R. Mohapatra - University Maryland

R. Mohapatra
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Name
R. Mohapatra
Affiliation
University Maryland
City
Quezon City
Country
Philippines

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High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (48)
 
High Energy Physics - Experiment (21)
 
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (8)
 
Nuclear Experiment (4)
 
Nuclear Theory (4)
 
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (3)
 
Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors (2)
 
Physics - Accelerator Physics (1)
 
High Energy Physics - Lattice (1)
 
Mathematics - Classical Analysis and ODEs (1)
 
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (1)

Publications Authored By R. Mohapatra

We attempt to understand the baryon-dark-matter coincidence problem within the quark seesaw extension of the standard model where parity invariance is used to solve the strong CP problem. The $SU(2)_L\times SU(2)_R\times U(1)_{B-L}$ gauge symmetry of this model is extended by a dark $U(1)_X$ group plus inclusion of a heavy neutral vector-like fermion $\chi_{L,R}$ charged under the dark group which plays the role of dark matter. All fermions are Dirac type in this model. Read More

We point out that in generic TeV scale seesaw models for neutrino masses with local $B-L$ symmetry breaking, there is a phenomenologically allowed range of parameters where the Higgs field responsible for $B-L$ symmetry breaking leaves a physical real scalar field with mass around GeV scale. This particle (denoted here by $H_3$) is weakly mixed with the Standard Model Higgs field ($h$) with mixing $\theta_1\lesssim m_{H_3}/m_h$ barring fine-tuned cancellation. In the specific case when the $B-L$ symmetry is embedded into the TeV scale left-right seesaw scenario, we show that the bounds on the $h-H_3$ mixing $\theta_1$ become further strengthened due to low energy flavor constraints, thus forcing the light $H_3$ to be long lived, with displaced vertex signals at the LHC. Read More

We point out that in the minimal left-right realization of TeV scale seesaw for neutrino masses, there is a phenomenologically allowed range of parameters where one of the neutral scalar particles from the right-handed symmetry breaking sector could have a mass at the GeV scale. We discuss the constraints on this particle from low-energy flavor observables, as well as from high-energy collider data. We find that such a light particle is necessarily long-lived, and can be searched for at the LHC via displaced signals of a collimated photon jet. Read More

SU(5) $\otimes$ SU(5) provides a minimal grand unification scheme for fermions and gauge forces if there are vector-like quarks and leptons in nature. We explore the gauge coupling unification in a non-supersymmetric model of this type, and study its implications for proton decay. The properties of vector-like quarks and intermediate scales that emerge from coupling unification play a central role in suppressing proton decay. Read More

We show that in a class of non-supersymmetric left-right extensions of the Standard Model (SM), the lightest right-handed neutrino (RHN) can play the role of thermal Dark Matter (DM) in the Universe for a wide mass range from TeV to PeV. Our model is based on the gauge group $SU(3)_c \times SU(2)_L\times SU(2)_R\times U(1)_{Y_L}\times U(1)_{Y_R}$ in which a heavy copy of the SM fermions are introduced and the stability of the RHN DM is guaranteed by an automatic $Z_2$ symmetry present in the leptonic sector. In such models the active neutrino masses are obtained via the type-II seesaw mechanism. Read More

We study the existence of Z(3) metastable states in the presence of the dynamical quarks within the ambit of Polyakov quark meson (PQM) model. Within the parameters of the model, it is seen that for temperatures $T_m$ greater than the chiral transition temperature $T_c$, Z(3) metastable states exist ( $T_{m} \sim 310$ MeV at zero chemical potential). At finite chemical potential $T_m$ is larger than the same at vanishing chemical potential. Read More

We point out that a class of non-supersymmetric models based on the gauge group $SU(3)_C \times SU(2)_L\times SU(2)_R\times U(1)_{Y_L}\times U(1)_{Y_R}$ possesses an automatic, exact $Z_{2 }$ symmetry under which the fermions in the $SU(2)_R\times U(1)_{Y_R}$ sector (called $R$-sector) are odd and those in the standard model sector (called $L$-sector) are even. This symmetry, which is different from the usual parity symmetry of the left-right symmetric models, persists in the lepton sector even after the gauge symmetry breaks down to $SU(3)_C \times U(1)_{\rm EM}$. This keeps the lightest right-handed neutrino naturally stable, thereby allowing it to play the role of dark matter (DM) in the Universe. Read More

