P. D. Lett - National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg

P. D. Lett
Are you P. D. Lett?

Claim your profile, edit publications, add additional information:

Contact Details

P. D. Lett
National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg
United States

Pubs By Year

Pub Categories

Quantum Physics (22)
Physics - Atomic Physics (8)
Physics - Optics (8)
Physics - Other (4)
Physics - Statistical Mechanics (2)
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (1)
Physics - Soft Condensed Matter (1)

Publications Authored By P. D. Lett

The SU(1,1) interferometer can be thought of as a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with its linear beamsplitters replaced with parametric nonlinear optical processes. We consider the cases of bright and vacuum-seeded SU(1,1) interferometers using intensity or homodyne detectors. A simplified, truncated scheme with only one nonlinear interaction is introduced, which not only beats conventional intensity detection with a bright seed, but can saturate the phase sensitivity bound set by the quantum Fisher information. Read More

An SU(1,1) interferometer replaces the beamsplitters in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with nonlinear interactions and offers the potential of achieving high phase sensitivity in applications with low optical powers. We present a novel variation in which the second nonlinear interaction is replaced with balanced homodyne detection. The phase-sensing quantum state is a two-mode squeezed state produced by seeded four-wave-mixing in Rb vapor. Read More

Many optical applications depend on amplitude modulating optical beams using devices such as acousto-optical modulators (AOMs) or optical choppers. Methods to add amplitude modulation (AM) often inadvertently impart phase modulation (PM) onto the light as well. While this PM is of no consequence to many phase-insensitive applications, phase-sensitive processes can be affected. Read More

Four-wave mixing in atomic vapor allows for the generation of multi-spatial-mode states of light containing many pairs of two-mode entangled vacuum beams. This in principle can be used to send independent secure keys to multiple parties simultaneously using a single light source. In our experiment, we demonstrate this spatial multiplexing of information by selecting three independent pairs of entangled modes and performing continuous-variable measurements to verify the correlations between entangled partners. Read More

Although it is widely accepted that classical information cannot travel faster than the speed of light in vacuum, the behavior of quantum correlations and quantum information propagating through actively-pumped fast-light media has not been studied in detail. To investigate this behavior, we send one half of an entangled state of light through a gain-assisted fast-light medium and detect the remaining quantum correlations. We show that the quantum correlations can be advanced by a small fraction of the correlation time while the entanglement is preserved even in the presence of noise added by phase-insensitive gain. Read More

We present experimental observations of coherent spin-population oscillations in a cold thermal, Bose gas of spin-1 sodium-23 atoms. The population oscillations in a multi-spatial-mode thermal gas have the same behavior as those observed in a single-spatial-mode antiferromagnetic spinor Bose Einstein condensate. We demonstrate this by showing that the two situations are described by the same dynamical equations, with a factor of two change in the spin-dependent interaction coefficient, which results from the change to particles with distinguishable momentum states in the thermal gas. Read More

We use the quantum correlations of twin-beams of light to probe the added noise when one of the beams propagates through a medium with anomalous dispersion. The experiment is based on two successive four-wave mixing processes in rubidium vapor, which allow for the generation of bright two-mode-squeezed twin-beams followed by a controlled advancement while maintaining the shared quantum-correlations between the beams. The demonstrated effect allows the study of irreversible decoherence in a medium exhibiting anomalous dispersion, and for the first time shows the advancement of a bright nonclassical state of light. Read More

We report the generation of a squeezed vacuum state of light whose noise ellipse rotates as a function of the detection frequency. The squeezed state is generated via a four-wave mixing process in a vapor of 85Rb. We observe that rotation varies with experimental parameters such as pump power and laser detunings. Read More

We show that portions of an image written into a gradient echo memory can be individually retrieved or erased on demand, an important step towards processing a spatially multiplexed quantum signal. Targeted retrieval is achieved by locally addressing the transverse plane of the storage medium, a warm 85Rb vapor, with a far-detuned control beam. Spatially addressable erasure is similarly implemented by imaging a bright beam tuned near the 85Rb D1 line in order to scatter photons and induce decoherence. Read More

