P. T. Gallagher

P. T. Gallagher
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P. T. Gallagher

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Pub Categories

Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (37)
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (6)
Computer Science - Learning (3)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (3)
Computer Science - Neural and Evolutionary Computing (3)
Statistics - Machine Learning (3)
Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (2)
Physics - Space Physics (2)
Mathematics - Complex Variables (1)
Physics - Superconductivity (1)
Mathematics - Optimization and Control (1)
Physics - Materials Science (1)
Physics - Geophysics (1)
Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (1)
Mathematics - Differential Geometry (1)

Publications Authored By P. T. Gallagher

We partially resolve a conjecture of Meeks on the asymptotic behavior of minimal surfaces in $\mathbb{R}^3$ with quadratic area growth. Read More

We present a major step forward towards accurately predicting the arrivals of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on the terrestrial planets, including the Earth. For the first time, we are able to assess a CME prediction model using data over almost a full solar cycle of observations with the Heliophysics System Observatory. We validate modeling results on 1337 CMEs observed with the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) heliospheric imagers (HI) with data from 8 years of observations by 5 spacecraft in situ in the solar wind, thereby gathering over 600 independent in situ CME detections. Read More

Geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) are a well-known terrestrial space weather hazard. They occur in power transmission networks and are known to have adverse effects in both high and mid-latitude countries. Here, we study GICs in the Irish power transmission network (geomagnetic latitude 54. Read More

For almost 20 years the physical nature of globally propagating waves in the solar corona (commonly called "EIT waves") has been controversial and subject to debate. Additional theories have been proposed over the years to explain observations that did not fit with the originally proposed fast-mode wave interpretation. However, the incompatibility of observations made using the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory with the fast-mode wave interpretation was challenged by differing viewpoints from the twin Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft and higher spatial/temporal resolution data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Read More

Flare-driven coronal rain can manifest from rapidly cooled plasma condensations near coronal loop-tops in thermally unstable post-flare arcades. We detect 5 phases that characterise the post-flare decay: heating, evaporation, conductive cooling dominance for ~120 s, radiative / enthalpy cooling dominance for ~4700 s and finally catastrophic cooling occurring within 35-124 s leading to rain strands with s periodicity of 55-70 s. We find an excellent agreement between the observations and model predictions of the dominant cooling timescales and the onset of catastrophic cooling. Read More

The nature of quasi-periodic pulsations in solar flares is poorly constrained, and critically the general prevalence of such signals in solar flares is unknown. Therefore, we perform a large-scale search for evidence of signals consistent with quasi-periodic pulsations in solar flares, focusing on the 1 - 300s timescale. We analyse 675 M- and X-class flares observed by GOES in 1-8\AA\ soft X-rays between 2011 February 1 and 2015 December 31. Read More

Electron acceleration in the solar corona is often associated with flares and the eruption of twisted magnetic structures known as flux ropes. However, the locations and mechanisms of such particle acceleration during the flare and eruption are still subject to much investigation. Observing the exact sites of particle acceleration can help confirm how the flare and eruption are initiated and how they evolve. Read More

Solar flares produce radiation which can have an almost immediate effect on the near-Earth environment, making it crucial to forecast flares in order to mitigate their negative effects. The number of published approaches to flare forecasting using photospheric magnetic field observations has proliferated, with varying claims about how well each works. Because of the different analysis techniques and data sets used, it is essentially impossible to compare the results from the literature. Read More

Quasi-periodic pulsations (QPP) are often observed in X-ray emission from solar flares. To date, it is unclear what their physical origins are. Here, we present a multi-instrument investigation of the nature of QPP during the impulsive and decay phases of the X1. Read More

Sunspot groups are the main source of solar flares, with the energy to power them being supplied by magnetic-field evolution (e.g. flux emergence or twisting/shearing). Read More

The systematic monitoring of the solar wind in high-cadence and high-resolution heliospheric images taken by the Solar-Terrestrial Relation Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft permits the study of the spatial and temporal evolution of variable solar wind flows from the Sun out to 1~AU, and beyond. As part of the EU Framework 7 (FP7) Heliospheric Cataloguing, Analysis and Techniques Service (HELCATS) project, we have generated a catalogue listing the properties of 190 corotating structures well-observed in images taken by the Heliospheric Imager instruments on-board STEREO-A. We present here one of very few long-term analyses of solar wind structures advected by the background solar wind. Read More

Context. The Sun is an active source of radio emission ranging from long duration radio bursts associated with solar flares and coronal mass ejections to more complex, short duration radio bursts such as solar S bursts, radio spikes and fibre bursts. While plasma emission is thought to be the dominant emission mechanism for most radio bursts, the electron-cyclotron maser (ECM) mechanism may be responsible for more complex, short-duration bursts as well as fine structures associated with long-duration bursts. Read More