We point out that if the baryon number violating neutron-antineutron oscillation is discovered, it would impose strong limits on the departure from Einstein's equivalence principle at a level of one part in $10^{19}$. If this departure owes its origin to the existence of long-range forces coupled to baryon number $B$ (or $B-L$), it would imply very stringent constraints on the strength of gauge bosons coupling to baryon number current. For instance, if the force mediating baryon number has strength $\alpha_B$ and its range is larger than a megaparsec, we find the limit to be $\alpha_B \leq 2\times 10^{-57}$, which is much stronger than all other existing bounds. Read More

We discuss a simple non-supersymmetric model based on the electroweak gauge group $SU(2)_L\times SU(2)^\prime\times U(1)_{B-L}$ where the lightest of the right-handed neutrinos, which are part of the leptonic doublet of $SU(2)^\prime$, play the role of a long-lived unstable dark matter with mass in the multi-PeV range. We use a resonant $s$-channel annihilation to obtain the correct thermal relic density and relax the unitarity bound on dark matter mass. In this model, there exists a 3-body dark matter decay mode producing tau leptons and neutrinos, which could be the source for the PeV cascade events observed in the IceCube experiment. Read More

2016Jun

This report summarises the physics opportunities in the search and study of physics beyond the Standard Model at a 100 TeV pp collider. Read More

If neutrino masses arise from a TeV-scale minimal Left-Right seesaw model, the ensuing extended Higgs sector with neutral, singly and doubly-charged scalars has a plethora of implications for new Higgs boson searches beyond the Standard Model at future hadron colliders, such as the $\sqrt s=14$ TeV High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) and the proposed $\sqrt s=100$ TeV collider (FCC-hh or SPPC). In this article, we provide a glimpse of this new physics in the Higgs sector. Our discussion focuses on the minimal non-supersymmetric version of the Left-Right model with high-scale parity breaking but TeV-scale $SU(2)_R$-breaking, a property desirable to suppress the type-II seesaw contribution to neutrino masses. Read More

We present a possible interpretation of the recent diphoton excess reported by the $\sqrt s=13$ TeV LHC data in quark seesaw left-right models with vectorlike fermions proposed to solve the strong $CP$ problem without the axion. The gauge singlet real scalar field responsible for the mass of the vectorlike fermions has the right production cross section and diphoton branching ratio to be identifiable with the reported excess at around 750 GeV diphoton invariant mass. Various ways to test this hypothesis as more data accumulates at the LHC are proposed. Read More

We propose ways to distinguish between different mechanisms behind the collider signals of TeV-scale seesaw models for neutrino masses using kinematic endpoints of invariant mass variables. We particularly focus on two classes of such models widely discussed in literature: (i) Standard Model extended by the addition of singlet neutrinos and (ii) Left-Right Symmetric Models. Relevant scenarios involving the same "smoking-gun" collider signature of dilepton plus dijet with no missing transverse energy differ from one another by their event topology, resulting in distinctive relationships among the kinematic endpoints to be used for discerning them at hadron colliders. Read More

In the manuscript, Voronovskaja type asymptotic formula for function having $q$-derivative of $q$-Durrmeyer operators and $q$-Durrmeyer-Stancu operators are discussed. Read More

We show that the excess events observed in a number of recent LHC resonance searches can be simultaneously explained within a minimal non-supersymmetric left-right inverse seesaw model for neutrino masses with $W_R$ mass around 1.9 TeV. We further show that the minimal TeV-scale particle content that leads to gauge coupling unification in this model predicts $g_R\simeq 0. Read More

We discuss gauge models incorporating $\mu-\tau$ flavored CP symmetry (called CP$^{\mu\tau}$ in the text) in combination with $L_\mu-L_\tau$ invariance to understand neutrino mixings and discuss their phenomenological implications. We show that viable leptogenesis in this setting requires that the lightest right-handed neutrino mass must be between $10^9-10^{12}$ GeV and for effective two hierarchical right-handed neutrinos, leptogenesis takes place only in a narrower range of $5\times 10^{10}-10^{12}$ GeV. A multi-Higgs realization of this idea implies that there must be a pseudoscalar Higgs boson with mass less than 300 GeV. Read More

A simple TeV scale model for baryon and lepton number violation is presented, where neutrino mass arises via a one-loop radiative seesaw effect and B-violation obeys $\Delta B=2$ selection rule. The stability of proton is connected to the neutrino mass generation. Matter-antimatter asymmetry is generated in this model via resonant baryogenesis mechanism. Read More

