R. Du Strauss

R. Du Strauss
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Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors (19)
 
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (12)
 
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (12)
 
Physics - Space Physics (6)
 
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (6)
 
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (5)
 
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (3)
 
High Energy Physics - Experiment (2)
 
Physics - Optics (1)
 
Quantitative Biology - Populations and Evolution (1)
 
Nuclear Experiment (1)
 
Quantitative Biology - Quantitative Methods (1)

Publications Authored By R. Du Strauss

The energy threshold of a cryogenic calorimeter can be lowered by reducing its size. This is of importance since the resulting increase in signal rate enables new approaches in rare-event searches, including the detection of MeV mass dark matter and coherent scattering of reactor or solar neutrinos. A scaling law for energy threshold vs. Read More

We discuss a small-scale experiment, called $\nu$-cleus, for the first detection of coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering by probing nuclear-recoil energies down to the 10 eV-regime. The detector consists of low-threshold CaWO$_4$ and Al$_2$O$_3$ calorimeter arrays with a total mass of about 10 g and several cryogenic veto detectors operated at millikelvin temperatures. Realizing a fiducial volume and a multi-element target, the detector enables active discrimination of $\gamma$, neutron and surface backgrounds. Read More

We study the temporal intensity profile, or pulse shape, of cosmic ray ground level enhancements (GLEs) by calculating the rise $(\tau_\mathrm{r})$ and decay $(\tau_\mathrm{d})$ times for a small subset of all available events. Although these quantities show very large inter-event variability, a linear dependence of $\tau_\mathrm{d} \approx 3.5 \tau_\mathrm{r}$ is found. Read More

In this review, an overview of the recent history of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in application to particle transport problems in space physics and astrophysics is given. The aim is to present a helpful working guide to the literature and at the same time introduce key principles of the SDE approach via "toy models". Using these examples, we hope to provide an easy way for newcomers to the field to use such methods in their own research. Read More

In Phase 2 of CRESST-II 18 detector modules were operated for about two years (July 2013 - August 2015). Together with this document we are publishing data from two detector modules which have been used for direct dark-matter searches. With these data-sets we were able to set world-leading limits on the cross section for spin-independent elastic scattering of dark matter particles off nuclei. Read More

Identifying the nature and origin of dark matter is one of the major challenges for modern astro and particle physics. Direct dark-matter searches aim at an observation of dark-matter particles interacting within detectors. The focus of several such searches is on interactions with nuclei as provided e. Read More

This paper summarizes the results obtained by the team "Heliosheath Processes and the Structure of the Heliopause: Modeling Energetic Particles, Cosmic Rays, and Magnetic Fields" supported by the International Space Science Institute in Bern, Switzerland. We focus on the physical processes occurring in the outer heliosphere, especially at its boundary called the heliopause (HP), and in the LISM. The importance of magnetic field, charge exchange between atoms and ions, and solar cycle on the heliopause topology and observed heliocentric distances to different heliospheric discontinuities are discussed. Read More

The quest for the particle nature of dark matter is one of the big open questions of modern physics. A well motivated candidate for dark matter is the so-called WIMP - a weakly interacting massive particle. Recently several theoretically well-motivated models with dark matter candidates in a mass region below the WIMP mass-scale gained also a lot of interest, theoretically and experimentally. Read More

Huge astrospheres or stellar wind bubbles influence the propagation of cosmic rays at energies up to the TeV range and can act as small-scale sinks decreasing the cosmic ray flux. We model such a sink (in 2D) by a sphere of radius 10\,pc embedded within a sphere of a radius of 1\,kpc. The cosmic ray flux is calculated by means of backward stochastic differential equations from an observer, which is located at $r_{0}$, to the outer boundary. Read More

The usual assumption in direct dark matter searches is to only consider the spin-dependent or spin-independent scattering of dark matter particles. However, especially in models with light dark matter particles $\mathcal{O}(\mathrm{GeV/c^2})$, operators which carry additional powers of the momentum transfer $q^2$ can become dominant. One such model based on asymmetric dark matter has been invoked to overcome discrepancies in helioseismology and an indication was found for a particle with preferred mass of 3 $\mathrm{GeV/c^2}$ and cross section of $10^{-37} \mathrm{cm^2}$. Read More