Using four-wave mixing in a hot atomic vapor, we generate a pair of entangled twin beams in the microsecond pulsed regime near the D1 line of $^{85}$Rb, making it compatible with commonly used quantum memory techniques. The beams are generated in the bright and vacuum-squeezed regimes, requiring two separate methods of analysis, without and with local oscillators, respectively. We report a noise reduction of up to $3. Read More

We experimentally determine the quantum discord present in two-mode squeezed vacuum generated by a four-wave mixing process in hot rubidium vapor. The frequency spectra of the discord, as well as the quantum and classical mutual information are also measured. In addition, the effects of symmetric attenuation introduced into both modes of the squeezed vacuum on the discord, the quantum mutual information and the classical correlations are examined experimentally. Read More

In this letter we experimentally demonstrate that the signal velocity, defined as the earliest time when a signal is detected above the realistic noise floor, may be altered by a region of anomalous dispersion. We encode information in the spatial degree of freedom of an optical pulse so that the imprinted information is not limited by the frequency bandwidth of the region of anomalous dispersion. We then show that the combination of superluminal pulse propagation and realistic detectors with non-ideal quantum efficiency leads to a speed-up of the earliest experimentally obtainable arrival time of the transmitted signal even with the overall pulse experiencing unity gain. Read More

We have built a compact light source for bright squeezed twin-beams at 795\,nm based on four-wave-mixing in atomic $^{85}$Rb vapor. With a total optical power of 400\,mW derived from a free running diode laser and a tapered amplifier to pump the four-wave-mixing process, we achieve 2.1\,dB intensity difference squeezing of the twin beams below the standard quantum limit, without accounting for losses. Read More

We show that it is possible to estimate the shape of an object by measuring only the fluctuations of a probing field, allowing us to expose the object to a minimal light intensity. This scheme, based on noise measurements through homodyne detection, is useful in the regime where the number of photons is low enough that direct detection with a photodiode is difficult but high enough such that photon counting is not an option. We generate a few-photon state of multi-spatial-mode vacuum-squeezed twin beams using four-wave mixing and direct one of these twin fields through a binary intensity mask whose shape is to be imaged. Read More

We report the experimental demonstration of the superluminal propagation of multi-spatial-mode images via four-wave mixing in hot atomic vapor, in which all spatial sub-regions propagate with negative group velocities. We investigate the spatial mode properties and temporal reshaping of the fast light images, and show large relative pulse peak advancements of up to 64% of the input pulse width. The degree of temporal reshaping is quantified and increases as the relative pulse peak advancement increases. Read More

We study the storage and retrieval of images in a hot atomic vapor using the gradient echo memory protocol. We demonstrate that this technique allows for the storage of multiple spatial modes. We study both spatial and temporal multiplexing by storing a sequence of two different images in the atomic vapor. Read More

We report on the four-wave mixing of superluminal pulses, in which both the injected and generated pulses involved in the process propagate with negative group velocities. Generated pulses with negative group velocities of up to $v_{g}=-1/880c$ are demonstrated, corresponding to the generated pulse's peak exiting the 1.7\,cm long medium $\approx50$\,ns earlier than if it had propagated at the speed of light in vacuum, $c$. Read More

We show that it is possible to use the spatial quantum correlations present in twin beams to extract information about the shape of a mask in the path of one of the beams. The scheme, based on noise measurements through homodyne detection, is useful in the regime where the number of photons is low enough that direct detection with a photodiode is difficult but high enough that photon counting is not an option. We find that under some conditions the use of quantum states of light leads to an enhancement of the sensitivity in the estimation of the shape of the mask over what can be achieved with a classical state with equivalent properties (mean photon flux and noise properties). Read More

We present an experimental realization of a low-noise, phase-insensitive optical amplifier using a four-wave mixing interaction in hot Rb vapor. Performance near the quantum limit for a range of amplifier gains, including near unity, can be achieved. Such low-noise amplifiers are essential for so-called quantum cloning machines and are useful in quantum information protocols. Read More

We characterize fluctuations in atom number and spin populations in F=1 sodium spinor condensates. We find that the fluctuations enable a quantitative measure of energy dissipation in the condensate. The time evolution of the population fluctuations shows a maximum. Read More

