# Paul G. Spirakis - Research Academic Computer Technology Institute

## Contact Details

NamePaul G. Spirakis |
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AffiliationResearch Academic Computer Technology Institute |
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Location |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesComputer Science - Distributed; Parallel; and Cluster Computing (14) Computer Science - Data Structures and Algorithms (9) Computer Science - Computer Science and Game Theory (9) Computer Science - Discrete Mathematics (7) Computer Science - Computational Complexity (4) Computer Science - Networking and Internet Architecture (2) Quantitative Biology - Populations and Evolution (2) Computer Science - Performance (2) Computer Science - Multiagent Systems (1) Computer Science - Human-Computer Interaction (1) Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence (1) Mathematics - Combinatorics (1) Computer Science - Robotics (1) Mathematics - Probability (1) Computer Science - Computational Engineering; Finance; and Science (1) Computer Science - Cryptography and Security (1) |

## Publications Authored By Paul G. Spirakis

In this work, we study theoretical models of \emph{programmable matter} systems. The systems under consideration consist of spherical modules, kept together by magnetic forces and able to perform two minimal mechanical operations (or movements): \emph{rotate} around a neighbor and \emph{slide} over a line. In terms of modeling, there are $n$ nodes arranged in a 2-dimensional grid and forming some initial \emph{shape}. Read More

In the classical binary search in a path the aim is to detect an unknown target by asking as few queries as possible, where each query reveals the direction to the target. This binary search algorithm has been recently extended by [Emamjomeh-Zadeh et al., STOC, 2016] to the problem of detecting a target in an arbitrary graph. Read More

We define a new model of stochastically evolving graphs, namely the \emph{Edge-Uniform Stochastic Graphs}. In this model, each possible edge of an underlying general static graph evolves independently being either alive or dead at each discrete time step of evolution following a (Markovian) stochastic rule. The stochastic rule is identical for each possible edge and may depend on the previous $k \ge 0$ observations of the edge's state. Read More

The concept of an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS), introduced by Smith and Price, is a refinement of Nash equilibrium in 2-player symmetric games in order to explain counter-intuitive natural phenomena, whose existence is not guaranteed in every game. The problem of deciding whether a game possesses an ESS has been shown to be $\Sigma_{2}^{P}$-complete by Conitzer using the preceding important work by Etessami and Lochbihler. The latter, among other results, proved that deciding the existence of ESS is both NP-hard and coNP-hard. Read More

In this paper, we study contention resolution protocols from a game-theoretic perspective. We focus on \emph{acknowledgment-based} protocols, where a user gets feedback from the channel only when she attempts transmission. In this case she will learn whether her transmission was successful or not. Read More

We introduce temporal flows on temporal networks, i.e., networks the links of which exist only at certain moments of time. Read More

In this work, we study the following basic question: "How much parallelism does a distributed task permit?" Our definition of parallelism (or symmetry) here is not in terms of speed, but in terms of identical roles that processes have at the same time in the execution. We initiate this study in population protocols, a very simple model that not only allows for a straightforward definition of what a role is, but also encloses the challenge of isolating the properties that are due to the protocol from those that are due to the adversary scheduler, who controls the interactions between the processes. We (i) give a partial characterization of the set of predicates on input assignments that can be stably computed with maximum symmetry, i. Read More

Motivated by the fact that in several cases a matching in a graph is stable if and only if it is produced by a greedy algorithm, we study the problem of computing a maximum weight greedy matching on weighted graphs, termed GreedyMatching. In wide contrast to the maximum weight matching problem, for which many efficient algorithms are known, we prove that GreedyMatching is strongly NP-hard and APX-complete, and thus it does not admit a PTAS unless P=NP, even on graphs with maximum degree at most 3 and with at most three different integer edge weights. Furthermore we prove that GreedyMatching is strongly NP-hard if the input graph is in addition bipartite. Read More

The Population Protocol model is a distributed model that concerns systems of very weak computational entities that cannot control the way they interact. The model of Network Constructors is a variant of Population Protocols capable of (algorithmically) constructing abstract networks. Both models are characterized by a fundamental inability to terminate. Read More

In this paper, we study games with continuous action spaces and non-linear payoff functions. Our key insight is that Lipschitz continuity of the payoff function allows us to provide algorithms for finding approximate equilibria in these games. We begin by studying Lipschitz games, which encompass, for example, all concave games with Lipschitz continuous payoff functions. Read More