Rational design of artificial lattices yields effects unavailable in simple solids, and vertical superlattices of multilayer semiconductors are already used in optical sensors and emitters. Manufacturing lateral superlattices remains a much bigger challenge, with new opportunities offered by the use of moire patterns in van der Waals heterostructures of graphene and hexagonal crystals such as boron nitride (h-BN). Experiments to date have elucidated the novel electronic structure of highly aligned graphene/h-BN heterostructures, where miniband edges and saddle points in the electronic dispersion can be reached by electrostatic gating. Read More

The fractional quantum Hall (FQH) effect is a canonical example of electron-electron interactions producing new ground states in many-body systems. Most FQH studies have focused on the lowest Landau level (LL), whose fractional states are successfully explained by the composite fermion (CF) model, in which an even number of magnetic flux quanta are attached to an electron and where states form the sequence of filling factors $\nu = p/(2mp \pm 1)$, with $m$ and $p$ positive integers. In the widely-studied GaAs-based system, the CF picture is thought to become unstable for the $N \geq 2$ LL, where larger residual interactions between CFs are predicted and competing many-body phases have been observed. Read More

The physical processes that trigger solar flares are not well understood and significant debate remains around processes governing particle acceleration, energy partition, and particle and energy transport. Observations at high resolution in energy, time, and space are required in multiple energy ranges over the whole course of many flares in order to build an understanding of these processes. Obtaining high-quality, co-temporal data from ground- and space- based instruments is crucial to achieving this goal and was the primary motivation for starting the Max Millennium program and Major Flare Watch (MFW) alerts, aimed at coordinating observations of all flares >X1 GOES X-ray classification (including those partially occulted by the limb). Read More

Top-down information plays a central role in human perception, but plays relatively little role in many current state-of-the-art deep networks, such as Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). This work seeks to explore a path by which top-down information can have a direct impact within current deep networks. We explore this path by learning and using "generators" corresponding to the network internal effects of three types of transformation (each a restriction of a general affine transformation): rotation, scaling, and translation. Read More

Large and magnetically complex sunspot groups are known to be associated with flares. To date, the Mount Wilson scheme has been used to classify sunspot groups based on their morphological and magnetic properties. The most flare prolific class, the delta sunspot-group, is characterised by opposite polarity umbrae within a common penumbra, separated by less than 2 degrees. Read More

We seek to improve deep neural networks by generalizing the pooling operations that play a central role in current architectures. We pursue a careful exploration of approaches to allow pooling to learn and to adapt to complex and variable patterns. The two primary directions lie in (1) learning a pooling function via (two strategies of) combining of max and average pooling, and (2) learning a pooling function in the form of a tree-structured fusion of pooling filters that are themselves learned. Read More

The radio signature of a shock travelling through the solar corona is known as a type II solar radio burst. In rare cases these bursts can exhibit a fine structure known as `herringbones', which are a direct indicator of particle acceleration occurring at the shock front. However, few studies have been performed on herringbones and the details of the underlying particle acceleration processes are unknown. Read More

The fields of solar radiophysics and solar system radio physics, or radio heliophysics, will benefit immensely from an instrument with the capabilities projected for SKA. Potential applications include interplanetary scintillation (IPS), radio-burst tracking, and solar spectral radio imaging with a superior sensitivity. These will provide breakthrough new insights and results in topics of fundamental importance, such as the physics of impulsive energy releases, magnetohydrodynamic oscillations and turbulence, the dynamics of post-eruptive processes, energetic particle acceleration, the structure of the solar wind and the development and evolution of solar wind transients at distances up to and beyond the orbit of the Earth. Read More

Graphene monolayers are known to display domains of anisotropic friction with twofold symmetry and anisotropy exceeding 200 percent. This anisotropy has been thought to originate from periodic nanoscale ripples in the graphene sheet, which enhance puckering around a sliding asperity to a degree determined by the sliding direction. Here we demonstrate that these frictional domains derive not from structural features in the graphene, but from self-assembly of atmospheric adsorbates into a highly regular superlattice of stripes with period 4 to 6 nm. Read More

Ellerman Bombs (EBs) are thought to arise as a result of photospheric magnetic reconnection. We use data from the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST), to study EB events on the solar disk and at the limb. Both datasets show that EBs are connected to the foot-points of forming chromospheric jets. Read More

Aims. To understand the morphology of the chromosphere in sunspot umbra. We investigate if the horizontal structures observed in the spectral core of the Ca II H line are ephemeral visuals caused by the shock dynamics of more stable structures, and examine their relationship with observables in the H-alpha line. Read More

