Pascale Hibon - Gemini Observatory

Pascale Hibon
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Pascale Hibon
Gemini Observatory
United States

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Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (35)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (16)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (12)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (4)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (4)

Publications Authored By Pascale Hibon

We present evidence that the recently discovered, directly-imaged planet HD 131399 Ab is a background star with non-zero proper motion. From new JHK1L' photometry and spectroscopy obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager, VLT/SPHERE, and Keck/NIRC2, and a reanalysis of the discovery data obtained with VLT/SPHERE, we derive colors, spectra, and astrometry for HD 131399 Ab. The broader wavelength coverage and higher data quality allow us to re-investigate its status. Read More

We present a new matched filter algorithm for direct detection of point sources in the immediate vicinity of bright stars. The stellar Point Spread Function (PSF) is first subtracted using a Karhunen-Lo\'eve Image Processing (KLIP) algorithm with Angular and Spectral Differential Imaging (ADI and SDI). The KLIP-induced distortion of the astrophysical signal is included in the matched filter template by computing a forward model of the PSF at every position in the image. Read More

We present H band spectroscopic and Halpha photometric observations of HD 100546 obtained with GPI and MagAO. We detect H band emission at the location of the protoplanet HD 100546b, but show that choice of data processing parameters strongly affects the morphology of this source. It appears point-like in some aggressive reductions, but rejoins an extended disk structure in the majority of the others. Read More

We present optical and near-infrared high contrast images of the transitional disk HD 100546 taken with the Magellan Adaptive Optics system (MagAO) and the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). GPI data include both polarized intensity and total intensity imagery, and MagAO data are taken in Simultaneous Differential Imaging mode at H{\alpha}. The new GPI H -band total intensity data represent a significant enhancement in sensitivity and field rotation compared to previous data sets and enable a detailed exploration of substructure in the disk. Read More

We present the first results from the ongoing LAGER project (Lyman Alpha Galaxies in the Epoch of Reionization), which is the largest narrowband survey for $z\sim$ 7 galaxies to date. Using a specially built narrowband filter NB964 for the superb large-area Dark-Energy Camera (DECam) on the NOAO/CTIO 4m Blanco telescope, LAGER has collected 34 hours NB964 narrowband imaging data in the 3 deg$^2$ COSMOS field. We have identified 27 Lyman Alpha Emitter (LAE) candidates at $z=$ 6. Read More

Affiliations: 1Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 2Space Telescope Science Institute, 3University of California, Berkeley, 4University of California, Berkeley, 5Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics, Stanford University, 6Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics, Stanford University, 7Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 8Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 9Department of Physics and Astronomy, Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration, the University of Western Ontario, 10Subaru Telescope, NAOJ, 11Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 12Gemini South Observatory, 13Space Telescope Science Institute, 14Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, 15University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 16Institut de Recherche sur les Exoplanètes, Départment de Physique, Université de Montréal, 17University of Victoria, 18University of California, Berkeley, 19National Research Council of Canada Herzberg, 20National Research Council of Canada Herzberg, 21Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 22Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics, Stanford University, 23University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 24Gemini North Observatory, 25University of California, Berkeley, 26Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 27Gemini South Observatory, 28European Southern Observatory, 29Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 30Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, 31University of California, Berkeley, 32Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California San Diego, 33Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 34Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California San Diego, 35SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 36Space Science Division, NASA Ames Research Center, 37University of Victoria, 38Department of Physics and Astronomy, Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration, the University of Western Ontario, 39Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 40Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 41Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics, Stanford University, 42University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 43American Museum of Natural History, Department of Astrophysics, 44Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 45School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 46Space Telescope Science Institute, 47Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 48School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 49Institut de Recherche sur les Exoplanètes, Départment de Physique, Université de Montréal, 50Gemini South Observatory, 51Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, Universities Space Research Association, NASA/Armstrong Flight Research Center, 52National Research Council of Canada Herzberg, 53Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, 54School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 55Gemini South Observatory, 56Space Telescope Science Institute, 57Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, 58Space Telescope Science Institute, 59Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, 60Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 61University of California, Berkeley, 62School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 63The Aerospace Corporation, 64Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University

Using the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) located at Gemini South, we measured the near-infrared (1.0-2.4 micron) spectrum of the planetary companion to the nearby, young star $\beta$ Pictoris. Read More

