Paolo Padovani - ESO

Paolo Padovani
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Paolo Padovani
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Astrophysics (25)
 
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (9)
 
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (5)
 
Astrophysics of Galaxies (4)
 
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (2)

Publications Authored By Paolo Padovani

We present a strong hint of a connection between high energy $\gamma$-ray emitting blazars, very high energy neutrinos, and ultra high energy cosmic rays. We first identify potential hadronic sources by filtering $\gamma$-ray emitters %from existing catalogs that are in spatial coincidence with the high energy neutrinos detected by IceCube. The neutrino filtered $\gamma$-ray emitters are then correlated with the ultra high energy cosmic rays from the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array by scanning in $\gamma$-ray flux ($F_{\gamma}$) and angular separation ($\theta$) between sources and cosmic rays. Read More

Aims. High Synchrotron Peaked blazars (HSPs) dominate the -ray sky at energies larger than a few GeV; however, only a few hundred blazars of this type have been catalogued so far. In this paper we present the 2WHSP sample, the largest and most complete list of HSP blazars available to date, which is an expansion of the 1WHSP catalog of gamma-ray source candidates off the Galactic plane. Read More

Radio astronomy has changed. For years it studied relatively rare sources, which emit mostly non-thermal radiation across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, i.e. Read More

We present two ways of modeling the spectral energy distribution of blazars in the hadronic context and discuss the predictions of each "hadronic variant" on the spectral shape, the multi-wavelength variability, the cosmic-ray flux, and the high-energy neutrino emission. Focusing on the latter, we then present an application of the hadronic model to individual BL Lacs that were recently suggested to be the counterparts of some of the IceCube neutrinos, and conclude by discussing the contribution of the whole BL Lac class to the observed neutrino background. Read More

The "blazar simplified view" is a new paradigm that explains well the diverse statistical properties of blazars observed over the entire electromagnetic spectrum on the basis of minimal assumptions on blazars' physical and geometrical properties. In this paper, the fourth in a series, we extend the predictions of this paradigm below the sensitivity of existing surveys and estimate the contribution of blazars to the X-ray and gamma-ray extragalactic backgrounds. We find that the integrated light from blazars can explain up to 100% of the cosmic background at energies larger than ~10 GeV, and contribute ~40 to 70% of the gamma-ray diffuse radiation between 100 MeV and 10 GeV. Read More

The recent IceCube discovery of 0.1-1 PeV neutrinos of astrophysical origin opens up a new era for high-energy astrophysics. Although there are various astrophysical candidate sources, a firm association of the detected neutrinos with one (or more) of them is still lacking. Read More

In this Chapter we present the motivation for undertaking both a wide and deep survey with the SKA in the context of studying AGN activity across cosmic time. With an rms down to 1 $\mu$Jy/beam at 1 GHz over 1,000 - 5,000 deg$^2$ in 1 year (wide tier band 1/2) and an rms down to 200 nJy/beam over 10 - 30 deg$^2$ in 2000 hours (deep tier band 1/2), these surveys will directly detect faint radio-loud and radio-quiet AGN (down to a 1 GHz radio luminosity of about $2\times10^{23}$ W/Hz at $z=6$). For the first time, this will enable us to conduct detailed studies of the cosmic evolution of radio AGN activity to the cosmic dawn ($z\gtrsim6$), covering all environmental densities. Read More

Relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei (AGN) are among the most powerful astrophysical objects discovered to date. Indeed, jetted AGN studies have been considered a prominent science case for SKA, and were included in several different chapters of the previous SKA Science Book (Carilli & Rawlings 2004). Most of the fundamental questions about the physics of relativistic jets still remain unanswered, and await high-sensitivity radio instruments such as SKA to solve them. Read More

It has become apparent that active galactic nuclei (AGN) may have a significant impact on the growth and evolution of their host galaxies and vice versa but a detailed understanding of the interplay between these processes remains elusive. Deep radio surveys provide a powerful, obscuration-independent tool for measuring both star formation and AGN activity in high-redshift galaxies. Multiwavelength studies of deep radio fields show a composite population of star-forming galaxies and AGN, with the former dominating at the lowest flux densities (S$_{1. Read More

We have recently proposed a new scenario where blazars are classified as flat-spectrum radio quasars or BL Lacs according to the prescriptions of unified schemes, and to a varying combination of Doppler boosted radiation from the jet, emission from the accretion disk, the broad line region, and light from the host galaxy. This mix of different components leads to strong selection effects, which are properly taken into account in our scheme. We describe here the main features of our approach, which solves many long-standing issues of blazar research, give the most important results, and discuss its implications and testable predictions. Read More

I present simple but robust estimates of the types of sources making up the faint, sub-microJy radio sky. These include, not surprisingly, star-forming galaxies and radio-quiet AGN but also two "new" populations, that is low radio power ellipticals and dwarf galaxies, the latter likely constituting the most numerous component of the radio sky. I then estimate for the first time the X-ray, optical, and mid-infrared fluxes these objects are likely to have, which are very important for source identification and the synergy between the upcoming SKA and its various pathfinders with future missions in other bands. Read More

