Pisin chen

Pisin chen
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Pisin chen

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Pub Categories

General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (38)
High Energy Physics - Theory (31)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (20)
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (10)
Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (4)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (4)
Mathematical Physics (4)
Quantum Physics (4)
Nuclear Theory (1)
Physics - Statistical Mechanics (1)
Physics - Optics (1)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (1)

Publications Authored By Pisin chen

We investigate the entanglement entropy and the information flow of two-dimensional moving mirrors. Here we point out that various mirror trajectories can help to mimic different candidate resolutions to the information loss paradox following the semi-classical quantum field theory: (i) a suddenly stopping mirror corresponds to the assertion that all information is attached to the last burst, (ii) a slowly stopping mirror corresponds to the assertion that thermal Hawking radiation carries information, and (iii) a long propagating mirror corresponds to the remnant scenario. Based on such analogy, we find that the last burst of a black hole cannot contain enough information, while slowly emitting radiation can restore unitarity. Read More

In order to understand the nature of the accelerating expansion of the late-time universe, it is important to experimentally determine whether dark energy is cosmological constant or dynamical in nature. If dark energy already exists prior to inflation, which is a reasonable assumption, then one expects that a dynamical dark energy would leave some footprint in the anisotropy of the late-time accelerated expansion. We invoke the quintessence field, one of the simplest dynamical dark energy models, to investigate the effects of its quantum fluctuations (fully correlated with curvature perturbations) during inflation and estimate the anisotropy of the cosmic expansion so induced. Read More

We investigate thermal activation of thin-shells around anti-de Sitter black holes. Under the thin-shell approximation, we extensively study the parameter region that allows a bubble nucleation bounded by a thin-shell out of a thermal bath. We show that in general if one fixes the temperature outside the shell, one needs to consider the presence of a conical deficit inside the shell in the Euclidean manifold, due to the lack of solutions with a smooth manifold. Read More

By far cosmology is one of the most exciting subject to study, even more so with the current bulk of observations we have at hand. These observations might indicate different kinds of doomsdays, if dark energy follows certain patterns. Two of these doomsdays are the Little Rip (LR) and Little Sibling of the Big Rip (LSBR). Read More

In this work, we investigate $O(4)$-symmetric instantons within the Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld gravity theory (EiBI). We discuss the regular Hawking-Moss instanton and find that the tunneling rate reduces to the General Relativity (GR) value, even though the action value is different by a constant. We give a thorough analysis of the singular Vilenkin instanton and the Hawking-Turok instanton with a quadratic scalar field potential in the EiBI theory. Read More

We investigate Euclidean wormholes in Einstein gravity with a massless scalar field in de Sitter space. Euclidean wormholes are possible due to the analytic continuation of the time as well as complexification of fields, where we need to impose the classicality after the Wick-rotation to the Lorentzian signatures. For some parameters, wormholes are preferred than Hawking-Moss instantons, and hence wormholes can be more fundamental than Hawking-Moss type instantons. Read More

In this paper, we provide a counter-example to the ER=EPR conjecture. In an anti-de Sitter space, we construct a pair of maximally entangled but separated black holes. Due to the vacuum decay of the anti-de Sitter background toward a deeper vacuum, these two parts can be trapped by bubbles. Read More

There exist two interpretations of instantons in the literature. The first interpretation regards instanton as divider between the initial and final hypersurfaces. The Coleman-De Luccia instanton is one such an example. Read More

The Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld (EiBI) gravity, which is formulated within the Palatini formalism, is characterized by its ability to cure the big bang singularity in the very beginning of the Universe. We further analyze the EiBI phantom model, and investigate the possible avoidance or alleviation of other dark energy related singularities. We find that except for the big rip singularity and little rip event, most of the cosmological singularities of interest can be partially alleviated in this model. Read More

We introduce a new type of the spacetime quantization based on the spinorial description suggested by loop quantum gravity. Specifically, we build our theory on a string theory inspired $Spin(3,1)$ worldsheet action. Because of its connection with quantum gravity theories, our proposal may in principle link back to string theory, connect to loop quantum gravity where $SU(2)$ is suggested as the fundamental symmetry, or serve as a Lorentzian spin network. Read More

The question of whether Hawking evaporation violates unitarity, and therefore results in the loss of information, remains unresolved since Hawking's seminal discovery. So far the investigations remain mostly theoretical since it is almost impossible to settle this paradox through direct astrophysical black hole observations. Here we point out that relativistic plasma mirrors can be accelerated drastically and stopped abruptly by impinging ultra intense x-ray pulses on solid plasma targets with a density gradient. Read More

For O(4)-symmetric instantons, there are two complementary interpretations for their analytic continuations. One is the nothing-to-something interpretation, where the initial and final hypersurfaces are disconnected by Euclidean manifolds. The other is the something-to-something interpretation, introduced by Brown and Weinberg, where the initial and final hypersurfaces are connected by the Euclidean manifold. Read More