Network Constructors are an extension of the standard population protocol model in which finite-state agents interact in pairs under the control of an adversary scheduler. In this work we present NETCS, a simulator designed to evaluate the performance of various network constructors and population protocols under different schedulers and network configurations. Our simulator provides researchers with an intuitive user interface and a quick experimentation environment to evaluate their work. Read More

**Authors:**Jurek Czyzowicz

^{1}, Leszek Gasieniec

^{2}, Adrian Kosowski

^{3}, Evangelos Kranakis

^{4}, Paul G. Spirakis

^{5}, Przemyslaw Uznanski

**Affiliations:**

^{1}DII,

^{2}LIAFA, INRIA Paris-Rocquencourt,

^{3}LIAFA, INRIA Paris-Rocquencourt,

^{4}RA-CTI,

^{5}RA-CTI

In this work we focus on a natural class of population protocols whose dynamics are modelled by the discrete version of Lotka-Volterra equations. In such protocols, when an agent $a$ of type (species) $i$ interacts with an agent $b$ of type (species) $j$ with $a$ as the initiator, then $b$'s type becomes $i$ with probability $P\_{ij}$. In such an interaction, we think of $a$ as the predator, $b$ as the prey, and the type of the prey is either converted to that of the predator or stays as is. Read More

We study the design of small cost temporally connected graphs, under various constraints. We mainly consider undirected graphs of $n$ vertices, where each edge has an associated set of discrete availability instances (labels). A journey from vertex $u$ to vertex $v$ is a path from $u$ to $v$ where successive path edges have strictly increasing labels. Read More

In this work we consider \emph{temporal networks}, i.e. networks defined by a \emph{labeling} $\lambda$ assigning to each edge of an \emph{underlying graph} $G$ a set of \emph{discrete} time-labels. Read More

In an $\epsilon$-Nash equilibrium, a player can gain at most $\epsilon$ by unilaterally changing his behaviour. For two-player (bimatrix) games with payoffs in $[0,1]$, the best-known$\epsilon$ achievable in polynomial time is 0.3393. Read More

We study here the problem of determining the majority type in an arbitrary connected network, each vertex of which has initially two possible types. The vertices may have a few additional possible states and can interact in pairs only if they share an edge. Any (population) protocol is required to stabilize in the initial majority. Read More

In this work we consider temporal graphs, i.e. graphs, each edge of which is assigned a set of discrete time-labels drawn from a set of integers. Read More

In this work, we study protocols so that populations of distributed processes can construct networks. In order to highlight the basic principles of distributed network construction we keep the model minimal in all respects. In particular, we assume finite-state processes that all begin from the same initial state and all execute the same protocol (i. Read More

We consider non-cooperative unsplittable congestion games where players share resources, and each player's strategy is pure and consists of a subset of the resources on which it applies a fixed weight. Such games represent unsplittable routing flow games and also job allocation games. The congestion of a resource is the sum of the weights of the players that use it and the player's cost function is the sum of the utilities of the resources on its strategy. Read More

This work studies the generalized Moran process, as introduced by Lieberman et al. [Nature, 433:312-316, 2005], where the individuals of a population reside on the vertices of an undirected connected graph. The initial population has a single mutant of a fitness value $r$, residing at some vertex $v$, while every other individual has initially fitness 1. Read More

In this work, we study the fundamental naming and counting problems (and some variations) in networks that are anonymous, unknown, and possibly dynamic. In counting, nodes must determine the size of the network n and in naming they must end up with unique identities. By anonymous we mean that all nodes begin from identical states apart possibly from a unique leader node and by unknown that nodes have no a priori knowledge of the network (apart from some minimal knowledge when necessary) including ignorance of n. Read More

In routing games, the network performance at equilibrium can be significantly improved if we remove some edges from the network. This counterintuitive fact, widely known as Braess's paradox, gives rise to the (selfish) network design problem, where we seek to recognize routing games suffering from the paradox, and to improve the equilibrium performance by edge removal. In this work, we investigate the computational complexity and the approximability of the network design problem for non-atomic bottleneck routing games, where the individual cost of each player is the bottleneck cost of her path, and the social cost is the bottleneck cost of the network. Read More