As the most energetic eruptions in the solar system, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can produce shock waves at both their front and flanks as they erupt from the Sun into the heliosphere. However, the amount of energy produced in these eruptions, and the proportion of their energy required to produce the waves, is not well characterised. Here we use observations of a solar eruption from 2014 February 25 to estimate the energy budget of an erupting CME and the globally-propagating "EIT wave" produced by the rapid expansion of the CME flanks in the low solar corona. Read More

Solar flare hard X-rays (HXRs) are produced as bremsstrahlung when an accelerated population of electrons interacts with the dense chromospheric plasma. HXR observations presented by using the Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) have shown that HXR source sizes are 3-6 times more extended in height than those predicted by the standard collisional thick target model (CTTM). Several possible explanations have been put forward including the multi-threaded nature of flare loops, pitch-angle scattering, and magnetic mirroring. Read More

Electrolyte gating is a powerful technique for accumulating large carrier densities in surface two-dimensional electron systems (2DES). Yet this approach suffers from significant sources of disorder: electrochemical reactions can damage or alter the surface of interest, and the ions of the electrolyte and various dissolved contaminants sit Angstroms from the 2DES. Accordingly, electrolyte gating is well-suited to studies of superconductivity and other phenomena robust to disorder, but of limited use when reactions or disorder must be avoided. Read More

Our proposed deeply-supervised nets (DSN) method simultaneously minimizes classification error while making the learning process of hidden layers direct and transparent. We make an attempt to boost the classification performance by studying a new formulation in deep networks. Three aspects in convolutional neural networks (CNN) style architectures are being looked at: (1) transparency of the intermediate layers to the overall classification; (2) discriminativeness and robustness of learned features, especially in the early layers; (3) effectiveness in training due to the presence of the exploding and vanishing gradients. Read More

Using multi-wavelength imaging observations, in EUV, white light and radio, and radio spectral data over a large frequency range, we analyzed the triggering and development of a complex eruptive event. This one includes two components, an eruptive jet and a CME which interact during more than 30 min, and can be considered as physically linked. This was an unusual event. Read More

The Sun is an active source of radio emission which is often associated with energetic phenomena such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). At low radio frequencies (<100 MHz), the Sun has not been imaged extensively because of the instrumental limitations of previous radio telescopes. Here, the combined high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution of the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) was used to study solar Type III radio bursts at 30-90 MHz and their association with CMEs. Read More

Cosmic rays and solar energetic particles may be accelerated to relativistic energies by shock waves in astrophysical plasmas. On the Sun, shocks and particle acceleration are often associated with the eruption of magnetized plasmoids, called coronal mass ejections (CMEs). However, the physical relationship between CMEs and shock particle acceleration is not well understood. Read More

Many convex optimization methods are conceived of and analyzed in a largely separate fashion. In contrast to this traditional separation, this manuscript points out and demonstrates the utility of an important but largely unremarked common thread running through many prominent optimization methods. In particular, we show that methods such as successive orthogonal projection, gradient descent, projected gradient descent, the proximal-point method, forward-backward splitting, the alternating direction method of multipliers, and under- or over-relaxed variants of the preceding all involve updates that are of a common type --- namely, the updates satisfy a property known as pseudocontractivity. Read More

The continuous stream of data available from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) telescopes onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft has allowed a deeper understanding of the Sun. However, the sheer volume of data has necessitated the development of automated techniques to identify and analyse various phenomena. In this article, we describe the Coronal Pulse Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CorPITA) for the identification and analysis of coronal "EIT waves". Read More

Super-Alfv\'enic shock waves associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can produce radio emission known as Type II bursts. In the absence of direct imaging, accurate estimates of coronal electron densities, magnetic field strengths and Alfv\'en speeds are required in order to calculate the kinematics of shocks. To date, 1D radial models have been used, but these are not appropriate for shocks propagating in non-radial directions. Read More

We test the compatibility and biases of multi-thermal flare DEM (differential emission measure) peak temperatures determined with AIA with those determined by GOES and RHESSI using the isothermal assumption. In a set of 149 M- and X-class flares observed during the first two years of the SDO mission, AIA finds DEM peak temperatures at the time of the peak GOES 1-8 A flux to have an average of Tp = 12.0+/-2. Read More

A special class of autonomous algebraic differential equations is studied. No equations in the class have any entire transcendental solutions. In a sense, for almost all equations in the class, transcendental meromorphic solutions can also be excluded. Read More

We report low-temperature magnetoconductance measurements of a patterned two-dimensional electron system (2DES) at the surface of strontium titanate, gated by an ionic liquid electrolyte. We observe universal conductance fluctuations, a signature of phase-coherent transport in mesoscopic devices. From the universal conductance fluctuations we extract an electron dephasing rate linear in temperature, characteristic of electron-electron interaction in a disordered conductor. Read More

