Paolo Giommi - ASI Science Data Center

Paolo Giommi
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Paolo Giommi
ASI Science Data Center

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Astrophysics (21)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (17)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (10)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (2)
Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (1)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (1)

Publications Authored By Paolo Giommi

Astrophysics and Space Science are becoming increasingly characterised by what is now known as "big data", the bottlenecks for progress partly shifting from data acquisition to "data mining". Truth is that the amount and rate of data accumulation in many fields already surpasses the local capabilities for its processing and exploitation, and the efficient conversion of scientific data into knowledge is everywhere a challenge. The result is that, to a large extent, isolated data archives risk being progressively likened to "data graveyards", where the information stored is not reused for scientific work. Read More

We present a strong hint of a connection between high energy $\gamma$-ray emitting blazars, very high energy neutrinos, and ultra high energy cosmic rays. We first identify potential hadronic sources by filtering $\gamma$-ray emitters %from existing catalogs that are in spatial coincidence with the high energy neutrinos detected by IceCube. The neutrino filtered $\gamma$-ray emitters are then correlated with the ultra high energy cosmic rays from the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array by scanning in $\gamma$-ray flux ($F_{\gamma}$) and angular separation ($\theta$) between sources and cosmic rays. Read More

Aims. High Synchrotron Peaked blazars (HSPs) dominate the -ray sky at energies larger than a few GeV; however, only a few hundred blazars of this type have been catalogued so far. In this paper we present the 2WHSP sample, the largest and most complete list of HSP blazars available to date, which is an expansion of the 1WHSP catalog of gamma-ray source candidates off the Galactic plane. Read More

The increasing number and complexity of planetary exploration space missions require new tools to access, visualize and analyse data to improve their scientific return. ASI Science Data Center (ASDC) addresses this request with the web-tool MATISSE (Multi-purpose Advanced Tool for the Instruments of the Solar System Exploration), allowing the visualization of single observation or real-time computed high-order products, directly projected on the three-dimensional model of the selected target body. Using MATISSE it will be no longer needed to download huge quantity of data or to write down a specific code for every instrument analysed, greatly encouraging studies based on joint analysis of different datasets. Read More

We present two ways of modeling the spectral energy distribution of blazars in the hadronic context and discuss the predictions of each "hadronic variant" on the spectral shape, the multi-wavelength variability, the cosmic-ray flux, and the high-energy neutrino emission. Focusing on the latter, we then present an application of the hadronic model to individual BL Lacs that were recently suggested to be the counterparts of some of the IceCube neutrinos, and conclude by discussing the contribution of the whole BL Lac class to the observed neutrino background. Read More