2015Apr

This paper describes the physics case for a new fixed target facility at CERN SPS. The SHiP (Search for Hidden Particles) experiment is intended to hunt for new physics in the largely unexplored domain of very weakly interacting particles with masses below the Fermi scale, inaccessible to the LHC experiments, and to study tau neutrino physics. The same proton beam setup can be used later to look for decays of tau-leptons with lepton flavour number non-conservation, $\tau\to 3\mu$ and to search for weakly-interacting sub-GeV dark matter candidates. Read More

We point out that if neutron--antineutron oscillation is observed in a free neutron oscillation experiment, it will put an upper limit on the strengths of Lorentz invariance violating (LIV) mass operators for neutrons at the level of $10^{-23}$ GeV or so, which would be the most stringent LIV limit for neutrons. We also study constraints on $\Delta B=2$ LIV operators and find that for one particular operator degaussing is not necessary to obtain a visible signal. We also note that observation of $n-\bar{n}$ oscillation signal in the nucleon decay search experiment involving nuclei does not lead to any limit on LIV operators since the nuclear potential difference between neutron and antineutrons will mask any Lorentz violating effect. Read More

This article provides a brief overview of some of the theoretical aspects of R-parity violation (RPV) in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) and its extensions. Both spontaneous and explicit RPV models are discussed and some consequences are outlined. In particular, it is emphasized that the simplest supersymmetric theories based on local B-L predict that R-parity must be a broken symmetry, a fact which makes a compelling case for taking R-parity breaking seriously in discussions of supersymmetry phenomenology. Read More

Contrary to the common lore based on naive dimensional analysis, the seesaw scale for neutrino masses can be naturally in the TeV range, with small parameters coming from radiative corrections. We present one such class of type-I seesaw models, based on the left-right gauge group $SU(2)_L\times SU(2)_R\times U(1)_{B-L}$ realized at the TeV scale, which fits the observed neutrino oscillation parameters as well as other low energy constraints. We discuss how the small parameters of this scenario can arise naturally from one loop effects. Read More

We show that a neutral scalar field, \sigma, of two Higgs doublet extensions of the Standard Model incorporating the seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses can be identified as a consistent {\it warm} dark matter candidate with a mass of order keV. The relic density of $\sigma$ is correctly reproduced by virtue of the late decay of a right-handed neutrino N participating in the seesaw mechanism. Constraints from cosmology determine the mass and lifetime of N to be M_N = 25 GeV - 20 TeV and \tau_N = (10^{-4} - 1) sec. Read More

The hypothetical massive dark photon ($\gamma'$) which has kinetic mixing with the SM photon can decay electromagnetically to $e^+e^-$ pairs if its mass $m$ exceeds $2m_e$ and otherwise into three SM photons. These decays yield cosmological and supernovae associated signatures. We briefly discuss these signatures, particularly in connection with the supernova SN1987A and delineate the extra constraints that may then arise on the mass and mixing parameter of the dark photon. Read More

The Baryon-Lepton difference ($B-L$) is increasingly emerging as a possible new symmetry of the weak interactions of quarks and leptons as a way to understand the small neutrino masses. There is the possibility that current and future searches at colliders and in low energy rare processes may provide evidence for this symmetry. This paper provides a brief overview of the early developments that led to B-L as a possible symmetry beyond the standard model, and also discusses some recent developments. Read More

We discuss leptogenesis constraints on the mass of the right-handed $W$-boson ($W_R$) in a TeV-scale Left-Right seesaw model (LRSM) for neutrino masses. For generic Dirac mass of the neutrinos, i.e. Read More

We show that discovery of baryon number violation in two processes with at least one obeying the selection rule \Delta (B-L) = \pm 2 can determine the Majorana character of neutrinos. Thus observing p \to e^+ \pi^0 and n \to e^- \pi^0 decays, or p \to e^+ \pi^0 and n-nbar oscillations, or n \to e^- \pi^+ and n-nbar oscillations would establish that neutrinos are Majorana particles. We discuss this in a model-independent effective operator approach. Read More

We present a simple model for a 7 keV scalar dark matter particle which also explains the recently reported anomalous peak in the galactic X-ray spectrum at 3.55 keV in terms of its two photon decay. The model is arguably the simplest extension of the Standard Model, with the addition of a real scalar gauge singlet field subject to a reflection symmetry. Read More