Uncovering the ingredients and the architecture of planetary systems is a very active field of research that has fuelled many new theories on giant planet formation, migration, composition, and interaction with the circumstellar environment. We aim at discovering and studying new such systems, to further expand our knowledge of how low-mass companions form and evolve. We obtained high-contrast H-band images of the circumstellar environment of the F5V star HD206893, known to host a debris disc never detected in scattered light. Read More

We present $H$-band near-infrared polarimetric imaging observations of the F5V star HD~157587 obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) that reveal the debris disk as a bright ring structure at a separation of $\sim$80$-$100~AU. The new GPI data complement recent HST/STIS observations that show the disk extending out to over 500~AU. The GPI image displays a strong asymmetry along the projected minor axis as well as a fainter asymmetry along the projected major axis. Read More

A principal scientific goal of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is obtaining milliarcsecond astrometry to constrain exoplanet orbits. However, astrometry of directly imaged exoplanets is subject to biases, systematic errors, and speckle noise. Here we describe an analytical procedure to forward model the signal of an exoplanet that accounts for both the observing strategy (angular and spectral differential imaging) and the data reduction method (Karhunen-Lo\`eve Image Projection algorithm). Read More

Using the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), we have resolved the circumstellar debris disk around HD 111520 at a projected range of ~30-100 AU in both total and polarized $H$-band intensity. The disk is seen edge-on at a position angle of ~165$^{\circ}$ along the spine of emission. A slight inclination or asymmetric warping are covariant and alters the interpretation of the observed disk emission. Read More

We present astrometric monitoring of the young exoplanet HD 95086 b obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager between 2013 and 2016. A small but significant position angle change is detected at constant separation; the orbital motion is confirmed with literature measurements. Efficient Monte Carlo techniques place preliminary constraints on the orbital parameters of HD 95086 b. Read More

During the commissioning of the Gemini MCAO System (GeMS), we had the opportunity to obtain data with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS), the most utilised instrument at Gemini South Observatory, in March and May 2012. Several globular clusters were observed in imaging mode that allowed us to study the performance of this new and untested combination. GMOS is a visible instrument, hence pushing MCAO toward the visible. Read More

We present H and K band imaging polarimetry for the PDS 66 circumstellar disk obtained during the commissioning of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). Polarization images reveal a clear detection of the disk in to the 0.12'' inner working angle (IWA) in H band, almost 3 times as close to the star as the previous HST observations with NICMOS and STIS (0. Read More

We present the first scattered light detections of the HD 106906 debris disk using Gemini/GPI in the infrared and HST/ACS in the optical. HD 106906 is a 13 Myr old F5V star in the Sco-Cen association, with a previously detected planet-mass candidate HD 106906b projected 650 AU from the host star. Our observations reveal a near edge-on debris disk that has a central cleared region with radius $\sim$50 AU, and an outer extent $>$500 AU. Read More

We present new Gemini Planet Imager observations of the young exoplanet 51 Eridani b which provide further evidence that the companion is physically associated with 51 Eridani. Combining this new astrometric measurement with those reported in the literature, we significantly reduce the posterior probability that 51 Eridani b is an unbound foreground or background T-dwarf in a chance alignment with 51 Eridani to $2\times10^{-7}$, an order of magnitude lower than previously reported. If 51 Eridani b is indeed a bound object, then we have detected orbital motion of the planet between the discovery epoch and the latest epoch. Read More

We present the discovery of one or two extremely faint z~6 quasars in 6.5 deg^2 utilizing a unique capability of the wide-field imaging of the Subaru/Suprime-Cam. The quasar selection was made in (i'-z_B) and (z_B-z_R) colors, where z_B and z_R are bandpasses with central wavelengths of 8842A and 9841A, respectively. Read More

Context. Lyman Break Galaxies (LBG) and Narrow Band (NB) surveys have been successful at detecting large samples of high-redshift galaxies. Both methods are subject to contamination from low-redshift interlopers. Read More

During the first-light run of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) we obtained K-band spectra of exoplanets HR 8799 c and d. Analysis of the spectra indicates that planet d may be warmer than planet c. Comparisons to recent patchy cloud models and previously obtained observations over multiple wavelengths confirm that thick clouds combined with horizontal variation in the cloud cover generally reproduce the planets' spectral energy distributions. Read More

The Gemini Planet Imager instrument's adaptive optics (AO) subsystem was designed specifically to facilitate high-contrast imaging. It features several new technologies, including computationally efficient wavefront reconstruction with the Fourier transform, modal gain optimization every 8 seconds, and the spatially filtered wavefront sensor. It also uses a Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) controller (aka Kalman filter) for both pointing and focus. Read More