Authors: Fabio Acero, Markus Ackermann, Marco Ajello, Luca Baldini, Jean Ballet, Guido Barbiellini, Denis Bastieri, Ronaldo Bellazzini, E. Bissaldi, Roger Blandford, E. D. Bloom, Raffaella Bonino, Eugenio Bottacini, J. Bregeon, Philippe Bruel, Rolf Buehler, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, Rob A. Cameron, R Caputo, Micaela Caragiulo, Patrizia A. Caraveo, Jean Marc Casandjian, Elisabetta Cavazzuti, Claudia Cecchi, A. Chekhtman, J. Chiang, G. Chiaro, Stefano Ciprini, R. Claus, J. M. Cohen, Johann Cohen-Tanugi, L. R. Cominsky, B. Condon, Jan Conrad, S. Cutini, F. D'Ammando, A. Angelis, F. Palma, Rachele Desiante, S. W. Digel, L. Venere, Persis S Drell, Alex Drlica-Wagner, C. Favuzzi, E. C. Ferrara, Anna Franckowiak, Prof. Yasushi Fukazawa, Prof. Stefan Funk, P. Fusco, Fabio Gargano, Dario Gasparrini, Nicola Giglietto, Paolo Giommi, Francesco Giordano, Marcello Giroletti, Tom Glanzman, Gary Godfrey, G A. Gomez-Vargas, I. A. Grenier, M. -H. Grondin, L. Guillemot, Sylvain Guiriec, M Gustafsson, D. Hadasch, A. K. Harding, M. Hayashida, Elizabeth Hays, J. W. Hewitt, A. B. Hill, Deirdre Horan, X. Hou, Giulia Iafrate, Tobias Jogler, G. J'ohannesson, Anthony S. Johnson, T. Kamae, Hideaki Katagiri, Prof. Jun Kataoka, Junichiro Katsuta, Matthew Kerr, J. Knodlseder, Prof. Dale Kocevski, M. Kuss, Helene Laffon, J. Lande, S. Larsson, Luca Latronico, Marianne Lemoine-Goumard, J. Li, L. Li, Francesco Longo, Francesco Loparco, Michael N. Lovellette, Pasquale Lubrano, J. Magill, S. Maldera, Martino Marelli, Michael Mayer, M. N. Mazziotta, Peter F. Michelson, Warit Mitthumsiri, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Alexander A. Moiseev, Maria Elena Monzani, E. Moretti, Aldo Morselli, Igor V. Moskalenko, Prof. Simona Murgia, Prof. Rodrigo Nemmen, Eric Nuss, Takashi Ohsugi, Nicola Omodei, Monica Orienti, Elena Orlando, Jonathan F. Ormes, David Paneque, J. S. Perkins, Melissa Pesce-Rollins, Prof. Vahe' Petrosian, Frederic Piron, Giovanna Pivato, Troy Porter, S. Rain`o, Riccardo Rando, Massimiliano Razzano, Soebur Razzaque, Anita Reimer, Prof. Olaf Reimer, Matthieu Renaud, Thierry Reposeur, Mr. Romain Rousseau, P. M. Parkinson, J. Schmid, A. Schulz, C. Sgr`o, Eric J Siskind, Francesca Spada, Gloria Spandre, Paolo Spinelli, Andrew W. Strong, Daniel Suson, Hiro Tajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, T. Tanaka, Jana B. Thayer, D. J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, Omar Tibolla, Prof. Diego F. Torres, Gino Tosti, Eleonora Troja, Yasunobu Uchiyama, G. Vianello, B. Wells, Kent Wood, M. Wood, Manal Yassine, Stephan Zimmer

To uniformly determine the properties of supernova remnants (SNRs) at high energies, we have developed the first systematic survey at energies from 1 to 100 GeV using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Based on the spatial overlap of sources detected at GeV energies with SNRs known from radio surveys, we classify 30 sources as likely GeV SNRs. We also report 14 marginal associations and 245 flux upper limits. Read More

The increasing number of Very High Energy (VHE) sources discovered by the current generation of Cherenkov telescopes made particularly relevant the creation of a dedicated source catalogs as well as the cross-correlation of VHE and lower energy bands data in a multi-wavelength framework. The "TeGeV Catalog" hosted at the ASI Science Data Center (ASDC) is a catalog of VHE sources detected by ground-based Cherenkov detectors. The TeGeVcat collects all the relevant information publicly available about the observed GeV/TeV sources. Read More

Affiliations: 1Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, 2Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 3California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 4Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, 5Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, 6Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, 7Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, 8Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, 9Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, 10Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, 11California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 12California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 13Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 14Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 15Rice University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 16Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, 17Georgia College, Department of Chemistry, Physics, and Astronomy, 18Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 19Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 20North-West University, Centre for Space Research, 21Technical University of Denmark, DTU Space, National Space Institute, 22Yale University, Department of Astronomy, 23Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, 24University of Virginia, Department of Astronomy, 25MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics Garching, 26Durham University, Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, 27Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 28North Carolina State University, Department of Physics, 29Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 30Cambridge, Institute of Astronomy, UK, 31Penn State University, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 32Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 33University of California, Berkeley, Department of Physics, 34ASI Science Data Center, Italy, 35California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 36Cambridge, Institute of Astronomy, UK, 37Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 38Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 39Texas Tech University, Physics Department, 40Nagoya University, Center for Experimental Studies, Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, 41University of Maryland, Physics Department, 42RIKEN, 43Univ. of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Astronomy Dept, 44Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 45Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF, 46Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, 47Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 48Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 49Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, 50NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 51Tohoku University, Astronomical Institute, 52NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

This paper describes the Polarization Spectroscopic Telescope Array (PolSTAR), a mission proposed to NASA's 2014 Small Explorer (SMEX) announcement of opportunity. PolSTAR measures the linear polarization of 3-50 keV (requirement; goal: 2.5-70 keV) X-rays probing the behavior of matter, radiation and the very fabric of spacetime under the extreme conditions close to the event horizons of black holes, as well as in and around magnetars and neutron stars. Read More