We discuss the issue of vacuum stability of standard model by embedding it within the TeV scale left-right universal seesaw model (called SLRM in the text). This model has only two coupling parameters $(\lambda_1, \lambda_2)$ in the Higgs potential and only two physical neutral Higgs bosons $(h, H)$. We explore the range of values for $(\lambda_1, \lambda_2)$ for which the light Higgs boson mass $M_h=126$ GeV and the vacuum is stable for all values of the Higgs fields. Read More

A second Higgs doublet arises naturally as a parity partner of the standard model (SM) Higgs, once SM is extended to its left-right symmetric version (LRSM) to understand the origin of parity violation in weak interactions as well as to accommodate small neutrino masses via the seesaw mechanism. The flavor changing neutral Higgs (FCNH) effects in the minimal version of this model (LRSM), however, push the second Higgs mass to more than 15 TeV making it inaccessible at the LHC. Furthermore since the second Higgs mass is directly linked to the $W_R$ mass, discovery of a "low" mass $W_R$ ($M_{W_R}\leq 5-6$ TeV) at the LHC would require values for some Higgs self couplings larger than one. Read More

This report, prepared for the Community Planning Study - Snowmass 2013 - summarizes the theoretical motivations and the experimental efforts to search for baryon number violation, focussing on nucleon decay and neutron-antineutron oscillations. Present and future nucleon decay search experiments using large underground detectors, as well as planned neutron-antineutron oscillation search experiments with free neutron beams are highlighted. Read More

In this work we present an analysis of flavor violating effects mediated by color sextet scalars, which arise naturally in left-right symmetric gauge theories based on SU(2)_L \times SU(2)_R \times SU(4)_C group. The sextets, denoted here by \Delta_{dd}, Delta_{ud} and \Delta_{uu}, couple to right--handed quarks. We delineate the constraints on these couplings arising from meson--anti-meson transitions and flavor changing weak decays. Read More

We present a TeV-scale left-right ultraviolet completion of type-I seesaw for neutrino masses based on the $SU(2)_L\times SU(2)_R\times U(1)_{B-L}$ gauge group without parity, which leads to "large" light-heavy neutrino mixing while keeping the neutrino masses small in a natural manner guaranteed by discrete symmetries. We point out specific observable implications of this class of models if the $SU(2)_R$-breaking scale is of order 5 TeV, in searches for lepton flavor violating processes such as $\mu\to e\gamma$, $\mu\to 3 e$ and $\mu-e$ conversion in nuclei, and lepton number violating processes such as neutrinoless double beta decay as well as at the LHC. In particular, if the upper limit on BR$(\mu\to e\gamma)$ improves by one order of magnitude, a large range of the parameters of the model would be ruled out. Read More

We discuss ways to probe the origin of neutrino masses at the Energy and Intensity frontiers, in TeV-scale left-right seesaw models where small neutrino masses arise via type-I seesaw mechanism. We consider generic ('vanilla') version of such models as well as a version which leads to 'large' light-heavy neutrino mixing while keeping the neutrino masses small in a natural manner. We point out specific observable implications of these classes of models at the LHC as well as in searches for lepton flavor violating processes such as $\mu\to e\gamma$ and $\mu\to 3e$, and also in searches for lepton number violating neutrinoless double beta decay. Read More

A recently proposed asymmetric mirror dark matter model where the mirror sector is connected with the visible one by a right handed neutrino portal, is shown to lead naturally to a 3+1 active-sterile neutrino spectrum, if the portal consists only of two right handed neutrinos. At the tree level the model has four massless neutrino states, three active and one sterile. The active neutrinos pick up tiny masses via the minimal radiative inverse seesaw mechanism at the one loop level. Read More

Understanding small neutrino masses in type II seesaw models with TeV scale SM triplet Higgs bosons requires that its coupling with the standard model Higgs doublet H be dialed down to be order eV to KeV, which is a fine-tuning by a factor of $10^{-11}-10^{-8}$ with respect to the weak scale. We present a SUSY extension of the type II seesaw model where this dimensionful small coupling is radiatively induced, thus making its smallness natural. This model has an exotic vector-like quark doublet which contains a quark X with electric charge 5/3 and a top partner t'. Read More