Motivated by both concepts of R.J. Adler's recent work on utilizing Clifford algebra as the linear line element $ds = \left\langle \gamma_\mu \right\rangle dX^\mu $, and the fermionization of the cylindrical worldsheet Polyakov action, we introduce a new type of spacetime quantization that is fully covariant. Read More

In the path integral approach, one has to sum over all histories that start from the same initial condition in order to obtain the final condition as a superposition of histories. Applying this into black hole dynamics, we consider stable and unstable stationary bubbles as a reasonable and regular initial condition. We find examples where the bubble can either form a black hole or tunnel toward a trivial geometry, i. Read More

In the firewall proposal, it is assumed that the firewall lies near the event horizon and should not be observable except by infalling observers, who are presumably terminated at the firewall. However, if the firewall is located near where the horizon would have been, based on the spacetime evolution up to that time, later quantum fluctuations of the Hawking emission rate can cause the "teleological" event horizon to have migrated to the inside of the firewall location, rendering the firewall naked. In principle, the firewall can be arbitrarily far outside the horizon. Read More

We propose a new scalar-tensor model which induces significant deviation from general relativity inside dense objects like neutron stars, while passing solar-system and terrestrial experiments, extending a model proposed by Damour and Esposito-Farese. Unlike their model, we employ a massive scalar field dubbed asymmetron so that it not only realizes proper cosmic evolution but also can account for the cold dark matter. In our model, asymmetron undergoes spontaneous scalarization inside dense objects, which results in reduction of the gravitational constant by a factor of order unity. Read More

A class of dynamical dark energy models is constructed through an extended version of fermion fields corresponding to phantom dark ghost spinors, which are spin one half with mass dimension one. We find that if these spinors interact with torsion fields in a homogeneous and isotropic universe, then it does not imply any future dark energy singularity or any abrupt event, though the fermion has a negative kinetic energy. In fact, the equation of state of this dark energy model will asymptotically approach the value $w=-1$ from above without crossing the phantom divide and inducing therefore a de Sitter state. Read More

In this paper, a modified Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld (EiBI) theory with a pure trace term $g_{\mu\nu}R$ being added to the determinantal action is analysed from a cosmological point of view. It corresponds to the most general action constructed from a rank two tensor that contains up to first order terms in curvature. This term can equally be seen as a conformal factor multiplying the metric $g_{\mu\nu}$. Read More

We investigate cusp singularities in f(R) gravity, especially for Starobinsky and Hu-Sawicki dark energy models. We illustrate that, by using double-null numerical simulations, a cusp singularity can be triggered by gravitational collapses. This singularity can be cured by adding a quadratic term, but this causes a Ricci scalar bump that can be observed by an observer outside the event horizon. Read More

There is an apparent power deficit relative to the $\Lambda$CDM prediction of the CMB spectrum at large scales, which, though not yet statistically significant, persists from WMAP to Planck data. Proposals that invoke some form of initial condition for the inflation have been made to address this apparent power suppression, albeit with conflicting conclusions. By studying the curvature perturbations of a scalar field in the FLRW universe parameterized by the equation of state parameter $w$, we find that the large-scale spectrum at the end of inflation reflects the super-horizon spectrum of the initial state. Read More

We discuss the boundary effect of anomaly-induced action in two-dimensional spacetime, which is ignored in previous studies. Anomaly-induced action, which gives the stress tensor with the same trace as the trace anomaly, can be represented in terms of local operators by introducing an auxiliary scalar field. Although the degrees of freedom of the auxiliary field can in principle describe the quantum states of the original field, the principal relation between them was unclear. Read More

If the Hartle-Hawking wave function is the correct boundary condition of our universe, the history of our universe will be well approximated by an instanton. Although this instanton should be classicalized at infinity, as long as we are observing a process of each history, we may detect a non-classicalized part of field combinations. When we apply it to a dark energy model, this non-classicalized part of fields can be well embedded to a quintessence and a phantom model, i. Read More

For non-zero cosmological constant Lambda, we show that the barotropic FRW cosmologies as worked out in the comoving time lead in the radiation-dominated case to scale factors of identical form as for the Chiellini dissipative scale factors in conformal time obtained recently by us in Phys. Lett. A 379 (2015) 882-887. Read More

Forty years after the discovery of Hawking radiation, its exact nature remains elusive. If Hawking radiation does not carry any information out from the ever shrinking black hole, it seems that unitarity is violated once the black hole completely evaporates. On the other hand, attempts to recover information via quantum entanglement lead to the firewall controversy. Read More

