R. J. Long - LKB - Lhomond

R. J. Long
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R. J. Long
LKB - Lhomond

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Pub Categories

Astrophysics of Galaxies (12)
Quantum Physics (10)
Physics - Optics (3)
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (2)
Mathematics - Optimization and Control (2)
Physics - Chemical Physics (2)
Physics - Atomic Physics (2)
Mathematics - Analysis of PDEs (1)
Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors (1)
Physics - Statistical Mechanics (1)
Computer Science - Computation and Language (1)
Physics - Classical Physics (1)
Physics - Materials Science (1)

Publications Authored By R. J. Long

With a sample of 48,161 K giant stars selected from the LAMOST DR 2 catalogue, we construct torus models in a large volume extending, for the first time, from the solar vicinity to a Galactocentric distance of $\sim 20$ kpc, reaching the outskirts of the Galactic disc. We show that the kinematics of the K giant stars match conventional models, e.g. Read More

We perform Jeans anisotropic modeling (JAM) on elliptical and spiral galaxies from the MaNGA DR13 sample. By comparing the stellar mass-to-light ratios estimated from stellar population synthesis (SPS) and from JAM, we find a similar systematic variation of the initial mass function (IMF) as in the earlier $\rm ATLAS^{3D}$ results. Early type galaxies (elliptical and lenticular) with lower velocity dispersions within one effective radius are consistent with a Chabrier-like IMF while galaxies with higher velocity dispersions are consistent with a more bottom heavy IMF such as the Salpeter IMF. Read More

We present a study on the stellar age and metallicity distributions for 1105 galaxies using the STARLIGHT software on MaNGA integral field spectra. We derive age and metallicity gradients by fitting straight lines to the radial profiles, and explore their correlations with total stellar mass M*, NUV-r colour and environments, as identified by both the large scale structure (LSS) type and the local density. We find that the mean age and metallicity gradients are close to zero but slightly negative, which is consistent with the inside-out formation scenario. Read More

We enhance the Syer & Tremaine made-to-measure (M2M) particle method of stellar dynamical modelling to model simultaneously both kinematic data and absorption line strength data thus creating a `chemo-M2M' modelling scheme. We apply the enhanced method to four galaxies (NGC 1248, NGC 3838, NGC 4452, NGC 4551) observed using the SAURON integral-field spectrograph as part of the ATLAS3D programme. We are able to reproduce successfully the 2D line strength data achieving mean chi^2 per bin values of ~1 with >95\% of particles having converged weights. Read More

We construct a suite of discrete chemo-dynamical models of the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 5846. These models are a powerful tool to constrain both the mass distribution and internal dynamics of multiple tracer populations. We use Jeans models to simultaneously fit stellar kinematics within the effective radius $R_{\rm e}$, planetary nebula (PN) radial velocities out to $3\, R_{\rm e}$, and globular cluster (GC) radial velocities and colours out to $6\,R_{\rm e}$. Read More

We consider the task of learning a context-dependent mapping from utterances to denotations. With only denotations at training time, we must search over a combinatorially large space of logical forms, which is even larger with context-dependent utterances. To cope with this challenge, we perform successive projections of the full model onto simpler models that operate over equivalence classes of logical forms. Read More

We demonstrate fiber Fabry-Perot (FFP) cavities with concave mirrors that can be operated at cavity lengths as large as 1.5mm without significant deterioration of the finesse. This is achieved by using a laser dot machining technique to shape spherical mirrors with ultralow roughness and employing single-mode fibers with large mode area for good mode matching to the cavity. Read More

We assess the effectiveness of the Jeans-Anisotropic-MGE (JAM) technique with a state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamic simulation, the Illustris project. We perform JAM modelling on 1413 simulated galaxies with stellar mass M^* > 10^{10}M_{sun}, and construct an axisymmetric dynamical model for each galaxy. Combined with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, we recover the projected root-mean-square velocity (V_rms) field of the stellar component, and investigate constraints on the stellar mass-to-light ratio, M^*/L, and the fraction of dark matter f_{DM} within 2. Read More

