Pete L. Clark

Pete L. Clark
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Mathematics - Number Theory (29)
 
Mathematics - Algebraic Geometry (8)
 
Mathematics - Commutative Algebra (6)
 
Mathematics - Combinatorics (5)
 
Mathematics - History and Overview (2)
 
Mathematics - Logic (1)

Publications Authored By Pete L. Clark

Let $T_{{\rm CM}}(d)$ be the largest size of the torsion subgroup of an elliptic curve with complex multiplication (CM) defined over a degree $d$ number field. Work of Breuer and Clark--Pollack showed $\limsup_{d \to \infty} \frac{T_{{\rm CM}}(d)}{d \log \log d} \in (0,\infty)$. Here we show that the above limit supremum is precisely $\frac{e^{\gamma} \pi}{\sqrt{3}}$. Read More

We prove three theorems on torsion points and Galois representations for complex multiplication (CM) elliptic curves over number fields. The first theorem is a sharp version of Serre's Open Image Theorem in the CM case. The second theorem determines the degrees in which a CM elliptic curve has a rational point of order $N$, provided the field of definition contains the CM field. Read More

Let $D > 546$ be the discriminant of an indefinite rational quaternion algebra. We show that there are infinitely many imaginary quadratic fields $l/\mathbb Q$ such that the twist of the Shimura curve $X^D$ by the main Atkin-Lehner involution $w_D$ and $l/\mathbb Q$ violates the Hasse Principle over $\mathbb Q$. Read More

We recast Euclid's proof of the infinitude of prime numbers as a Euclidean Criterion for a domain to have infinitely many atoms. We make connections with Furstenberg's "topological" proof of the infinitude of prime numbers and show that our criterion applies even in certain domains in which not all nonzero nonunits factor into products of irreducibles. Read More

The rank of a ring $R$ is the supremum of minimal cardinalities of generating sets of $I$ as $I$ ranges over ideals of $R$. Matson showed that every positive integer occurs as the rank of some ring $R$. Motivated by the result of Cohen and Gilmer that a ring of finite rank has Krull dimension $0$ or $1$, we give four different constructions of rings of rank $n$ (for all positive integers n). Read More

We study the number of atoms and maximal ideals in an atomic domain with finitely many atoms and no prime elements. We show in particular that for all $m,n \in \mathbb{Z}^+$ with $n \geq 3$ and $4 \leq m \leq \frac{n}{3}$ there is an atomic domain with precisely $n$ atoms, precisely $m$ maximal ideals and no prime elements. The proofs use both commutative algebra and additive number theory. Read More

A 1993 result of Alon and F\"uredi gives a sharp upper bound on the number of zeros of a multivariate polynomial over an integral domain in a finite grid in terms of the degree of the polynomial. This result was recently generalized to polynomials over an arbitrary commutative ring, assuming a certain "Condition (D)" on the grid which holds vacuously when the ring is a domain. In the first half of this paper we give a further Generalized Alon-F\"uredi Theorem, which provides a sharp upper bound when the degrees of the polynomial in each variable are also taken into account. Read More

We present a generalization of Warning's Second Theorem to polynomial systems over a finite local principal ring with suitably restricted input and output variables. This generalizes a recent result with Forrow and Schmitt (and gives a new proof of that result). Applications to additive group theory, graph theory and polynomial interpolation are pursued in detail. Read More

We construct certain subgroups of hyperbolic triangle groups which we call "congruence" subgroups. These groups include the classical congruence subgroups of SL_2(ZZ), Hecke triangle groups, and 19 families of arithmetic triangle groups associated to Shimura curves. We determine the field of moduli of the curves associated to these groups and thereby realize the groups PSL_2(q) and PGL_2(q) regularly as Galois groups. Read More

Let $T_{\mathrm{CM}}(d)$ denote the maximum size of a torsion subgroup of a CM elliptic curve over a degree $d$ number field. We initiate a systematic study of the asymptotic behavior of $T_{\mathrm{CM}}(d)$ as an "arithmetic function". Whereas a recent result of the last two authors computes the upper order of $T_{\mathrm{CM}}(d)$, here we determine the lower order, the typical order and the average order of $T_{\mathrm{CM}}(d)$ as well as study the number of isomorphism classes of groups $G$ of order $T_{\mathrm{CM}}(d)$ which arise as the torsion subgroup of a CM elliptic curve over a degree $d$ number field. Read More