It was recently argued that f(T) gravity could inherit "remnant symmetry" from the full Lorentz group, despite the fact that the theory is not locally Lorentz invariant. Confusion has arisen regarding the implication of this result for the previous works, which established that f(T) gravity is pathological due to superluminal propagation, local acausality, and non-unique time evolution. We clarify that the existence of the "remnant group" does not rid the theory of these various problems, but instead strongly supports it. Read More

We study the impact of gravitational slingshot on the distribution of cold dark matter in early and modern era galaxies. Multiple gravitational encounters of a lower mass dark matter particle with massive baryonic astrophysical bodies would lead to an average energy gain for the dark matter, similar to second order Fermi acceleration. We calculate the average energy gain and model the integrated effect on the dark matter profile. Read More

It is known that barotropic FRW equations written in the conformal time variable can be reduced to simple linear equations for an exponential function involving the conformal Hubble rate. Here, we show that an interesting class of barotropic universes can be obtained in the linear limit of a special type of nonlinear dissipative Ermakov-Pinney equations with the nonlinear dissipation built from Chiellini's integrability condition. These cosmologies, which evolutionary are similar to the standard ones, correspond to barotropic fluids with adiabatic indices rescaled by a particular factor and have amplitudes of the scale factors inverse proportional to the adiabatic index Read More

Recent results on the one-parameter supersymmetric deformation in momentum space by Curtright and Zachos (2014 J. Phys. A: Math. Read More

At the heart of the black hole information loss paradox and the firewall controversy lies the conflict between quantum mechanics and general relativity. Much has been said about quantum corrections to general relativity, but much less in the opposite direction. It is therefore crucial to examine possible corrections to quantum mechanics due to gravity. Read More

We show a new scheme of nonperturbative pair production by high energy photons ($\omega\gtrsim m$) in a strong external field is achievable at the next high intensity laser experiments. The pair momentum is boosted and for $\omega\gtrsim 1.2m$ the pair yield is increased when the external field is formed by two laser pulses converging at a small angle. Read More

The Born-Infeld determinantal gravity has been recently proposed as a way to smooth the Big Bang singularity. This theory is formulated on the Weitzenbock space-time and the teleparallel representation is used instead of the standard Riemannian representation. We find that although this theory is shown to be singularity-free for certain region of the parameter space in which the divergence of the Hubble rate at the high energy regime is substituted by a de-Sitter stage or a bounce in a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universe, cosmological singularities such as Big Rip, Big Bang, Big Freeze, and Sudden singularities can emerge in other regions of the configuration space of the theory. Read More

The Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld scenario (EiBI) can prevent the Big Bang singularity for a matter content whose equation of state is constant and positive. In a recent paper we showed that, on the contrary, it is impossible to smooth a big rip in the EiBI setup. In fact the situations are still different for other singularities. Read More

We study cosmological perturbation theory within the framework of unimodular gravity. We show that the Lagrangian constraint on the determinant of the metric required by unimodular gravity leads to an extra constraint on the gauge freedom of the metric perturbations. Although the main equation of motion for the gravitational potential remains the same, the shift variable, which is gauge artifact in General Relativity, cannot be set to zero in unimodular gravity. Read More

The Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati brane-world model provides a possible approach to address the late-time cosmic acceleration. However, it has subsequently been pointed out that a ghost instability will arise on the self-accelerating branch. Here, we carefully investigate whether this ghost problem could be possibly cured by introducing the Gauss-Bonnet term in the five-dimensional bulk action, a natural generalization to the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model. Read More

The evolution of evaporating charged black holes is complicated to model in general, but is nevertheless important since the hints to the Information Loss Paradox and its recent firewall incarnation may lie in understanding more generic geometries than that of Schwarzschild spacetime. Fortunately, for sufficiently large asymptotically flat Reissner-Nordstrom black holes, the evaporation process can be modeled via a system of coupled linear ordinary differential equations, with charge loss rate governed by Schwinger pair-production process. The same model can be generalized to study the evaporation of AdS Reissner-Nordstrom black holes with flat horizon. Read More

One longstanding mystery in bio-evolution since Darwin's time is the origin of the Cambrian explosion that happened around 540 million years ago (Mya), where an extremely rapid increase of species occurred. Here we suggest that a nearby GRB event ~500 parsecs away, which should occur about once per 5 Gy, might have triggered the Cambrian explosion. Due to a relatively lower cross section and the conservation of photon number in Compton scattering, a substantial fraction of the GRB photons can reach the sea level and would induce DNA mutations in organisms protected by a shallow layer of water or soil, thus expediting the bio-diversification. Read More

Firewalls are controversial principally because they seem to imply departures from general relativistic expectations in regions of spacetime where the curvature need not be particularly large. One of the virtues of the Harlow-Hayden approach to the firewall paradox, concerning the time available for decoding of Hawking radiation emanating from charged AdS black holes, is precisely that it operates in the context of cold black holes, which are not strongly curved outside the event horizon. Here we clarify this point. Read More