The "blazar simplified view" is a new paradigm that explains well the diverse statistical properties of blazars observed over the entire electromagnetic spectrum on the basis of minimal assumptions on blazars' physical and geometrical properties. In this paper, the fourth in a series, we extend the predictions of this paradigm below the sensitivity of existing surveys and estimate the contribution of blazars to the X-ray and gamma-ray extragalactic backgrounds. We find that the integrated light from blazars can explain up to 100% of the cosmic background at energies larger than ~10 GeV, and contribute ~40 to 70% of the gamma-ray diffuse radiation between 100 MeV and 10 GeV. Read More

During its first 10 years of orbital operations Swift dedicated approximately 11% of its observing time to blazars, carrying out more than 12,000 observations of ~1,600 different objects, for a total exposure time of over 25 million seconds. In this paper I briefly discuss the impact that Swift is having on blazar multi-frequency and time-domain astrophysics, as well as how it is contributing to the opening of the era of multi-messenger astronomy. Finally, I present some preliminary results from a systematic analysis of a very large number of Swift XRT observations of blazars. Read More

The 5th edition of the Roma-BZCAT Multifrequency Catalogue of Blazars is available in a printed version and online at the ASDC website (http://www.asdc.asi. Read More

We report the discovery of 9 089 new spectroscopically confirmed white dwarfs and subdwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10. We obtain Teff, log g and mass for hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf stars (DAs) and helium atmosphere white dwarf stars (DBs), and estimate the calcium/helium abundances for the white dwarf stars with metallic lines (DZs) and carbon/helium for carbon dominated spectra DQs. We found 1 central star of a planetary nebula, 2 new oxygen spectra on helium atmosphere white dwarfs, 71 DQs, 42 hot DO/PG1159s, 171 white dwarf+main sequence star binaries, 206 magnetic DAHs, 327 continuum dominated DCs, 397 metal polluted white dwarfs, 450 helium dominated white dwarfs, 647 subdwarfs and 6888 new hydrogen dominated white dwarf stars. Read More

High-energy phenomena in the cosmos, and in particular processes leading to the emission of gamma- rays in the energy range 10 MeV - 100 GeV, play a very special role in the understanding of our Universe. This energy range is indeed associated with non-thermal phenomena and challenging particle acceleration processes. The technology involved in detecting gamma-rays is challenging and drives our ability to develop improved instruments for a large variety of applications. Read More

We have recently proposed a new scenario where blazars are classified as flat-spectrum radio quasars or BL Lacs according to the prescriptions of unified schemes, and to a varying combination of Doppler boosted radiation from the jet, emission from the accretion disk, the broad line region, and light from the host galaxy. This mix of different components leads to strong selection effects, which are properly taken into account in our scheme. We describe here the main features of our approach, which solves many long-standing issues of blazar research, give the most important results, and discuss its implications and testable predictions. Read More

Contemporary astronomy benefits of very large and rapidly growing amounts of data in all bands of the electromagnetic spectrum, from long-wavelength radio waves to high energy gamma-rays. Astronomers normally specialize in data taken in one particular energy window, however the advent of data centers world-wide and of the Virtual Observatory, which provide simple and open access to quality data in all energy bands taken at different epochs, is making multi-frequency and multi-epoch astronomy much more affordable than in the past. New tools designed to combine and analyze these data sets are being developed with the aim of visualizing observational results and extracting information about the physical processes powering cosmic sources in ways that were not possible before. Read More


The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission, launched on 13 June 2012, is the first focusing high-energy X-ray telescope in orbit. NuSTAR operates in the band from 3 -- 79 keV, extending the sensitivity of focusing far beyond the ~10 keV high-energy cutoff achieved by all previous X-ray satellites. The inherently low-background associated with concentrating the X-ray light enables NuSTAR to probe the hard X-ray sky with a more than one-hundred-fold improvement in sensitivity over the collimated or coded-mask instruments that have operated in this bandpass. Read More

The capability of NuSTAR to detect polarization in the Compton scattering regime (>50 keV) has been investigated. The NuSTAR mission, flown on June 2012 a Low Earth Orbit (LEO), provides a unique possibility to confirm the findings of INTEGRAL on the polarization of cosmic sources in the hard X-rays. Each of the two focal plane detectors are high resolution pixellated CZT arrays, sensitive in the energy range ~ 3 - 80 keV. Read More

The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a NASA Small Explorer mission that will carry the first focusing hard X-ray (5 -- 80 keV) telescope to orbit. NuSTAR will offer a factor 50 -- 100 sensitivity improvement compared to previous collimated or coded mask imagers that have operated in this energy band. In addition, NuSTAR provides sub-arcminute imaging with good spectral resolution over a 12-arcminute field of view. Read More