2007Dec
Affiliations: 1Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, 2ESO, 3ASI Science Data Center, 4ASI Science Data Center, 5Stanford University
Category: Astrophysics

This paper presents XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray spectroscopy of ten flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQ) which are candidates to have an X-ray spectrum dominated by jet synchrotron emission. In all these FSRQ, which are less strongly relativistically beamed than blazars, a considerable contribution from a power-law component similar to that present in radio-quiet quasars is required to explain the observed X-ray fluxes and X-ray spectral slopes. And as in radio-quiet quasars, their relatively high optical/UV fluxes can be accounted for by a significant contribution from thermal accretion disk emission. Read More

2005Sep
Affiliations: 1Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, 2University of Maryland, 3ESO
Category: Astrophysics

We present the first deep VLA radio images of flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQ) with multiwavelength emission properties similar to those of BL Lacs with synchrotron X-rays. Our observations of twenty-five of these sources show that their radio morphologies are similar to those of other radio quasars. However, their range of extended powers is more similar to that of BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) and extends down to the low values typical of FR I radio galaxies. Read More

2004Mar
Affiliations: 1UMBC, 2UMBC, 3UMBC, 4SLAC, 5SLAC, 6JHU, 7Michigan, 8Michigan, 9Colorado, 10Alaska-Anchorage, 11ESO, 12CDS Strasbourg, 13LSW Heidelberg
Category: Astrophysics

We report results from {\it XMM-Newton} observations of thirteen X-ray bright BL Lacertae objects, selected from the {\it Einstein} Slew Survey sample. The spectra are generally well fit by power-law models, with four objects having hard ($\alpha<1; F_\nu \propto \nu^{-\alpha}$) spectra that indicates synchrotron peaks at $>5$ keV. None of our spectra show line features, indicating that soft X-ray absorption ``notches'' must be rare amongst BL Lacs, rather than common or ubiquitous as had previously been asserted. Read More

2001Jan
Affiliations: 1STScI/ESA, 2STScI
Category: Astrophysics

As an overview of blazar research, we briefly discuss some of the themes of this conference, including the various types of blazars, blazar samples and selection effects, unified schemes, evolution, and jet physics. Read More

2000Dec
Authors: Paolo Padovani1
Affiliations: 1STScI/ESA
Category: Astrophysics

I address the need for deep blazar surveys by showing that our current understanding of blazars is based on a relatively small number of intrinsically luminous sources. I then review the on-going deeper surveys, addressing in particular their limits and limitations. Finally, I present some preliminary results on the evolutionary properties of faint blazars as derived from the Deep X-ray Radio Blazar Survey (DXRBS). Read More

2000Dec
Affiliations: 1STScI/ESA, 2BeppoSAX/SDC
Category: Astrophysics

We present the results of our methods to "mine" the blazar sky, i.e., select blazar candidates with very high efficiency. Read More

The HST NICMOS Camera 2 was used for H-band imaging of 12 BL Lacertae objects taken from the larger sample observed with the WFPC2 in the R band (Urry et al. 2000; Scarpa et al. 2000). Read More

1999Jan

I briefly summarize the main tenets of unified schemes of BL Lacs and low-luminosity radio galaxies, discussing in particular the evolution of this field after the Como 1988 meeting. I also examine some of the open problems and complications of the simplest scheme. Finally, the question of the existence of two classes of BL Lacs and our related change of perspective in the past few years are also addressed. Read More

We present new BeppoSAX LECS, MECS and PDS observations of five lobe-dominated, broad-line active galactic nuclei selected from the 2-Jy sample of southern radio sources. These include three radio quasars and two broad-line radio galaxies. ROSAT PSPC data, available for all the objects, are also used to better constrain the spectral shape in the soft X-ray band. Read More

1999Jan

Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are now known to be strong gamma-ray emitters. After briefly describing AGN classification and the main ideas behind unified schemes, I summarize the main properties of blazars (that is BL Lacs and flat-spectrum radio quasars) and their connection with relativistic beaming. Finally, I address the question of why blazars, despite being extreme and very rare objects, are the only AGN detected at high (E > 100 MeV) energies, and touch upon the relevance of TeV astronomy for AGN research. Read More

1998Jul
Affiliations: 1STScI/ESA, 2STScI
Category: Astrophysics

We describe a new WWW interface that allows the cross-correlation of an Active Galactic Nuclei catalog with various archives (HST, IUE, EUVE) available at the Multimission Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. Details of the catalog and the interface are provided. Read More

We have undertaken a survey for blazars by correlating the ROSAT WGACAT database with publicly available radio catalogs, restricting our candidate list to serendipitous flat-spectrum sources (alpha_r <= 0.7). We discuss here our survey methods, identification procedure and first results. Read More

We have undertaken a survey of archived, pointed ROSAT PSPC data for blazars by correlating the ROSAT WGACAT database with several publicly available radio catalogs, restricting our candidate list to serendipitous flat radio spectrum sources (alpha_r <= 0.70). Here we discuss our survey methods, identification procedure and first results. Read More