The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) has as its science instrument an infrared integral field spectrograph/polarimeter (IFS). Integral field spectrographs are scientificially powerful but require sophisticated data reduction systems. For GPI to achieve its scientific goals of exoplanet and disk characterization, IFS data must be reconstructed into high quality astrometrically and photometrically accurate datacubes in both spectral and polarization modes, via flexible software that is usable by the broad Gemini community. Read More

We present on-sky polarimetric observations with the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) obtained at straight Cassegrain focus on the Gemini South 8-m telescope. Observations of polarimetric calibrator stars, ranging from nearly unpolarized to strongly polarized, enable determination of the combined telescope and instrumental polarization. We find the conversion of Stokes $I$ to linear and circular instrumental polarization in the instrument frame to be $I \rightarrow (Q_{\rm IP}, U_{\rm IP}, P_{\rm IP}, V_{\rm IP}) = (-0. Read More

The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) combines extreme adaptive optics, an integral field spectrograph, and a high performance coronagraph to directly image extrasolar planets in the near-infrared. Because the coronagraph blocks most of the light from the star, it prevents the properties of the host star from being measured directly. Instead, satellite spots, which are created by diffraction from a square grid in the pupil plane, can be used to locate the star and extract its spectrum. Read More

The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) Extreme Adaptive Optics Coronograph contains an interferometric mode: a 10-hole non-redundant mask (NRM) in its pupil wheel. GPI operates at $Y, J, H$, and $K$ bands, using an integral field unit spectrograph (IFS) to obtain spectral data at every image pixel. NRM on GPI is capable of imaging with a half resolution element inner working angle at moderate contrast, probing the region behind the coronagraphic spot. Read More

The Gemini Planet Imager is an extreme AO instrument with an integral field spectrograph (IFS) operating in Y, J, H, and K bands. Both the Gemini telescope and the GPI instrument are very complex systems. Our goal is that the combined telescope and instrument system may be run by one observer operating the instrument, and one operator controlling the telescope and the acquisition of light to the instrument. Read More

The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a next-generation, facility instrument currently being commissioned at the Gemini South observatory. GPI combines an extreme adaptive optics system and integral field spectrograph (IFS) with an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph (APLC) producing an unprecedented capability for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. GPI's operating goal of $10^{-7}$ contrast requires very precise alignments between the various elements of the coronagraph (two pupil masks and one focal plane mask) and active control of the beam path throughout the instrument. Read More

The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a complex optical system designed to directly detect the self-emission of young planets within two arcseconds of their host stars. After suppressing the starlight with an advanced AO system and apodized coronagraph, the dominant residual contamination in the focal plane are speckles from the atmosphere and optical surfaces. Since speckles are diffractive in nature their positions in the field are strongly wavelength dependent, while an actual companion planet will remain at fixed separation. Read More

An Atmospheric Dispersion Corrector (ADC) uses a double-prism arrangement to nullify the vertical chromatic dispersion introduced by the atmosphere at non-zero zenith distances. The ADC installed in the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) was first tested in August 2012 while the instrument was in the laboratory. GPI was installed at the Gemini South telescope in August 2013 and first light occurred later that year on November 11th. Read More

We present the first results from the polarimetry mode of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), which uses a new integral field polarimetry architecture to provide high contrast linear polarimetry with minimal systematic biases between the orthogonal polarizations. We describe the design, data reduction methods, and performance of polarimetry with GPI. Point spread function subtraction via differential polarimetry suppresses unpolarized starlight by a factor of over 100, and provides sensitivity to circumstellar dust reaching the photon noise limit for these observations. Read More

The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a new facility, extreme adaptive optics (AO), coronagraphic instrument, currently being integrated onto the 8-meter Gemini South telescope, with the ultimate goal of directly imaging extrasolar planets. To achieve the contrast required for the desired science, it is necessary to quantify and mitigate wavefront error (WFE). A large source of potential static WFE arises from the primary AO wavefront sensor (WFS) detector's use of multiple readout segments with independent signal chains including on-chip preamplifiers and external amplifiers. Read More

