# P. U. Sauer - University of Hannover, Germany

## Contact Details

NameP. U. Sauer |
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AffiliationUniversity of Hannover, Germany |
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CityHannover |
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CountryGermany |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesNuclear Theory (24) Nuclear Experiment (7) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (3) |

## Publications Authored By P. U. Sauer

**Authors:**G. Laskaris, X. Yan, J. M. Mueller, W. R. Zimmerman, W. Xiong, M. W. Ahmed, T. Averett, P. -H. Chu, A. Deltuva, C. Flower, A. C. Fonseca, H. Gao, J. Golak, J. N. Heideman, H. J. Karwowski, M. Meziane, P. U. Sauer, R. Skibiński, I. I. Strakovsky, H. R. Weller, H. Witała, Y. K. Wu

**Category:**Nuclear Experiment

We report new measurements of the doubly-polarized photodisintegration of $^3$He at an incident photon energy of 16.5 MeV, carried out at the High Intensity $\gamma$-ray Source (HI$\gamma$S) facility located at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL). The spin-dependent double-differential cross sections and the contribution from the three--body channel to the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) integrand were extracted and compared with the state-of-the-art three--body calculations. Read More

**Authors:**The Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration, M. Mihovilovič, G. Jin, E. Long, Y. -W. Zhang, K. Allada, B. Anderson, J. R. M. Annand, T. Averett, W. Boeglin, P. Bradshaw, A. Camsonne, M. Canan, G. D. Cates, C. Chen, J. P. Chen, E. Chudakov, R. De Leo, X. Deng, A. Deltuva, A. Deur, C. Dutta, L. El Fassi, D. Flay, S. Frullani, F. Garibaldi, H. Gao, S. Gilad, R. Gilman, O. Glamazdin, J. Golak, S. Golge, J. Gomez, O. Hansen, D. W. Higinbotham, T. Holmstrom, J. Huang, H. Ibrahim, C. W. de Jager, E. Jensen, X. Jiang, M. Jones, H. Kang, J. Katich, H. P. Khanal, A. Kievsky, P. King, W. Korsch, J. LeRose, R. Lindgren, H. -J. Lu, W. Luo, L. E. Marcucci, P. Markowitz, M. Meziane, R. Michaels, B. Moffit, P. Monaghan, N. Muangma, S. Nanda, B. E. Norum, K. Pan, D. Parno, E. Piasetzky, M. Posik, V. Punjabi, A. J. R. Puckett, X. Qian, Y. Qiang, X. Qui, S. Riordan, A. Saha, P. U. Sauer, B. Sawatzky, R. Schiavilla, M. Shabestari, A. Shahinyan, B. Schoenrock, S. Širca, R. Skibiński, J. St. John, R. Subedi, V. Sulkosky, W. A. Tobias, W. Tireman, G. M. Urciuoli, M. Viviani, D. Wang, K. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Watson, B. Wojtsekhowski, H. Witała, Z. Ye, X. Zhan, Y. Zhang, X. Zheng, B. Zhao, L. Zhu

**Category:**Nuclear Experiment

We present a precise measurement of double-polarization asymmetries in the $^3\vec{\mathrm{He}}(\vec{\mathrm{e}},\mathrm{e}'\mathrm{d})$ reaction. This particular process is a uniquely sensitive probe of hadron dynamics in $^3\mathrm{He}$ and the structure of the underlying electromagnetic currents. The measurements have been performed in and around quasi-elastic kinematics at $Q^2 = 0. Read More

The role of three-nucleon forces in ab initio calculations of nuclear systems is investigated. The difference between genuine and induced many-nucleon forces is emphasized. Induced forces arise in the process of solving the nuclear many-body problem as technical intermediaries towards calculationally converged results. Read More

Historic steps in the emergence, the derivation and the use of three-nucleon forces, genuine and effective, for calculations of few-nucleon systems and of the structure of heavier nuclei are recalled. The research focus is on few-nucleon systems. The need of three-nucleon forces for a successful description of some data and the remaining puzzles of other data, not explainable despite the inclusion of three-nucleon forces, are discussed. Read More

**Authors:**G. Laskaris, Q. Ye, B. Lalremruata, Q. J. Ye, M. W. Ahmed, T. Averett, A. Deltuva, D. Dutta, A. C. Fonseca, H. Gao, J. Golak, M. Huang, H. J. Karwowski, J. M. Mueller, L. S. Myers, C. Peng, B. A. Perdue, X. Qian, P. U. Sauer, R. Skibiński, S. Stave J. R. Tompkins, H. R. Weller, H. Witała, Y. K. Wu, Y. Zhang, W. Zheng