In prospect of its application in cryogenic rare-event searches, we have investigated the low-temperature scintillation properties of CaWO4 crystals down to 3.4 K under {\alpha} and {\gamma} excitation. Concerning the scintillation decay times, we observe a long component in the ms range which significantly contributes to the light yield below 40K. Read More

In the past years the spotlight of the search for dark matter particles widened to the low mass region, both from theoretical and experimental side. We discuss results from data obtained in 2013 with a single detector TUM40. This detector is equipped with a new upgraded holding scheme to efficiently veto backgrounds induced by surface alpha decays. Read More

The CRESST-II experiment uses cryogenic detectors to search for nuclear recoil events induced by the elastic scattering of dark matter particles in CaWO$_4$ crystals. Given the low energy threshold of our detectors in combination with light target nuclei, low mass dark matter particles can be probed with high sensitivity. In this letter we present the results from data of a single detector module corresponding to 52 kg live days. Read More

A numerical model for the solar modulation of cosmic rays, based on the solution of a set of stochastic differential equations, is used to illustrate the effects of modifying the heliospheric magnetic field, particularly in the polar regions of the heliosphere. To this end, the dfferences in the modulation brought about by each of three choices for the heliospheric magnetic field, i.e. Read More

The purpose of this document is to describe the upgrade of the CRESST dark matter search at LNGS. The proposed strategy will allow to explore a region of the parameter space for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon elastic scattering corresponding to WIMP masses below 10GeV/c$^\text{2}$, that has not been covered by other experiments. These results can be achieved only with outstanding detector performances in terms of threshold and background. Read More

The CRESST experiment (Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers) searches for dark matter via the phonon and light signals of elastic scattering processes in scintillating crystals. The discrimination between a possible dark matter signal and background is based on the light yield. We present a new method for evaluating the two characteristics of a phonon/light detector module that determine how much of the deposited energy is converted to scintillation light and how efficiently a module detects the produced light. Read More

An active discrimination of the dominant $\alpha$-background is the prerequisite for future neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments based on TeO$_{2}$ bolometers. We investigate such $\alpha$-particle rejection in cryogenic TeO$_{2}$ bolometers by the detection of Cherenkov light. For a setup consisting of a massive TeO$_{2}$ crystal (285 g) and a separate cryogenic light detector, both using transition edge sensors as temperature sensors operated at around 10 mK, we obtain an event-by-event identification of e/$\gamma$- and $\alpha$-events. Read More

The experiment CRESST-II aims at the detection of dark matter with scintillating CaWO$_4$ crystals operated as cryogenic detectors. Recent results on spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering from the CRESST-II Phase 2 allowed to probe a new region of parameter space for WIMP masses below 3 GeV/c$^2$. This sensitivity was achieved after background levels were reduced significantly. Read More

The cryogenic dark matter experiment CRESST-II aims at the direct detection of WIMPs via elastic scattering off nuclei in scintillating CaWO$_4$ crystals. We present a new, highly improved, detector design installed in the current run of CRESST-II Phase 2 with an efficient active rejection of surface-alpha backgrounds. Using CaWO$_4$ sticks instead of metal clamps to hold the target crystal, a detector housing with fully-scintillating inner surface could be realized. Read More

Atmospheric and solar neutrinos scattering coherently off target nuclei will be an important background source for the next generation of direct dark matter searches. In this work we focus on calcium tungstate as target material. For comparison with existing works we calculate the neutrino floor indicating which sensitivities can be reached before the neutrino background appears. Read More

The direct dark matter search experiment CRESST uses scintillating CaWO$_4$ single crystals as targets for possible WIMP scatterings. An intrinsic radioactive contamination of the crystals as low as possible is crucial for the sensitivity of the detectors. In the past CaWO$_4$ crystals operated in CRESST were produced by institutes in Russia and the Ukraine. Read More