2013Jun
Authors: Andreas S. Kronfeld1, Robert S. Tschirhart2, Usama Al-Binni, Wolfgang Altmannshofer, Charles Ankenbrandt, Kaladi Babu, Sunanda Banerjee, Matthew Bass, Brian Batell, David V. Baxter, Zurab Berezhiani, Marc Bergevin, Robert Bernstein, Sudeb Bhattacharya, Mary Bishai, Thomas Blum, S. Alex Bogacz, Stephen J. Brice, Joachim Brod, Alan Bross, Michael Buchoff, Thomas W. Burgess, Marcela Carena, Luis A. Castellanos, Subhasis Chattopadhyay, Mu-Chun Chen, Daniel Cherdack, Norman H. Christ, Tim Chupp, Vincenzo Cirigliano, Pilar Coloma, Christopher E. Coppola, Ramanath Cowsik, J. Allen Crabtree, André de Gouvêa, Jean-Pierre Delahaye, Dmitri Denisov, Patrick deNiverville, Ranjan Dharmapalan, Markus Diefenthaler, Alexander Dolgov, Georgi Dvali, Estia Eichten, Jürgen Engelfried, Phillip D. Ferguson, Tony Gabriel, Avraham Gal, Franz Gallmeier, Kenneth S. Ganezer, Susan Gardner, Douglas Glenzinski, Stephen Godfrey, Elena S. Golubeva, Stefania Gori, Van B. Graves, Geoffrey Greene, Cory L. Griffard, Ulrich Haisch, Thomas Handler, Brandon Hartfiel, Athanasios Hatzikoutelis, Ayman Hawari, Lawrence Heilbronn, James E. Hill, Patrick Huber, David E. Jaffe, Xiaodong Jiang, Christian Johnson, Yuri Kamyshkov, Daniel M. Kaplan, Boris Kerbikov, Brendan Kiburg, Harold G. Kirk, Andreas Klein, Kyle Knoepfel, Boris Kopeliovich, Vladimir Kopeliovich, Joachim Kopp, Wolfgang Korsch, Graham Kribs, Ronald Lipton, Chen-Yu Liu, Wolfgang Lorenzon, Zheng-Tian Lu, Naomi C. R. Makins, David McKeen, Geoffrey Mills, Michael Mocko, Rabindra Mohapatra, Nikolai V. Mokhov, Guenter Muhrer, Pieter Mumm, David Neuffer, Lev Okun, Mark A. Palmer, Robert Palmer, Robert W. Pattie Jr., David G. Phillips II, Kevin Pitts, Maxim Pospelov, Vitaly S. Pronskikh, Chris Quigg, Erik Ramberg, Amlan Ray, Paul E. Reimer, David G. Richards, Adam Ritz, Amit Roy, Arthur Ruggles, Robert Ryne, Utpal Sarkar, Andy Saunders, Yannis K. Semertzidis, Anatoly Serebrov, Hirohiko Shimizu, Robert Shrock, Arindam K. Sikdar, Pavel V. Snopok, William M. Snow, Aria Soha, Stefan Spanier, Sergei Striganov, Zhaowen Tang, Lawrence Townsend, Jon Urheim, Arkady Vainshtein, Richard Van de Water, Ruth S. Van de Water, Richard J. Van Kooten, Bernard Wehring, William C. Wester III, Lisa Whitehead, Robert J. Wilson, Elizabeth Worcester, Albert R. Young, Geralyn Zeller
Affiliations: 1Editors, 2Editors

Part 2 of "Project X: Accelerator Reference Design, Physics Opportunities, Broader Impacts". In this Part, we outline the particle-physics program that can be achieved with Project X, a staged superconducting linac for intensity-frontier particle physics. Topics include neutrino physics, kaon physics, muon physics, electric dipole moments, neutron-antineutron oscillations, new light particles, hadron structure, hadron spectroscopy, and lattice-QCD calculations. Read More

We show that in TeV-scale left-right (L-R) symmetric seesaw models, there are new dominant contributions to the collider signals of heavy Majorana neutrinos arising from the heavy-light neutrino mixing, which directly probe the seesaw matrix in a certain class of models. We propose a way to distinguish this contribution from the widely discussed one that only probes the Majorana nature of the heavy right-handed neutrinos, by analyzing some simple kinematical variables. We find that in this class of L-R seesaw models the existing LHC data already yield slightly stronger constraints on the heavy-light neutrino mixing than those derived for standard seesaw models, and the improvement will be significant as more data are collected. Read More

We consider the implications of fermionic asymmetric dark matter for a "mixed neutron star" composed of ordinary baryons and dark fermions. We find examples, where for a certain range of dark fermion mass -- when it is less than that of ordinary baryons -- such systems can reach higher masses than the maximal values allowed for ordinary ("pure") neutron stars. This is shown both within a simplified, heuristic Newtonian analytic framework with non-interacting particles and via a general relativistic numerical calculation, under certain assumptions for the dark matter equation of state. Read More