**Category:**Nuclear Experiment

The first measurement of the three-body photodisintegration of longitudinally-polarized ^3He with a circularly-polarized \gamma-ray beam was carried out at the High Intensity \gamma-ray Source (HI\gamma S) facility located at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL). The spin-dependent double-differential cross sections and the contributions from the three-body photodisintegration to the ^3He GDH integrand are presented and compared with state-of-the-art three-body calculations at the incident photon energies of 12.8 and 14. Read More

Three- and four-nucleon reactions are discussed. The focus is on the notion of nuclear potentials, on conceptual and technical issues of calculations and on unresolved problems between existing theoretical predictions and experimental data. The special focus is on some historic aspects of the evolution of the field. Read More

Proton-deuteron radiative capture and two- and three-body photodisintegration of 3He at low energy are described using realistic hadronic dynamics and including the Coulomb force. The sensitivity of the observables to the relativistic corrections of one-nucleon electromagnetic current operator is studied. Significant effects of the relativistic spin-orbit charge are found for the vector analyzing powers in the proton-deuteron radiative capture and for the beam-target parallel-antiparallel spin asymmetry in the three-body photodisintegration of 3He. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}ITA, S. Jose` dos Campos,

^{2}ITA, S. Jose` dos Campos,

^{3}Un. Tor Vergata Roma,

^{4}INFN - Rome,

^{5}Leibniz Un., Hannover

We propose a three-dimensional electromagnetic current operator within light-front dynamics that satisfies a light-front Ward-Takahashi identity for two-fermion systems. The light-front current operator is obtained by a quasi-potential reduction of the four-dimensional current operator and acts on the light-front valence component of bound or scattering states. A relation between the light-front valence wave function and the four-dimensional Bethe-Salpeter amplitude both for bound or scattering states is also derived, such that the matrix elements of the four-dimensional current operator can be fully recovered from the corresponding light-front ones. Read More

**Authors:**W. U. Boeglin, H. Arenhövel, K. I. Blomqvist, R. Böhm, M. Distler, R. Edelhoff, I. Ewald, R. Florizone, J. Friedrich, R. Geiges, J. Jourdan, M. Kahrau, M. Korn, H. Kramer, K. W. Krygier, V. Kunde, M. Kuss, A. Liesenfeld, K. Merle, R. Neuhausen, E. A. J. M. Offermann, Th. Pospischil, M. Potokar, A. W. Richter, A. Rokavec, G. Rosner, P. Sauer, I. Sick, S. Sirca S. Schardt, A. Serdarevic, B. Vodenik, A. Wagner, Th. Walcher, S. Wolf

**Category:**Nuclear Experiment

The interference response function f_LT (R_LT) of the D(e,e'p)n reaction has been determined at squared four-momentum transfer Q^2 = 0.33 (GeV/c)^2 and for missing momenta up to p_miss= 0.29 (GeV/c). Read More

The four-nucleon bound state and scattering below three-body breakup threshold are described based on the realistic coupled-channel potential CD Bonn + $\Delta$ which allows the excitation of a single nucleon to a $\Delta$ isobar. The Coulomb repulsion between protons is included. In the four-nucleon system the two-baryon coupled-channel potential yields effective two-, three- and four-nucleon forces, mediated by the $\Delta$ isobar and consistent with each other and with the underlying two-nucleon force. Read More

The Coulomb interaction between the two protons is included in the calculation of three-nucleon hadronic and electromagnetic reactions using screening and renormalization approach. Calculations are done using integral equations in momentum space. The reliability of the method is demonstrated. Read More

**Authors:**St. Kistryn, E. Stephan, B. Klos, A. Biegun, K. Bodek, I. Ciepal, A. Deltuva, A. Fonseca, N. Kalantar-Nayestanaki, M. Kis, A. Kozela, M. Mahjour-Shafiei, A. Micherdzinska, P. U. Sauer, R. Sworst, J. Zejma, W. Zipper

**Category:**Nuclear Experiment

High precision cross-section data of the deuteron-proton breakup reaction at 130 MeV deuteron energy are compared with the theoretical predictions obtained with a coupled-channel extension of the CD Bonn potential with virtual Delta-isobar excitation, without and with inclusion of the long-range Coulomb force. The Coulomb effect is studied on the basis of the cross-section data set, extended in this work to about 1500 data points by including breakup geometries characterized by small polar angles of the two protons. The experimental data clearly prefer predictions obtained with the Coulomb interaction included. Read More