We have used the WGA catalog of ROSAT PSPC X-ray sources to study the X-ray spectrum of about 500 quasars in the redshift interval 0.1--4.1, detected with a signal to noise better than 7. Read More

We have selected quasars with X-ray colors suggestive of a low energy cut-off, from the ROSAT PSPC pointed archive. We examine the radio and optical properties of these 13 quasars. Five out of the seven quasars with good optical spectra show associated optical absorption lines, with two having high delta-v candidate systems. Read More

1997Apr
Authors: Paolo Padovani1
Affiliations: 1Physics Department, II University of Rome
Category: Astrophysics

Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are now known to be strong gamma-ray emitters. After briefly describing the different classes of AGN and the basic tenets of unified schemes, I discuss the role of blazars (that is BL Lacs and flat-spectrum radio quasars) as gamma-ray sources. The main properties of blazars and their connection with relativistic beaming are then summarized. Read More

1997Jan
Authors: Paolo Padovani1
Affiliations: 1Physics Department, II University of Rome
Category: Astrophysics

After briefly summarizing the main tenets of unified schemes of Active Galactic Nuclei, I review some recent results in the field of unification of radio-loud sources, both for the low-luminosity (BL Lacs and Fanaroff-Riley type I radio galaxies) and high-luminosity (radio quasars and Fanaroff-Riley type II radio galaxies) populations. Read More

1996Nov

We present evidence in favour of a link between the luminosity radiatively dissipated in the central engine of radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei and the kinetic power in their jets. This piece of evidence is based on the relation we find between the luminosity in broad emission lines and the kinetic power in pc-scale radio jets, for a sample of radio-loud quasars for which suitable data are available in the literature. We find that the ionizing luminosity and the kinetic one are of the same order of magnitude, suggesting that the processes responsible for them are somehow related. Read More

1996Oct
Authors: Paolo Padovani1
Affiliations: 1Physics Department, II University of Rome
Category: Astrophysics

Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are ideal sources for multi-wavelength studies as their emission can cover almost 20 orders of magnitude in frequency from the radio to the gamma-ray band. After reviewing their basic properties, I will assess how well we know the multifrequency spectra of AGN as a class. I will then briefly illustrate how currently available and forthcoming sky surveys will help in addressing some of the open questions of AGN studies. Read More

1996Oct
Affiliations: 1Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 2Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 3Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 4Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 5SAX Data Center, Roma, 6SAX Data Center, Roma
Category: Astrophysics

Combining information on absorbing material in AGN from X-ray and the UV creates a powerful investigative tool. Here we give examples from both low and high redshift. Read More

1996Oct
Affiliations: 1Dip. di Fisica, II Universita' di Roma, 2SAX/SDC, ASI, Roma, 3SAX/SDC, ASI, Roma
Category: Astrophysics

We study the X-ray spectra of 114 flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQ) using the hardness ratios as given in the WGA catalogue of ROSAT sources. This sample includes all WGA FSRQ with high-quality data and comprises about 20 per cent of presently known such objects, which makes this the largest FSRQ sample ever studied in the X-ray band. We find that FSRQ have a distribution of energy spectral indices ranging between 0 and 3 with a mean value alpha_x ~ 1. Read More

We study the X-ray spectra of 85 BL Lacertae objects using the hardness ratios as given in the WGA catalogue of {\it ROSAT} sources. This sample includes all WGA BL Lacs with high-quality data and comprises about 50 per cent of presently known BL Lacs. We find that BL Lacs have energy power-law spectral indices between 0 and 3 with a mean value $\alpha_{\rm x}\sim 1. Read More

We present a catalogue of 233 BL Lacertae objects compiled through an extensive bibliographic search updated to mid-1995. A large fraction of the sources listed in the catalogue belongs to well-defined samples and can be used for statistical purposes. A smaller fraction consists of miscellaneous (but confirmed) BL Lacs and of objects classified as BL Lac candidates. Read More

The appearance of active galactic nuclei (AGN) depends so strongly on orientation that our current classification schemes are dominated by random pointing directions instead of more interesting physical properties. Light from the centers of many AGN is obscured by optically thick circumnuclear matter and in radio-loud AGN, bipolar jets emanating from the nucleus emit light that is relativistically beamed along the jet axes. Understanding the origin and magnitude of radiation anisotropies in AGN allows us to unify different classes of AGN; that is, to identify each single, underlying AGN type that gives rise to different classes through different orientations. Read More

We explain the properties of X-ray selected BL Lacertae objects, under the assumption that they constitute the small minority of the BL Lac population with energy cutoff located in the UV/X-ray band, as suggested by their multifrequency spectra. In particular, we derive their X-ray luminosity function, log N-log S, and radio flux distribution starting from radio selected BL Lacs using a method that does not require any free parameters. Our hypothesis is at variance with the most common explanation for the existence of two classes of BL Lacs, namely that X-ray selected objects are viewed significantly off the beaming axis while radio-selected ones have their jets more aligned with the line of sight. Read More