We discuss a supersymmetric model for cogenesis of dark and baryonic matter where the dark matter (DM) has mass in the 8-10 GeV range as indicated by several direct detection searches including most recently the CDMS experiment with the desired cross section. The DM candidate is a real scalar filed. Two key distinguishing features of the model are the following: (i) in contrast with the conventional WIMP dark matter scenarios where thermal freeze-out is responsible for the observed relic density, our model uses non-thermal production of dark matter after reheating of the universe caused by moduli decay at temperatures below the QCD phase transition, a feature which alleviates the relic over-abundance problem caused by small annihilation cross section of light DM particles; (ii) baryogenesis occurs also at similar low temperatures from the decay of TeV scale mediator particles arising from moduli decay. Read More

A recently proposed scenario for baryogenesis, called post--sphaleron baryogenesis (PSB) is discussed within a class of quark--lepton unified framework based on the gauge symmetry SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R x SU(4)_c realized in the multi--TeV scale. The baryon asymmetry of the universe in this model is produced below the electroweak phase transition temperature after the sphalerons have decoupled from the Hubble expansion. These models embed naturally the seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses, and predict color-sextet scalar particles in the TeV range which may be accessible to the LHC experiments. Read More

Supersymmetric SO(10) grand unified models with renormalizable Yukawa couplings involving {\bf 10}, {\bf 126} and {\bf 120} Higgs fields have been shown to give a very economical theory for understanding quark-lepton flavor in a unified framework. In previous papers, we showed how nucleon decay can be suppressed in these models without invoking cancellation, by choice of Yukawa flavor texture within a type II seesaw framework for neutrinos that explains all mixings and masses including the recently observed "large" $\theta_{13}$. In this follow-up paper, we extend our earlier work to the case of type I seesaw and show that the recently measured "large" $\theta_{13}$ can be accommodated in this case while suppressing proton decay. Read More

We point out that supersymmetric gauged flavor models provide a realization of R-parity violation (RPV) that is natural in the sense that it does not lead to catastrophic proton decay for natural values of parameters in the theory. Within specific realizations of the idea, the relative strengths of the $\Delta B=1$ $u^c d^c d^c$ type RPV operators can be predicted. In particular, we present examples of gauged flavor models where RPV couplings depend on quark masses as $(m_{u_i} m_{d_j} m_{d_k} / m_t^3)^n$ where $n=1$ or $n= 1/2$. Read More

We propose a simple extension of the standard model by adding a fourth generation vector-like lepton doublet and show that if the fourth neutrino is a massive pseudo-Dirac fermion with mass in the few hundred GeV range and mass splitting of about 100 keV, its lighter component can be a viable inelastic dark matter candidate. Its relic abundance is produced by the CP violating out-of-equilibrium decay of the type-II seesaw scalar triplet, which also gives rise to the required baryon asymmetry of the Universe via type-II leptogenesis, thus providing a simultaneous explanation of dark matter and baryon abundance observed today. Moreover, the induced vacuum expectation value of the same scalar triplet is responsible for the sub-eV Majorana masses to the three active neutrinos. Read More

This paper provides a brief overview for non-specialists of some of the highlights in the development of the theory of weak interactions during the past century. Read More

We model the initial confinement-deconfinement transition in relativistic heavy-ion collisions as a rapid quench in view of expected rapid thermalization to a QGP state. The transition is studied using the Polyakov loop model, with the initial field configuration (in the confining phase) covering a small neighborhood of the confining vacuum $l \simeq 0$, as appropriate for $T < T_c$. Quench is implemented by evolving this initial configuration with the effective potential at a temperature $T > T_c$. Read More

A generalized CP symmetry for leptons is presented where CP transformations are part of an $S_4$ symmetry that connects different families. We study its implications for lepton mixings in a gauge model realization of the idea using type II seesaw for neutrino masses. The model predicts maximal atmospheric mixing, nonzero $\theta_{13}$ and maximal Dirac phase $\delta_{D}= \pm\pi/2$. Read More

We show that grand unified theories based on SO(10) generate quite naturally baryon number violating dimension seven operators that violate (B-L), and lead to novel nucleon decay modes such as n \to e^-K^+, e^- \pi^+ and p \to \nu \pi^+. We find that in two-step breaking schemes of non-supersymmetric SO(10), the partial lifetimes for these modes can be within reach of experiments. The interactions responsible for these decay modes also provide a new way to understand the origin of matter in the universe via the decays of GUT scale scalar bosons of SO(10). Read More