The Coulomb interaction between the protons is included in the description of proton-deuteron scattering using the screening and renormalization approach in the framework of momentum-space integral equations. Two new calculational schemes are presented that confirm the reliability of the perturbative approach for treating the screened Coulomb interaction in high partial waves, used by us in earlier works. Read More

The Coulomb interaction between the two protons is included in the calculation of proton-deuteron breakup and of three-body electromagnetic disintegration of ${}^3\mathrm{He}$. The hadron dynamics is based on the purely nucleonic charge-dependent (CD) Bonn potential and its realistic extension CD Bonn + $\Delta$ to a coupled-channel two-baryon potential, allowing for single virtual $\Delta$-isobar excitation. Calculations are done using integral equations in momentum space. Read More

**Authors:**St. Kistryn, E. Stephan, A. Biegun, K. Bodek, A. Deltuva, E. Epelbaum, K. Ermisch, W. Gloeckle, J. Golak, N. Kalantar-Nayestanaki, H. Kamada, M. Kis, B. Klos, A. Kozela, J. Kuros-Zolnierczuk, M. Mahjour-Shafiei, U. -G. Meissner, A. Micherdzinska, A. Nogga, P. U. Sauer, R. Skibinski, R. Sworst, H. Witala, J. Zejma, W. Zipper

**Category:**Nuclear Experiment

High precision cross-section data of the deuteron-proton breakup reaction at 130 MeV are presented for 72 kinematically complete configurations. The data cover a large region of the available phase space, divided into a systematic grid of kinematical variables. They are compared with theoretical predictions, in which the full dynamics of the three-nucleon (3N) system is obtained in three different ways: realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials are combined with model 3N forces (3NF's) or with an effective 3NF resulting from explicit treatment of the Delta-isobar excitation. Read More

The Coulomb interaction between the two protons is included in the calculation of proton-deuteron elastic scattering, radiative proton-deuteron capture and two-body electromagnetic disintegration of ${}^3\mathrm{He}$. The hadron dynamics is based on the purely nucleonic charge-dependent (CD) Bonn potential and its realistic extension CD Bonn + $\Delta$ to a coupled-channel two-baryon potential, allowing for single virtual $\Delta$-isobar excitation. Calculations are done using integral equations in momentum space. Read More

Two independent calculations of proton-deuteron elastic scattering observables including Coulomb repulsion between the two protons are compared in the proton lab energy region between 3 MeV and 65 MeV. The hadron dynamics is based on the purely nucleonic charge-dependent AV18 potential. Calculations are done both in coordinate space and momentum space. Read More

**Authors:**A. A. Mehmandoost-Khajeh-Dad, H. R. Amir-Ahmadi, J. C. S. Bacelar, A. M. van~den~Berg, R. Castelijns, A. Deltuva, E. D. van~Garderen, W. Glöckle, J. Golak, N. Kalantar-Nayestanaki, H. Kamada, M. Kiš, R. Koohi-Fayegh-Dehkordi, H. Löhner, M. Mahjour-Shafiei, H. Mardanpur, J. G. Messchendorp, A. Nogga, P. Sauer, S. V. Shende, R. Skibinski, H. Witała, H. J. Wörtche

**Category:**Nuclear Experiment

A radiative deuteron-proton capture experiment was carried out at KVI using polarized-deuteron beams at incident energies of 55, 66.5, and 90 MeV/nucleon. Vector and tensor-analyzing powers were obtained for a large angular range. Read More

Electron scattering from the three-nucleon bound state with two- and three-body disintegration is described. The description uses the purely nucleonic charge-dependent CD-Bonn potential and its coupled-channel extension CD-Bonn + $\Delta$. Exact solutions of three-particle equations are employed for the initial and final states of the reactions. Read More

The projection of the four-dimensional two-body Bethe-Salpeter equation at the light-front hypersurface is discussed. Elimination of the relative time is performed using a quasi-potential expansion, which is shown to be equivalent to an infinite set of coupled equations for the Green's functions of the different light-front Fock-states. Read More

Radiative nucleon-deuteron capture and two- and three-body photo disintegration of the three-nucleon bound state are described. The description uses the purely nucleonic charge-dependent CD-Bonn potential and its coupled-channel extension CD Bonn + $\Delta$. The $\Delta$-isobar excitation yields an effective three-nucleon force and effective two- and three-nucleon currents besides other $\Delta$-isobar effects; they are mutually consistent. Read More