We show that the upper order of the size of the torsion subgroup of a CM elliptic curve over a degree d number field is d log log d. Read More

We study torsion subgroups of elliptic curves with complex multiplication (CM) defined over number fields which admit a real embedding. We give a complete classification of the groups which arise up to isomorphism as the torsion subgroup of a CM elliptic curve defined over a number field of odd degree: there are infinitely many. Restricting to the case of prime degree, we show that there are only finitely many isomorphism classes. Read More

We revisit and further explore the celebrated Combinatorial Nullstellens\"atze of N. Alon in several different directions. Read More

Every nontrivial abelian variety over a Hilbertian field in which the weak Mordell-Weil theorem holds admits infinitely many torsors with period any $n > 1$ which is not divisible by the characteristic. The corresponding statement with "period" replaced by "index" is plausible but much more challenging. We show that for every infinite, finitely generated field $K$, there is an elliptic curve $E_{/K}$ which admits infinitely many torsors with index any $n > 1$. Read More

This paper concerns the \textbf{abstract geometry of numbers}: namely the pursuit of certain aspects of geometry of numbers over a suitable class of normed domains. (The standard geometry of numbers is then viewed as geometry of numbers over Z endowed with its standard absolute value.) In this work we study normed domains of "linear type", in which an analogue of Minkowski's linear forms theorem holds. Read More

We present a restricted variable generalization of Warning's Second Theorem (a result giving a lower bound on the number of solutions of a low degree polynomial system over a finite field, assuming one solution exists). This is analogous to Brink's restricted variable generalization of Chevalley's Theorem (a result giving conditions for a low degree polynomial system not to have exactly one solution). Just as Warning's Second Theorem implies Chevalley's Theorem, our result implies Brink's Theorem. Read More

We give the complete list of possible torsion subgroups of elliptic curves with complex multiplication over number fields of degree 1-13. Additionally we describe the algorithm used to compute these torsion subgroups and its implementation. Read More

We introduce the notion of a graph derangement, which naturally interpolates between perfect matchings and Hamiltonian cycles. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of graph derangements on a locally finite graph. This result was first proved by W. Read More

We introduce real induction, a proof technique analogous to mathematical induction but applicable to statements indexed by an interval on the real line. More generally we give an inductive principle applicable in any Dedekind complete linearly ordered set. Real and ordered induction is then applied to give streamlined, conceptual proofs of basic results in honors calculus, elementary real analysis and topology. Read More

Motivated by classical results of Aubry, Davenport and Cassels, we define the notion of a Euclidean quadratic form over a normed integral domain and an ADC form over an integral domain. The aforementioned classical results generalize to: Euclidean forms are ADC forms. We then initiate the study and classification of these two classes of quadratic forms, especially over discrete valuation rings and Hasse domains. Read More

We compute the minimal cardinality of a covering (resp. an irredundant covering) of a vector space over an arbitrary field by proper linear subspaces. Analogues for affine linear subspaces are also given. Read More

Euclidean functions with values in an arbitrary well-ordered set were first considered in a 1949 work of Motzkin and studied in more detail in work of Fletcher, Samuel and Nagata in the 1970's and 1980's. Here these results are revisited, simplified, and extended. The two main themes are (i) consideration of Ord-valued functions on an Artinian poset and (ii) use of ordinal arithmetic, including the Hessenberg-Brookfield ordinal sum. Read More

Let K be a complete discretely valued field with perfect residue field k. Assuming upper bounds on the relation between period and index for WC-groups over k, we deduce corresponding upper bounds on the relation between period and index for WC-groups over K. Up to a constant depending only on the dimension of the torsor, we recover theorems of Lichtenbaum and Milne in a "duality free" context. Read More

We present seven theorems on the structure of prime order torsion points on CM elliptic curves defined over number fields. The first three results refine bounds of Silverberg and Prasad-Yogananda by taking into account the class number of the CM order and the splitting of the prime in the CM field. In many cases we can show that our refined bounds are optimal or asymptotically optimal. Read More

In response to a question of B. Poonen, we exhibit for each global field k an algebraic curve over k which violates the Hasse Principle. In fact we can find such examples among Atkin-Lehner twists of certain elliptic modular curves and -- in positive characteristic -- Drinfeld modular curves. Read More