The discovery of X-ray emission from cosmic sources in the 1960s has opened a new powerful observing window on the Universe. In fact, the exploration of the X-ray sky during the 70s-90s has established X-ray astronomy as a fundamental field of astrophysics. Today, the emission from astrophysical sources is by large best known at energies below 10 keV. Read More

Affiliations: 1Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, 2ESO, 3ASI Science Data Center, 4ASI Science Data Center, 5Stanford University
Category: Astrophysics

This paper presents XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray spectroscopy of ten flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQ) which are candidates to have an X-ray spectrum dominated by jet synchrotron emission. In all these FSRQ, which are less strongly relativistically beamed than blazars, a considerable contribution from a power-law component similar to that present in radio-quiet quasars is required to explain the observed X-ray fluxes and X-ray spectral slopes. And as in radio-quiet quasars, their relatively high optical/UV fluxes can be accounted for by a significant contribution from thermal accretion disk emission. Read More

We describe a uniform all-sky survey of bright blazars, selected primarily by their flat radio spectra, that is designed to provide a large catalog of likely gamma-ray AGN. The defined sample has 1625 targets with radio and X-ray properties similar to those of the EGRET blazars, spread uniformly across the |b| > 10 deg sky. We also report progress toward optical characterization of the sample; of objects with known R < 23, 85% have been classified and 81% have measured redshifts. Read More

We take into account the constraints from the observed extragalactic gamma-ray background to estimate the maximum duty cycle allowed for a selected sample of WMAP Blazars, in order to be detectable by AGILE and GLAST gamma-ray experiments. For the nominal sensitivity values of both instruments, we identify a subset of sources which can in principle be detectable also in a steady state without over-predicting the extragalactic background. This work is based on the results of a recently derived Blazar radio LogN-LogS obtained by combining several multi-frequency surveys. Read More

The detection of flares with the Swift satellite triggered a lot of bservational and theoretical interest in these phenomena. As a consequence a large analysis effort started within the community to characterize the phenomenon and at the same time a variety of theoretical speculations have been proposed to explain it. In this presentation we discuss part of the results we obtained analyzing a first statistical sample of GRBs observed with Swift. Read More

Affiliations: 1INAF -- Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, 2Pennsylvania State University, 3Liverpool John Moores University, 4NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, 5Pennsylvania State University, 6INAF -- Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, 7University of Leicester, 8Pennsylvania State University, 9Pennsylvania State University, 10Pennsylvania State University, 11Pennsylvania State University, 12Pennsylvania State University, 13INAF -- Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, 14INAF -- Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, 15INAF -- Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, 16NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, 17NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, 18INAF -- Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Sezione di Palermo, 19University of Leicester, 20Liverpool John Moores University, 21INAF -- Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, 22Space Research Centre, University of Leicester, 23ASI Science Data Center, 24Pennsylvania State University, 25NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
Category: Astrophysics

The unique capability of the Swift satellite to perform a prompt and autonomous slew to a newly detected Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) has yielded the discovery of interesting new properties of GRB X-ray afterglows, such as the steep early lightcurve decay and the frequent presence of flares detected up to a few hours after the GRB trigger. We present observations of GRB 050607, the fourth case of a GRB discovered by Swift with flares superimposed on the overall fading X-ray afterglow. The flares of GRB 050607 were not symmetric as in previously reported cases, showing a very steep rise and a shallower decay, similar to the Fast Rise, Exponential Decay that are frequently observed in the gamma-ray prompt emission. Read More

The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer, launched on 2004 November 20, is a multiwavelength, autonomous, rapid-slewing observatory for gamma-ray burst (GRB) astronomy. On 2004 December 23, during the activation phase of the mission, the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) was pointed at a burst discovered earlier that day by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope. A fading, uncataloged X-ray source was discovered by the XRT and was observed over a period of about 3 hours, beginning 4. Read More

AGILE (Astro-rivelatore Gamma ad Immagini LEggero) is a Small Scientific Mission of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) with a Science Program open to the national and international community. Its main goal is to develop and operate a scientific satellite devoted to Gamma-ray (30 MeV - 50 GeV) and hard X-ray (10 - 40 keV) Astrophysics during the years 2005 - 2007. ASI plans to handle AGILE data through the ASI Science Data Center in collaboration with the AGILE Team. Read More