Affiliations: 1Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 2University of California, Berkeley, 3Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 4University of Toronto, 5National Research Council of Canada, 6Space Telescope Science Institute, 7Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 8Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 9University of Arizona, 10Princeton University, 11Gemini Observatory, 12Arizona State University, 13Arizona State University, 14University of California, Santa Cruz, 15Université de Montréal and Observatoire du Mont-Mágnatic, 16National Research Council of Canada, 17National Research Council of Canada, 18University of California, Los Angeles, 19University of California, Santa Cruz, 20Gemini Observatory, 21Gemini Observatory, 22Gemini Observatory, 23University of California, Berkeley, 24University of California, Los Angeles, 25University of Toronto, 26SETI Institute, 27NASA/Ames, 28University of California, Berkeley, 29University of Toronto, 30University of Arizona, 31University of California, Santa Cruz, 32American Museum of Natural History, 33Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 34Arizona State University, 35Space Telescope Science Institute, 36Gemini Observatory, 37Gemini Observatory, 38National Research Council of Canada, 39Cornell University, 40Gemini Observatory, 41Space Telescope Science Institute, 42Space Telescope Science Institute, 43University of Georgia, 44NASA/Ames, 45Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, 46University of California, Santa Cruz, 47Johns Hopkins University

The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of GPI has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. Read More

We present spectroscopic measurements of the [OIII] emission line from two subregions of strong Lyman-alpha emission in a radio-quiet Lyman-alpha blob (LAB). The blob under study is LAB1 (Steidel et al. 2000) at z ~ 3. Read More

Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies can be used to study cosmological reionization, because a neutral intergalactic medium scatters Lyman-alpha photons into diffuse halos whose surface brightness falls below typical survey detection limits. Here we present the Lyman-alpha emitting galaxy LAE J095950.99+021219. Read More

This paper is a response to a call for white papers solicited by Gemini Observatory and its Science and Technology Advisory Committee, to help define the science case and requirements for a new Gemini instrument, envisaged to consist of a single-object spectrograph at medium resolution simultaneously covering optical and near-infrared wavelengths. In this white paper we discuss the science case for an alternative new instrument, consisting instead of a multi-object, medium-resolution, high-throughput spectrograph, covering simultaneously the optical and near-infrared slices of the electromagnetic spectrum. We argue that combination of wide wavelength coverage at medium resolution with moderate multiplexing power is an innovative path that will enable the pursuit of fundamental science questions in a variety of astrophysical topics, without compromise of the science goals achievable by single-object spectroscopy on a wide baseline. Read More

We present the results of a search for the most luminous star-forming galaxies at redshifts z~6 based on CFHT Legacy Survey data. We identify a sample of 40 Lyman break galaxies brighter than magnitude z'=25.3 across an area of almost 4 square degrees. Read More

We present a spectroscopically confirmed sample of Lyman alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs) at z ~ 4.5 in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS), which we combine with a sample of z ~ 4.5 LAEs from the Large Area Lyman Alpha (LALA) survey to build a unified Lya luminosity function (LF). Read More

We report a search for z=7 Ly-alpha emitters (LAEs) using a custom-made Narrow-Band filter, centered at 9755 Angstroms, with the instrument Suprime-Cam installed at the Subaru telescope. We observed two different fields and obtained two sample of 7 Ly-alpha emitters of which 4 are robust in each field. We are covering the luminosity range of 9. Read More

We report a search for z~6.96 Ly-alpha emitters (LAEs) using a Narrow-Band filter, centered at 9680 Angstroms, with the IMACS instrument on the Magellan telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We obtain a sample of 6 Ly-alpha emitter candidates of luminosity ~10^42 erg/s in a total area of 465 square arcmin corresponding to a comoving volume of ~ 72000 Mpc^3. Read More

The study of Ly-alpha emission in the high-redshift universe is a useful probe of the epoch of reionization, as the Ly-alpha line should be attenuated by the intergalactic medium (IGM) at low to moderate neutral hydrogen fractions. Here we present the results of a deep and wide imaging search for Ly-alpha emitters in the COSMOS field. We have used two ultra-narrowband filters (filter width of ~8-9 {\deg}A) on the NEWFIRM camera, installed on the Mayall 4m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory, in order to isolate Ly-alpha emitters at z = 7. Read More

Lyman alpha (Lya) emission lines should be attenuated in a neutral intergalactic medium (IGM). Therefore the visibility of Lya emitters at high redshifts can serve as a valuable probe of reionization at about the 50% level. We present an imaging search for z=7. Read More

We present the first spectroscopic measurements of the [OIII] 5007 A line in two z ~ 3.1 Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs) using the new near-infrared instrument LUCIFER1 on the 8.4m Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). Read More