We show the light-front representation of the field theoretical Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) in the ladder approximation using the quasi potential reduction. We discuss the equivalence of the covariant ladder Bethe-Salpeter equation with an infinite set of coupled equations for the Green's functions of the different light-front Fock-states. Read More

Radiative nucleon-deuteron capture and photo disintegration of the three-nucleo n bound state with two-body final states are described. The description uses nucleon degrees of freedom extended to include the excitation of a single nucleon to a \diso. The baryonic interaction and the electromagnetic cu rrent couple nucleonic states and states with a \diso. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Dep.de Fisica, ITA/CTA,Brazil,

^{2}Dep.de Fisica, ITA/CTA,Brazil,

^{3}Dep.de Fisica, ITA/CTA,Brazil,

^{4}ITP/Hannover

**Category:**Nuclear Theory

A three-dimensional reduction of the two-particle Bethe-Salpeter equation is proposed. The proposed reduction is in the framework of light-front dynamics. It yields auxiliary quantities for the transition matrix and the bound state. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Division de Physique Theorique, IPN, Orsay, France and Universite Pierre & Marie Curie, Paris, France,

^{2}Departamento de Fisica,ITA, Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil,

^{3}TNO Physics and Eletronis Laboratory, The Hague, The Netherlands,

^{4}Institute for Theoretical Physics, Hannover, Germany

We compute the "+" component of the electromagnetic current of a composite spin-one two-fermion system for vanishing momentum transfer component $q^+=q^0+q^3$. In particular, we extract the nonvanishing pair production amplitude on the light-front. It is a consequence of the longitudinal zero momentum mode, contributing to the light-front current in the Breit-frame. Read More

Photo disintegration of the deuteron and photo pionproduction on the deuteron are described in the region of the $\Delta$-resonance. The two reactions are unitarily coupled. A novel definition of electromagnetic exchange currents in the presence of pionproduction is given. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo,

^{2}Departamento de Fisica,ITA, Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial,

^{3}Departamento de Fisica,ITA, Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial,

^{4}Institute for Theoretical Physics, University Hannover

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

The electromagnetic current of bound systems in the light-front is constructed in the Breit-Frame, in the limit of momentum transfer $q^+=(q^0+q^3)$ vanishing. In this limit, the pair creation term survives and it is responsible for the covariance of the current. The pair creation term is computed for the $j^+$ current of a spin one composite particle in the Breit-frame. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}University of Tuebingen, Germany,

^{2}University of Hannover, Germany,

^{3}University of Hannover, Germany

**Category:**Nuclear Theory

The existing experimental data for the deuteron charge radius are discussed. The data of elastic electron scattering are inconsistent with the value obtained in a recent atomic physics experiment. Theoretical predictions based on a nonrelativistic description of the deuteron with realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials and with a rather complete set of meson-exchange contributions to the charge operator are presented. Read More

The pion-nucleon interaction in the P33 partial wave is assumed to proceed simultaneously through the excitation of the Delta-isobar and through a phenomenologically introduced non-resonant background potential. The introduction of the background potential allows a more realistic parameterization of the pion-nucleon-Delta vertex compared with the previously used one without background. It also modifies the propagation of the Delta-isobar in the nuclear medium and gives rise to novel effective nucleon-Delta interactions. Read More

The Faddeev equations are solved in momentum space for the trinucleon bound state with the new Tucson-Melbourne $\pi$ and $\rho$ exchange three-nucleon potentials. The three-nucleon potentials are combined with a variety of realistic two-nucleon potentials. The dependence of the triton binding energy on the $\pi NN$ cut-off parameter in the three-nucleon potentials is studied and found to be reduced compared to the case with pure $\pi$ exchange. Read More

Theoretical predictions for the deuteron and the isoscalar trinucleon charge form factors are compared. Correlations between them are found. Linear relations hold for the position of the diffraction minimum and for the position and height of the secondary maximum. Read More

The description of the three-nucleon system in terms of nucleon and $\Delta$ degrees of freedom is extended to allow for explicit pion production (absorption) from single dynamic $\Delta$ de-excitation (excitation) processes. This mechanism yields an energy dependent effective three-body hamiltonean. The Faddeev equations for the trinucleon bound state are solved with a force model that has already been tested in the two-nucleon system above pion-production threshold. Read More