We point out that a new mechanism for radiation should exist if the Bohm theory of quantum mechanics is taken seriously. By traversing a quantum potential, an electron will necessarily be accelerated and radiate. For an illustration, we show that in the double-slit experiment this radiation yields a characteristic spectrum and a distinct pattern on the screen that is complementary to the pattern of the electrons. Read More

Recent years have seen tremendous progress in our understanding of the cosmos, which in turn points to even deeper questions to be further addressed. Concurrently the laser technology has undergone dramatic revolutions, providing exciting opportunity for science applications. History has shown that the symbiosis between direct observations and laboratory investigation is instrumental in the progress of astrophysics. Read More

The luminosity distance can be used to determine the properties of large scale structure around the observer. To this purpose we develop a new inversion method to map luminosity distance to a LTB metric based on the use of the exact analytical solution for Einstein equations. The main advantages of this approach are an improved numerical accuracy and stability, an exact analytical setting of the initial conditions for the differential equations which need to be solved and the validity for any sign of the functions determining the LTB geometry. Read More

In the context of supersymmetric quantum mechanics, we define a potential through a particular Riccati solution of the composition form, F(f(x)), and obtain a generalized Mielnik construction of one-parameter isospectral potentials when we use the general Riccati solution. Some examples for special cases of F and f are given to illustrate the method. An interesting result is obtained in the case of a parametric double well potential generated by this method, for which it is shown that the parameter of the potential controls the heights of the localization probability in the two wells, and for certain values of the parameter the height of the localization probability can be higher in the smaller well Read More

Recent years have seen dramatic progress in cosmology and particle astrophysics. So much so that anyone who dares to offer an overview would certainly risk him- or herself for being incomplete and biased at best, and even incorrect due to the author's limited expertise. It is with this understanding and excuse that I risk myself in offering this review. Read More

We revisit the method of using the photon-graviton conversion mechanism in the presence of the external magnetic field to probe small-scale primordial magnetic fields that may exist between the last scattering surface and present. Specifically, we investigate impacts on the conversion efficiency due to the presence of matter, including the plasma collective effect and the atomic polarizability. In general, these effects tend to reduce the conversion probability. Read More

The brane-world scenario provides an intriguing possibility to explore the phenomenological cosmology implied by string/M theory. In this paper, we consider a modified Randall-Sundrum single brane model with two natural generalizations: a Gauss-Bonnet term in the five-dimensional bulk action as well as an induced gravity term in the four-dimensional brane action, which are the leading-order corrections to the Randall-Sundrum model. We study the influence of these combined effects on the evolution of the primordial gravitational waves generated during an extreme slow-roll inflation on the brane. Read More

We explain the approximate nature of particle trajectories in Bohm's quantum mechanics. They are streamlines of a superfluid in Madelung's reformulation of the Schr\"{o}dinger wave function, around which the proper particle trajectories perform their quantum mechanical fluctuations to ensure Heisenberg's uncertainty relation between position and momentum. Read More

Mergers of binary neutron stars create conditions of supranuclear density $n\gtrsim n_{\rm nuc}\simeq 0.17 {\rm fm}^{-3}$ and moderate temperature $50\lesssim T \lesssim 90 {\rm MeV}$. These events thus probe a sensitive region of the density-temperature phase diagram of QCD matter. Read More

Within the framework of RG improved inflationary cosmology motivated by asymptotically safe gravity, we study the dynamics of a scalar field which can be interpreted as the Higgs field. The background trajectories of this model can provide sufficient inflationary e-folds and a graceful exit to a radiation dominated phase. We study the possibility of generating primordial curvature perturbations through the Standard Model Higgs boson. Read More

We show that the Stephenson-Kilmister-Yang (SKY) equation combined with Camenzind's matter current term naturally provides the cosmological constant and dark radiation as integration constants of the SKYC field equation. To characterize the property of the dark radiation, we develop a method to separate it from the ordinary radiation. We found a special property of Camenzind's matter current, namely that the solution space for radiation in fact belongs to that of the vacuum solution of SKY equation. Read More

Black hole entropy remains a deep puzzle: where does such enormous amount of entropy come from? Curiously, there exist gravitational configurations that possess even larger entropy than a black hole of the same mass, in fact, arbitrarily high entropy. These are the so-called monsters, which are problematic to the Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence paradigm since there is far insufficient degrees of freedom on the field theory side to account for the enormous entropy of monsters in AdS bulk. The physics of the bulk however may be considerably modified at semi-classical level due to the presence of branes. Read More

We clarify in a quantitative way the impact that distinct chemical $T_c$ and kinetic $T_k$ freeze-out temperatures have on the reduction of the neutrino fugacity $\Upsilon_\nu$ below equilibrium, i.e. $\Upsilon_\nu<1$, and the increase of the neutrino temperature $T_\nu$ via partial reheating. Read More