In this paper we advance the theory of O'Neil's period-index obstruction map and derive consequences for the arithmetic of genus one curves over global fields. Our first result implies that for every pair of positive integers (P,I) with P dividing I and I dividing P^2, there exists a number field K and a genus one curve C over K with period P and index I. Second, let E be any elliptic curve over a global field K, and let P > 1 be any integer indivisible by the characteristic of K. Read More

We give an affirmative answer to a 1976 question of M. Rosen: every abelian group is isomorphic to the class group of an elliptic Dedekind domain R. We can choose R to be the integral closure of a PID in a separable quadratic field extension. Read More

Fix a non-negative integer g and a positive integer I dividing 2g-2. For any Henselian, discretely valued field K whose residue field is perfect and admits a degree I cyclic extension, we construct a curve C over K of genus g and index I. We can in fact give a complete description of the finite extensions L/K such that C has an L-rational point. Read More

Given an algebraic curve C/Q having points everywhere locally and endowed with a suitable involution, we show that there exists a positive density family of prime quadratic twists of C violating the Hasse principle. The result applies in particular to w_N-Atkin-Lehner twists of most modular curves X_0(N) and to w_p-Atkin-Lehner twists of certain Shimura curves X^{D+}. Read More

We study the question of whether algebraic curves of a given genus g defined over a field K must have points rational over the maximal abelian extension K^{ab} of K. We give: (i) an explicit family of diagonal plane cubic curves with Q^{ab}-points, (ii) for every number field K, a genus one curve C_{/Q} with no K^{ab}-points, and (iii) for every g \geq 4 an algebraic curve C_{/Q} of genus g with no Q^{ab}-points. In an appendix, we discuss varieties over Q((t)), obtaining in particular a curve of genus 3 without (Q((t)))^{ab}-points. Read More

Let C be an algebraic curve defined over a number field K, of positive genus and without K-rational points. We conjecture that there exists some extension field L over which C violates the Hasse principle, i.e. Read More

Using Serre's proposed complement to Shih's Theorem, we obtain PSL_2(F_p) as a Galois group over Q for at least 614 new primes p. Under the assumption that rational elliptic curves with odd analytic rank have positive rank, we obtain Galois realizations for 3/8 of the primes not covered by previous results; it would also suffice to assume a certain (plausible, and perhaps tractable) conjecture concerning class numbers of quadratic fields. The key issue is to understand rational points on Atkin-Lehner twists of X_0(N). Read More

We show that there exist genus one curves of every index over the rational numbers, answering affirmatively a question of Lang and Tate. The proof is "elementary" in the sense that it does not assume the finiteness of any Shafarevich-Tate group. On the other hand, using Kolyvagin's construction of a rational elliptic curve whose Mordell-Weil and Shafarevich-Tate groups are both trivial, we show that there are infinitely many curves of every index over every number field. Read More

We give a function F(d,n,p) such that if K/Q_p is a degree n field extension and A/K is a d-dimensional abelian variety with potentially good reduction, then #A(K)[tors] is at most F(d,n,p). Separate attention is given to the prime-to-p torsion and to the case of purely additive reduction. These latter bounds are applied to classify rational torsion on CM elliptic curves over number fields of degree at most 3, on elliptic curves over Q with integral j (recovering a theorem of Frey), and on abelian surfaces over Q with integral moduli. Read More

Let E/K be an elliptic curve defined over a number field, and let p be a prime number such that E(K) has full p-torsion. We show that the order of the p-part of the Shafarevich-Tate group of E/L is unbounded as L varies over degree p extensions of K. The proof uses O'Neil's period-index obstruction. Read More

Motivated by recent work of Florian Pop, we study the connections between three notions of equivalence of function fields: isomorphism, elementary equivalence, and the condition that each of a pair of fields can be embedded in the other, which we call isogeny. Some of our results are purely geometric: we give an isogeny classification of Severi-Brauer varieties and of quadric surfaces. These results are applied to deduce new instances of "elementary equivalence implies isomorphism": for all genus zero curves over a number field, and for certain genus one curves over a number field, including some which are not elliptic curves. Read More

We study the relationship between the period and the index of a principal homogeneous space over an abelian variety, obtaining results which generalize work of Cassels and Lichtenbaum on curves of genus one. In addition, we show that the p-torsion in the Shafarevich-Tate group of a fixed abelian variety over a number field k grows arbitrarily large when considered over field extensions l/k of bounded degree. Essential use is made of an abelian variety version of O'Neil's period-index obstruction. Read More