In this work, we study the propagation of influence and computation in dynamic distributed systems. We focus on broadcasting models under a worst-case dynamicity assumption which have received much attention recently. We drop for the first time in worst-case dynamic networks the common instantaneous connectivity assumption and require a minimal temporal connectivity. Read More

In spite of the extensive studies of the 3-coloring problem with respect to several basic parameters, the complexity status of the 3-coloring problem on graphs with small diameter, i.e. with diameter 2 or 3, has been a longstanding and challenging open question. Read More

The Moran process models the spread of genetic mutations through a population. A mutant with relative fitness $r$ is introduced into a population and the system evolves, either reaching fixation (in which every individual is a mutant) or extinction (in which none is). In a widely cited paper (Nature, 2005), Lieberman, Hauert and Nowak generalize the model to populations on the vertices of graphs. Read More

We consider the Moran process, as generalized by Lieberman, Hauert and Nowak (Nature, 433:312--316, 2005). A population resides on the vertices of a finite, connected, undirected graph and, at each time step, an individual is chosen at random with probability proportional to its assigned 'fitness' value. It reproduces, placing a copy of itself on a neighbouring vertex chosen uniformly at random, replacing the individual that was there. Read More

Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) is an attractive alternative to conventional public key cryptography, such as RSA. ECC is an ideal candidate for implementation on constrained devices where the major computational resources i.e. Read More

Evolutionary dynamics have been traditionally studied in the context of homogeneous populations, mainly described my the Moran process. Recently, this approach has been generalized in \cite{LHN} by arranging individuals on the nodes of a network. Undirected networks seem to have a smoother behavior than directed ones, and thus it is more challenging to find suppressors/amplifiers of selection. Read More

We propose a new theoretical model for passively mobile Wireless Sensor Networks, called PM, standing for Passively mobile Machines. The main modification w.r. Read More

We propose a new theoretical model for passively mobile Wireless Sensor Networks. We call it the PALOMA model, standing for PAssively mobile LOgarithmic space MAchines. The main modification w. Read More

In this work, we discuss multiplayer pervasive games that rely on the use of ad hoc mobile sensor networks. The unique feature in such games is that players interact with each other and their surrounding environment by using movement and presence as a means of performing game-related actions, utilizing sensor devices. We discuss the fundamental issues and challenges related to these type of games and the scenarios associated with them. Read More

We present a new methodology for computing approximate Nash equilibria for two-person non-cooperative games based upon certain extensions and specializations of an existing optimization approach previously used for the derivation of fixed approximations for this problem. In particular, the general two-person problem is reduced to an indefinite quadratic programming problem of special structure involving the $n \times n$ adjacency matrix of an induced simple graph specified by the input data of the game, where $n$ is the number of players' strategies. Using this methodology and exploiting certain properties of the positive part of the spectrum of the induced graph, we show that for any $\varepsilon > 0$ there is an algorithm to compute an $\varepsilon$-approximate Nash equilibrium in time $n^{\xi(m)/\varepsilon}$, where, $\xi (m) = \sum_{i=1}^m \lambda_i / n$ and $\lambda_1, \lambda_2, >. Read More

We study here the dynamics (and stability) of Probabilistic Population Protocols, via the differential equations approach. We provide a quite general model and we show that it includes the model of Angluin et. al. Read More

In this work we study the problem of scheduling tasks with dependencies in multiprocessor architectures where processors have different speeds. We present the preemptive algorithm "Save-Energy" that given a schedule of tasks it post processes it to improve the energy efficiency without any deterioration of the makespan. In terms of time efficiency, we show that preemptive scheduling in an asymmetric system can achieve the same or better optimal makespan than in a symmetric system. Read More

We study the performance of approximate Nash equilibria for linear congestion games. We consider how much the price of anarchy worsens and how much the price of stability improves as a function of the approximation factor $\epsilon$. We give (almost) tight upper and lower bounds for both the price of anarchy and the price of stability for atomic and non-atomic congestion games. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Research Academic Computer Technology Institute,

^{2}Research Academic Computer Technology Institute

**Category:**Computer Science - Discrete Mathematics

In this work we present a simple and efficient algorithm which, with high probability, provides an almost uniform sample from the set of proper k-colourings on an instance of a sparse random graph G(n,d/n), where k=k(d) is a sufficiently large constant. Our algorithm is not based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method (M.C. Read More