Condensates of spin-1 sodium display rich spin dynamics due to the antiferromagnetic nature of the interactions in this system. We use Faraday rotation spectroscopy to make a continuous and minimally destructive measurement of the dynamics over multiple spin oscillations on a single evolving condensate. This method provides a sharp signature to locate a magnetically tuned separatrix in phase space which depends on the net magnetization. Read More

Entangled multi-spatial-mode fields have interesting applications in quantum information, such as parallel quantum information protocols, quantum computing, and quantum imaging. We study the use of a nondegenerate four-wave mixing process in rubidium vapor at 795 nm to demonstrate generation of quantum-entangled images. Owing to the lack of an optical resonator cavity, the four-wave mixing scheme generates inherently multi-spatial-mode output fields. Read More

We have observed a violation of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality in the macroscopic regime by more than 8 standard deviations. The violation has been obtained while filtering out only the low frequency noise of the quantum-correlated beams that results from the technical noise of the laser used to generate them. We use bright intensity-difference squeezed beams produced by four-wave mixing as the source of the correlated fields. Read More

We generate spatially multimode twin beams using 4-wave mixing in a hot atomic vapor in a phase-insensitive traveling-wave amplifier configuration. The far-field coherence area measured at 3.5 MHz is shown to be much smaller than the angular bandwidth of the process and bright twin images with independently quantum-correlated sub-areas can be generated with little distortion. Read More

We observe coherent spin oscillations in an antiferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate of sodium. The variation of the spin oscillations with magnetic field shows a clear signature of nonlinearity, in agreement with theory, which also predicts anharmonic oscillations near a critical magnetic field. Measurements of the magnetic phase diagram agree with predictions made in the approximation of a single spatial mode. Read More

We have observed the ultraslow propagation of matched pulses in nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a hot atomic vapor. Probe pulses as short as 70 ns can be delayed by a tunable time of up to 40 ns with little broadening or distortion. During the propagation, a probe pulse is amplified and generates a conjugate pulse which is faster and separates from the probe pulse before getting locked to it at a fixed delay. Read More

We show that a simple scheme based on nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a hot atomic vapor behaves like a near-perfect phase-insensitive optical amplifier, which can generate bright twin beams with a measured quantum noise reduction in the intensity difference of more than 8 dB, close to the best optical parametric amplifiers and oscillators. The absence of a cavity makes the system immune to external perturbations, and the strong quantum noise reduction is observed over a large frequency range. Read More

Affiliations: 1National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, 2National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, 3National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, 4National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, 5National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg

We study the time-resolved photoassociation of ultracold sodium in an optical dipole trap. The photoassociation laser excites pairs of atoms to molecular states of large total angular momentum at high intensities (above 20 kW/cm$^{2}$). Such transitions are generally suppressed at ultracold temperatures by the centrifugal barriers for high partial waves. Read More

We have measured -3.5 dB (-8.1 dB corrected for losses) relative intensity squeezing between the probe and conjugate beams generated by stimulated, nondegenerate four-wave mixing in hot rubidium vapor. Read More

We demonsatrate an all optical technique to evaporatively produce sodium Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC). We use a crossed-dipole trap formed from light near 1060 nm, and a simple ramp of the intensity to force evaporation. In addition, we introduce photoassociation as diagnostic of the trap loading process, and show that it can be used to detect the onset of Bose-Einstein condensation. Read More

By driving photoassociation transitions we form electronically excited molecules (Na$_2^*$) from ultra-cold (50-300 $\mu$K) Na atoms. Using a second laser to drive transitions from the excited state to a level in the molecular ground state, we are able to split the photoassociation line and observe features with a width smaller than the natural linewidth of the excited molecular state. The quantum interference which gives rise to this effect is analogous to that which leads to electromagnetically induced transparency in three level atomic $\Lambda$ systems, but here one of the ground states is a pair of free atoms while the other is a bound molecule. Read More

We report on the formation of ultra-cold Na$_2$ molecules using single-photon photoassociation of a Bose-Einstein condensate. The photoassociation rate, linewidth and light shift of the J=1, $v=135$ vibrational level of the \mterm{A}{1}{+}{u} molecular bound state have been measured. We find that the photoassociation rate constant increases linearly with intensity, even where it is predicted that many-body effects might limit the rate. Read More