As a special contribution to the proceedings of the BeppoSAX workshop dedicated to blazar astrophysics we present a catalog of 157 X-ray spectra and the broad-band Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) of 84 blazars observed by BeppoSAX during its first five years of operations. The SEDs have been built by combining BeppoSAX LECS, MECS and PDS data with (mostly) non-simultaneous multi-frequency photometric data, obtained from NED and from other large databases, including the GSC2 and the 2MASS surveys. All BeppoSAX data have been taken from the public archive and have been analysed in a uniform way. Read More

Affiliations: 1STScI/ESA, 2BeppoSAX/SDC
Category: Astrophysics

We present the results of our methods to "mine" the blazar sky, i.e., select blazar candidates with very high efficiency. Read More

We have undertaken a survey for blazars by correlating the ROSAT WGACAT database with publicly available radio catalogs, restricting our candidate list to serendipitous flat-spectrum sources (alpha_r <= 0.7). We discuss here our survey methods, identification procedure and first results. Read More

We have undertaken a survey of archived, pointed ROSAT PSPC data for blazars by correlating the ROSAT WGACAT database with several publicly available radio catalogs, restricting our candidate list to serendipitous flat radio spectrum sources (alpha_r <= 0.70). Here we discuss our survey methods, identification procedure and first results. Read More

The BL Lac object Mkn 501, one of the only three extragalactic sources (with Mkn 421 and 1ES 2344+514) so far detected at TeV energies, was observed with the BeppoSAX satellite on 7, 11, and 16 April 1997 during a phase of high activity at TeV energies, as monitored with the Whipple, HEGRA and CAT Cherenkov telescopes. Over the whole 0.1-200 keV range the spectrum was exceptionally hard (alpha =< 1, with F_nu ~ nu^{-alpha}) indicating that the X-ray power output peaked at (or above) ~100 keV. Read More

We have used the WGA catalog of ROSAT PSPC X-ray sources to study the X-ray spectrum of about 500 quasars in the redshift interval 0.1--4.1, detected with a signal to noise better than 7. Read More

We have selected quasars with X-ray colors suggestive of a low energy cut-off, from the ROSAT PSPC pointed archive. We examine the radio and optical properties of these 13 quasars. Five out of the seven quasars with good optical spectra show associated optical absorption lines, with two having high delta-v candidate systems. Read More

Affiliations: 1Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 2Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 3Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 4Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 5SAX Data Center, Roma, 6SAX Data Center, Roma
Category: Astrophysics

Combining information on absorbing material in AGN from X-ray and the UV creates a powerful investigative tool. Here we give examples from both low and high redshift. Read More

Affiliations: 1Dip. di Fisica, II Universita' di Roma, 2SAX/SDC, ASI, Roma, 3SAX/SDC, ASI, Roma
Category: Astrophysics

We study the X-ray spectra of 114 flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQ) using the hardness ratios as given in the WGA catalogue of ROSAT sources. This sample includes all WGA FSRQ with high-quality data and comprises about 20 per cent of presently known such objects, which makes this the largest FSRQ sample ever studied in the X-ray band. We find that FSRQ have a distribution of energy spectral indices ranging between 0 and 3 with a mean value alpha_x ~ 1. Read More

We study the X-ray spectra of 85 BL Lacertae objects using the hardness ratios as given in the WGA catalogue of {\it ROSAT} sources. This sample includes all WGA BL Lacs with high-quality data and comprises about 50 per cent of presently known BL Lacs. We find that BL Lacs have energy power-law spectral indices between 0 and 3 with a mean value $\alpha_{\rm x}\sim 1. Read More

We present a catalogue of 233 BL Lacertae objects compiled through an extensive bibliographic search updated to mid-1995. A large fraction of the sources listed in the catalogue belongs to well-defined samples and can be used for statistical purposes. A smaller fraction consists of miscellaneous (but confirmed) BL Lacs and of objects classified as BL Lac candidates. Read More

We explain the properties of X-ray selected BL Lacertae objects, under the assumption that they constitute the small minority of the BL Lac population with energy cutoff located in the UV/X-ray band, as suggested by their multifrequency spectra. In particular, we derive their X-ray luminosity function, log N-log S, and radio flux distribution starting from radio selected BL Lacs using a method that does not require any free parameters. Our hypothesis is at variance with the most common explanation for the existence of two classes of BL Lacs, namely that X-ray selected objects are viewed significantly off the beaming axis while radio-selected ones have their jets more aligned with the line of sight. Read More