The study of solar eruptive events and associated phenomena is of great importance in the context of solar and heliophysics. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and coronal waves are energetic manifestations of the restructuring of the solar magnetic field and mass motion of the plasma. Characterising this motion is vital for deriving the dynamics of these events and thus understanding the physics driving their initiation and propagation. Read More

Context: Solar flare hard X-rays (HXRs) are thought to be produced by nonthermal coronal electrons stopping in the chromosphere, or remaining trapped in the corona. The collisional thick target model (CTTM) predicts that sources produced by harder power-law injection spectra should appear further down the legs or footpoints of a flare loop. Therefore, hardening of the injected power-law electron spectrum during flare onset should be concurrent with a descending hard X-ray source. Read More

Solar flares are powered by energy stored in the coronal magnetic field, a portion of which is released when the field reconfigures into a lower energy state. Investigation of sunspot magnetic field topology during flare activity is useful to improve our understanding of flaring processes. Here we investigate the deviation of the non-linear field configuration from that of the linear and potential configurations, and study the free energy available leading up to and after a flare. Read More

The Sun Watcher with Active Pixels and Image Processing (SWAP) is an EUV solar telescope on board ESA's Project for Onboard Autonomy 2 (PROBA2) mission launched on 2 November 2009. SWAP has a spectral bandpass centered on 17.4 nm and provides images of the low solar corona over a 54x54 arcmin field-of-view with 3. Read More

Studying CMEs in coronagraph data can be challenging due to their diffuse structure and transient nature, and user-specific biases may be introduced through visual inspection of the images. The large amount of data available from the SOHO, STEREO, and future coronagraph missions, also makes manual cataloguing of CMEs tedious, and so a robust method of detection and analysis is required. This has led to the development of automated CME detection and cata- loguing packages such as CACTus, SEEDS and ARTEMIS. Read More

Solar flare X-ray emission results from rapidly increasing temperatures and emission measures in flaring active region loops. To date, observations from the X-Ray Sensor (XRS) onboard the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) have been used to derive these properties, but have been limited by a number of factors, including the lack of a consistent background subtraction method capable of being automatically applied to large numbers of flares. In this paper, we describe an automated temperature and emission measure-based background subtraction method (TEBBS), which builds on the methods of Bornmann (1990). Read More

Understanding coronal mass ejection (CME) energetics and dynamics has been a long-standing problem, and although previous observational estimates have been made, such studies have been hindered by large uncertainties in CME mass. Here, the two vantage points of the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) COR1 and COR2 coronagraphs were used to accurately estimate the mass of the 2008 December 12 CME. Acceleration estimates derived from the position of the CME front in 3-D were combined with the mass estimates to calculate the magnitude of the kinetic energy and driving force at different stages of the CME evolution. Read More

Solar flares occur in complex sunspot groups, but it remains unclear how the probability of producing a flare of a given magnitude relates to the characteristics of the sunspot group. Here, we use Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite X-ray flares and McIntosh group classifications from solar cycles 21 and 22 to calculate average flare rates for each McIntosh class and use these to determine Poisson probabilities for different flare magnitudes. Forecast verification measures are studied to find optimum thresholds to convert Poisson flare probabilities into yes/no predictions of cycle 23 flares. Read More

We report on transport properties of Josephson junctions in hybrid superconducting-topological insulator devices, which show two striking departures from the common Josephson junction behavior: a characteristic energy that scales inversely with the width of the junction, and a low characteristic magnetic field for suppressing supercurrent. To explain these effects, we propose a phenomenological model which expands on the existing theory for topological insulator Josephson junctions. Read More

The solar surface and atmosphere are highly dynamic plasma environments, which evolve over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Large-scale eruptions, such as coronal mass ejections, can be accelerated to millions of kilometres per hour in a matter of minutes, making their automated detection and characterisation challenging. Additionally, there are numerous faint solar features, such as coronal holes and coronal dimmings, which are important for space weather monitoring and forecasting, but their low intensity and sometimes transient nature makes them problematic to detect using traditional image processing techniques. Read More

Coronal bright fronts (CBFs) are large scale wavefronts that propagate though the solar corona at hundreds of kilometers per second. While their kinematics have been studied in detail, many questions remain regarding the temporal evolution of their amplitude and pulse width. Here, contemporaneous high cadence, multi-thermal observations of the solar corona from the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) and Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft are used to determine the kinematics and expansion rate of a CBF wavefront observed on 2010 August 14. Read More

We present an overview of solar flares and associated phenomena, drawing upon a wide range of observational data primarily from the RHESSI era. Following an introductory discussion and overview of the status of observational capabilities, the article is split into topical sections which deal with different areas of flare phenomena (footpoints and ribbons, coronal sources, relationship to coronal mass ejections) and their interconnections. We also discuss flare soft X-ray spectroscopy and the energetics of the process. Read More