Measurement of the local dark matter density plays an important role in both Galactic dynamics and dark matter direct detection experiments. However, the estimated values from previous works are far from agreeing with each other. In this work, we provide a well-defined observed sample with 1427 G \& K type main-sequence stars from the LAMOST spectroscopic survey, taking into account selection effects, volume completeness, and the stellar populations. Read More

The success of quantum optimal control for both experimental and theoretical objectives is connected to the topology of the corresponding control landscapes, which are free from local traps if three conditions are met: (1) the quantum system is controllable, (2) the Jacobian of the map from the control field to the evolution operator is of full rank, and (3) there are no constraints on the control field. This paper investigates how the violation of assumption (3) affects gradient searches for globally optimal control fields. The satisfaction of assumptions (1) and (2) ensures that the control landscape lacks fundamental traps, but certain control constraints can still introduce artificial traps. Read More

We study the dynamics of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 from the central to the outermost regions with the made-to-measure (M2M) method. We use a new catalogue of 922 globular cluster line-of- sight velocities extending to a projected radius of 180 kpc (equivalent to 25 M87 effective radii), and SAURON integral field unit data within the central 2.4 kpc. Read More

An analysis of efficiency and its bounds at maximum work output for Carnot-like heat engines is conducted. The heat transfer processes are described by the linear law with time-dependent heat conductance. The upper bound of efficiency is found to be the CA efficiency,and is independent of the time duration completing each process and the time-dependent conductance. Read More

Quantum optimal control has enjoyed wide success for a variety of theoretical and experimental objectives. These favorable results have been attributed to advantageous properties of the corresponding control landscapes, which are free from local optima if three conditions are met: (1) the quantum system is controllable, (2) the Jacobian of the map from the control field to the evolution operator is full rank, and (3) the control field is not constrained. This paper explores how gradient searches for globally optimal control fields are affected by deviations from assumption (2). Read More

Robust control design for quantum systems has been recognized as a key task in the development of practical quantum technology. In this paper, we present a systematic numerical methodology of sampling-based learning control (SLC) for control design of quantum systems with Hamiltonian uncertainties. The SLC method includes two steps of "training" and "testing and evaluation". Read More


We demonstrate a miniature, fiber-coupled optical tweezer to trap a single atom. The same fiber is used to trap a single atom and to read out its fluorescence. To obtain a low background level, the tweezer light is chopped, and we measure the influence of the chopping frequency on the atom's lifetime. Read More

Using the potential from N-body simulations, we construct the Galactic bar models with the Schwarzschild method. By varying the pattern speed and the position angle of the bar, we find that the best-fit bar model has pattern speed $\Omega_{\rm p}=40\ \rm{km\ s^{-1}\ kpc^{-1}}$, and bar angle $\theta_{\rm bar}=45^{\circ}$. $N$-body simulations show that the best-fit model is stable for more than 1. Read More

Compensation for parameter dispersion is a significant challenge for control of inhomogeneous quantum ensembles. In this paper, we present a systematic methodology of sampling-based learning control (SLC) for simultaneously steering the members of inhomogeneous quantum ensembles to the same desired state. The SLC method is employed for optimal control of the state-to-state transition probability for inhomogeneous quantum ensembles of spins as well as $\Lambda$ type atomic systems. Read More

We present a unique experimental configuration that allows us to determine the interfacial forces on nearly parallel plates made from the thinnest possible mechanical structures, single and few layer graphene membranes. Our approach consists of using a pressure difference across a graphene membrane to bring the membrane to within ~ 10-20 nm above a circular post covered with SiOx or Au until a critical point is reached whereby the membrane snaps into adhesive contact with the post. Continuous measurements of the deforming membrane with an AFM coupled with a theoretical model allow us to deduce the magnitude of the interfacial forces between graphene and SiOx and graphene and Au. Read More