Scintillating CaWO$_4$ single crystals are a promising multi-element target for rare-event searches and are currently used in the direct Dark Matter experiment CRESST (Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers). The relative light output of different particle interactions in CaWO$_4$ is quantified by Quenching Factors (QFs). These are essential for an active background discrimination and the identification of a possible signal induced by weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Read More

The transport environment for particles in the heliosphere, e.g. galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and MeV electrons (including those originating from Jupiters magnetosphere), is defined by the solar wind flow and the structure of the embedded heliospheric magnetic field. Read More

Observationally, it is difficult to establish at what rigidity the modulation of galactic cosmic rays (CRs) actually begins in the heliosphere. It should be possible to do if the relevant local interstellar CR spectra were known and reliable measurements were made between 10 GV and about 200 GV, inside and outside the heliosphere. Numerical models for solar modulation studies are based on simply assuming that CR modulation begins at a given spatial boundary and at rigidities between 30 to 50 GV, usually handled as an initial condition. Read More

The recent solar minimum activity period and the consequent minimum modulation conditions for cosmic rays were unusual compared to previous solar minimum periods. The highest spectra of galactic protons (and other cosmic rays) were recorded by the PAMELA instrument at Earth in late 2009, in contrast to expectations. The spectrum, between 100 MeV and 50 GeV, for December 2009 is compared to proton spectra observed during previous solar minimum periods, back to 1965. Read More

Ecological networks are often composed of different sub-communities (often referred to as modules). Identifying such modules has the potential to develop a better understanding of the assembly of ecological communities and to investigate functional overlap or specialisation. The most informative form of networks are quantitative or weighted networks. Read More

We investigate the influence of oxygen annealing on the room temperature optical and scintillation properties of CaWO$_4$ single crystals that are being produced for direct Dark Matter search experiments. The applied annealing procedure reduces the absorption coefficient at the peak position of the scintillation spectrum ($\sim430$ nm) by a factor of $\sim6$ and leads to an even larger reduction of the scattering coefficient. Furthermore, the annealing has no significant influence on the \emph{intrinsic} light yield. Read More

Direct Dark Matter detection with cryodetectors is briefly discussed, with particular mention of the possibility of the identification of the recoil nucleus. Preliminary results from the CREEST II Dark Matter search, with 730 kg-days of data, are presented. Major backgrounds and methods of identifying and dealing with them are indicated. Read More

The spatial diffusion of cosmic rays in turbulent magnetic fields can, in the most general case, be fully anisotropic, i.e. one has to distinguish three diffusion axes in a local, field-aligned frame. Read More

The CRESST-II cryogenic Dark Matter search, aiming at detection of WIMPs via elastic scattering off nuclei in CaWO$_4$ crystals, completed 730 kg days of data taking in 2011. We present the data collected with eight detector modules, each with a two-channel readout; one for a phonon signal and the other for coincidently produced scintillation light. The former provides a precise measure of the energy deposited by an interaction, and the ratio of scintillation light to deposited energy can be used to discriminate different types of interacting particles and thus to distinguish possible signal events from the dominant backgrounds. Read More

The simultaneous measurement of phonons and scintillation light induced by incident particles in a scintillating crystal such as CaWO4 is a powerful technique for the active rejection of background induced by gamma's and beta's and even neutrons in direct Dark Matter searches. However, less than ~1% of the energy deposited in a CaWO4 crystal is detected as light. Thus, very sensitive light detectors are needed for an efficient event-by-event background discrimination. Read More

In experiments for direct dark matter searches, neutrinos coherently scattering off nuclei can produce similar events as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). To reach sensitivities better than about 10^-10 pb for the elastic WIMP nucleon spin-independent cross section in the zero-background limit, energy thresholds for nuclear recoils should be >2.05 keV for CaWO_4, >4. Read More

In experiments for direct dark matter searches, neutrinos coherently scattering off nuclei can produce similar events as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). The calculated count rate for solar neutrinos in such experiments is a few events per ton-year. This count rate strongly depends on the nuclear recoil energy threshold achieved in the experiments for the WIMP search. Read More