given a degree sequence, the Laplacian coefficients, the algebraic connectivity and the graph doubly stochastic matrix, and the spectra of random graphs and the small world networks. In addition, some questions are proposed. Read More

Queuing models provide insight into the temporal inhomogeneity of human dynamics, characterized by the broad distribution of waiting times of individuals performing tasks. We study the queuing model of an agent trying to execute a task of interest, the priority of which may vary with time due to the agent's "state of mind." However, its execution is disrupted by other tasks of random priorities. Read More

We study the indentation of a free-standing lipid membrane suspended over a nanopore on a hydrophobic substrate by means of molecular dynamics simulations. We find that in the course of indentation, the membrane bends at the point of contact, and the fringes of the membrane glide downward intermittently along the pore edges and stop gliding when the fringes reach the edge bottoms. The bending continues afterwards, and the large strain eventually induces a phase transition in the membrane, transformed from a bilayered structure to an interdigitated structure. Read More

Network topology and its relationship to tie strengths may hinder or enhance the spreading of information in social networks. We study the correlations between tie strengths and topology in networks of scientific collaboration, and show that these are very different from ordinary social networks. For the latter, it has earlier been shown that strong ties are associated with dense network neighborhoods, while weaker ties act as bridges between these. Read More

Understanding the patterns of human dynamics and social interaction, and the way they lead to the formation of an organized and functional society are important issues especially for techno-social development. Addressing these issues of social networks has recently become possible through large scale data analysis of e.g. Read More

In temporal networks, where nodes interact via sequences of temporary events, information or resources can only flow through paths that follow the time-ordering of events. Such temporal paths play a crucial role in dynamic processes. However, since networks have so far been usually considered static or quasi-static, the properties of temporal paths are not yet well understood. Read More

We apply a variant of the explosive percolation procedure to large real-world networks, and show with finite-size scaling that the university class, ordinary or explosive, of the resulting percolation transition depends on the structural properties of the network as well as the number of unoccupied links considered for comparison in our procedure. We observe that in our social networks, the percolation clusters close to the critical point are related to the community structure. This relationship is further highlighted by applying the procedure to model networks with pre-defined communities. Read More

Are there general principles governing the process by which certain products or ideas become popular relative to other (often qualitatively similar) competitors? To investigate this question in detail, we have focused on the popularity of movies as measured by their box-office income. We observe that the log-normal distribution describes well the tail (corresponding to the most successful movies) of the empirical distributions for the total income, the income on the opening week, as well as, the weekly income per theater. This observation suggests that popularity may be the outcome of a linear multiplicative stochastic process. Read More

In this paper, we study the vanishing viscosity limit of one-dimensional isentropic compressible Navier-Stokes equations with density-dependent viscosity, to the isentropic compressible Euler equations. Based on several new uniform estimates to the viscous systems, in addition to the framework recently established by G. Chen and M. Read More

Communication networks show the small-world property of short paths, but the spreading dynamics in them turns out slow. We follow the time evolution of information propagation through communication networks by using the SI model with empirical data on contact sequences. We introduce null models where the sequences are randomly shuffled in different ways, enabling us to distinguish between the contributions of different impeding effects. Read More

Archaeological excavations in the sites of the Indus Valley civilization (2500-1900 BCE) in Pakistan and northwestern India have unearthed a large number of artifacts with inscriptions made up of hundreds of distinct signs. To date there is no generally accepted decipherment of these sign sequences and there have been suggestions that the signs could be non-linguistic. Here we apply complex network analysis techniques to a database of available Indus inscriptions, with the aim of detecting patterns indicative of syntactic organization. Read More

One of the biggest challenges in biology is to understand how activity at the cellular level of neurons, as a result of their mutual interactions, leads to the observed behavior of an organism responding to a variety of environmental stimuli. Investigating the intermediate or mesoscopic level of organization in the nervous system is a vital step towards understanding how the integration of micro-level dynamics results in macro-level functioning. In this paper, we have considered the somatic nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, for which the entire neuronal connectivity diagram is known. Read More

Coordination processes in complex systems can be related to the problem of collective ordering in networks, many of which have modular organization. Investigating the order-disorder transition for Ising spins on modular random networks, corresponding to consensus formation in society, we observe two distinct phases: (i) ordering within each module at a critical temperature, followed by (ii) global ordering at a lower temperature. This indicates polarization of society into groups having contrary opinions can persist indefinitely even when mutual interactions between agents favor consensus. Read More

Several networks occurring in real life have modular structures that are arranged in an hierarchical fashion. In this paper, we have proposed a model for such networks, using a stochastic generation method. Using this model we show that, the scaling relation between the clustering and degree of the nodes is not a necessary property of hierarchical modular networks, as had previously been suggested on the basis of a deterministically constructed model. Read More

The functional consequences of local and global dynamics can be very different in natural systems. Many such systems have a network description that exhibits strong local clustering as well as high communication efficiency, often termed as small-world networks (SWN). We show that modular organization in otherwise random networks generically give rise to SWN, with a characteristic time-scale separation between fast intra-modular and slow inter-modular processes. Read More

In recent times there has been a surge of interest in seeking out patterns in the aggregate behavior of socio-economic systems. One such domain is the emergence of statistical regularities in the evolution of collective choice from individual behavior. This is manifested in the sudden emergence of popularity or "success" of certain ideas or products, compared to their numerous, often very similar, competitors. Read More

The cross-correlations between price fluctuations of 201 frequently traded stocks in the National Stock Exchange (NSE) of India are analyzed in this paper. We use daily closing prices for the period 1996-2006, which coincides with the period of rapid transformation of the market following liberalization. The eigenvalue distribution of the cross-correlation matrix, $\mathbf{C}$, of NSE is found to be similar to that of developed markets, such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE): the majority of eigenvalues fall within the bounds expected for a random matrix constructed from mutually uncorrelated time series. Read More

To investigate the universality of the structure of interactions in different markets, we analyze the cross-correlation matrix C of stock price fluctuations in the National Stock Exchange (NSE) of India. We find that this emerging market exhibits strong correlations in the movement of stock prices compared to developed markets, such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). This is shown to be due to the dominant influence of a common market mode on the stock prices. Read More

Modular structure is ubiquitous among complex networks. We note that most such systems are subject to multiple structural and functional constraints, e.g. Read More

One of the principal statistical features characterizing the activity in financial markets is the distribution of fluctuations in market indicators such as the index. While the developed stock markets, e.g. Read More

Financial markets can be seen as complex systems in non-equilibrium steady state, one of whose most important properties is the distribution of price fluctuations. Recently, there have been assertions that this distribution is qualitatively different in emerging markets as compared to developed markets. Here we analyse both high-frequency tick-by-tick as well as daily closing price data to show that the price fluctuations in the Indian stock market, one of the largest emerging markets, have a distribution that is identical to that observed for developed markets (e. Read More