We study the mechanics of pressurized graphene membranes using an experimental configuration that allows the determination of the elasticity of graphene and the adhesion energy between a substrate and a graphene (or other two-dimensional solid) membrane. The test consists of a monolayer graphene membrane adhered to a substrate by surface forces. The substrate is patterned with etched microcavities of a prescribed volume and when they are covered with the graphene monolayer it traps a fixed number (N) of gas molecules in the microchamber. Read More

Let (SD_\Omega) be the Stokes operator defined in a bounded domain \Omega of R^3 with Dirichlet boundary conditions. We prove that, generically with respect to the domain \Omega with C^5 boundary, the spectrum of (SD_\Omega) satisfies a non resonant property introduced by C. Foias and J. Read More

We demonstrate how the Syer & Tremaine made-to-measure method of stellar dynamical modelling can be adapted to model a rotating galactic bar. We validate our made-to-measure changes using observations constructed from the existing Shen et al. (2010) N-body model of the Milky Way bar, together with kinematic observations of the Milky Way bulge and bar taken by the Bulge Radial Velocity Assay (BRAVA). Read More

In this paper, we present an iterative steering algorithm for nonholonomic systems (also called driftless control-affine systems) and we prove its global convergence under the sole assumption that the Lie Algebraic Rank Condition (LARC) holds true everywhere. That algorithm is an extension of the one introduced in [21] for regular systems. The first novelty here consists in the explicit algebraic construction, starting from the original control system, of a lifted control system which is regular. Read More

We take a sample of 24 elliptical and lenticular galaxies previously analysed by the SAURON project using three-integral dynamical models created with Schwarzschild's method, and re-analyse them using the made-to-measure (M2M) method of dynamical modelling. We obtain good agreement between the two methods in determining the dynamical mass-to-light (M/L) ratios for the galaxies with over 80% of ratios differing by < 10% and over 95% differing by < 20%. We show that (M/L)_M2M is approximately equal to (M/L)_Sch. Read More

We propose in this paper a gradient-type dynamical system to solve the problem of maximizing quantum observables for finite dimensional closed quantum ensembles governed by the controlled Liouville-von Neumann equation. The asymptotic behavior is analyzed: we show that under the regularity assumption on the controls the dynamical system almost always converges to a solution of the maximization problem; we also detail the difficulties related to the occurrence of singular controls. Read More

Optimal control of molecular dynamics is commonly expressed from a quantum mechanical perspective. However, in most contexts the preponderance of molecular dynamics studies utilize classical mechanical models. This paper treats laser-driven optimal control of molecular dynamics in a classical framework. Read More

Many quantum control problems are formulated as a search for an optimal field that maximizes a physical objective. This search is performed over a landscape defined as the objective as a function of the control field. A recent Letter [A. Read More

We measure atom number statistics after splitting a gas of ultracold 87Rb atoms in a purely magnetic double-well potential created on an atom chip. Well below the critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation T_c, we observe reduced fluctuations down to -4.9dB below the atom shot noise level. Read More

We prepare and detect the hyperfine state of a single 87Rb atom coupled to a fiber-based high finesse cavity on an atom chip. The atom is extracted from a Bose-Einstein condensate and trapped at the maximum of the cavity field, resulting in a reproducibly strong atom-cavity coupling. We use the cavity reflection and transmission signal to infer the atomic hyperfine state with a fidelity exceeding 99. Read More

We re-derive the made-to-measure method of Syer and Tremaine 1996, for modelling stellar systems and individual galaxies, and demonstrate how extensions to the made-to-measure method may be implemented and used. We illustrate the enhanced made-to-measure method by determining the mass-to-light ratio of a galaxy modelled as a Plummer sphere. From the standard galactic observables of surface brightness and line-of-sight velocity dispersion together with the h_4 Gauss-Hermite coefficient of the line-of-sight velocity distribution, we successfully recover the true mass-to-light ratio of our toy galaxy. Read More

We have tuned the whispering gallery modes of a fused silica micro- resonator over nearly 1 nm at 800 nm, i.e.over half of a free spectral range or the equivalent of 10^6 linewidths of the resonator. Read More