O. D. Fox - UCB

O. D. Fox
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O. D. Fox
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UCB
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High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (36)
 
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (32)
 
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (16)
 
Astrophysics of Galaxies (6)

Publications Authored By O. D. Fox

With the advent of new wide-field, high-cadence optical transient surveys, our understanding of the diversity of core-collapse supernovae has grown tremendously in the last decade. However, the pre-supernova evolution of massive stars, that sets the physical backdrop to these violent events, is theoretically not well understood and difficult to probe observationally. Here we report the discovery of the supernova iPTF13dqy = SN 2013fs, a mere ~3 hr after explosion. Read More

SN2005ip was a TypeIIn event notable for its sustained strong interaction with circumstellar material (CSM), coronal emission lines, and IR excess, interpreted as shock interaction with the very dense and clumpy wind of an extreme red supergiant. We present a series of late-time spectra of SN2005ip and a first radio detection of this SN, plus late-time X-rays, all of which indicate that its CSM interaction is still strong a decade post-explosion. We also present and discuss new spectra of geriatric SNe with continued CSM interaction: SN1988Z, SN1993J, and SN1998S. Read More

SN 2013ej is a well-studied core-collapse supernova (SN) that stemmed from a directly identified red supergiant (RSG) progenitor in galaxy M74. The source exhibits signs of substantial geometric asphericity, X-rays from persistent interaction with circumstellar material (CSM), thermal emission from warm dust, and a light curve that appears intermediate between supernovae of Types II-P and II-L. The proximity of this source motivates a close inspection of these physical characteristics and their potential interconnection. Read More

2016Nov
Affiliations: 1STScI, 2IPAC/Caltech, 3NASA Goddard, 4Steward Observatory, 5UC Berkeley, 6Steward Observatory, 7CRESST/UMBC/GSFC, 8UC Santa Cruz/University of Illinois, 9UC Berkeley, 10JPL/Caltech, 11UC Berkeley

The nature of the progenitor star (or system) for the Type IIn supernova (SN) subclass remains uncertain. While there are direct imaging constraints on the progenitors of at least four Type IIn supernovae, one of them being SN 2010jl, ambiguities remain in the interpretation of the unstable progenitors and the explosive events themselves. A blue source in pre-explosion HST/WFPC2 images falls within the 5 sigma astrometric error circle derived from post-explosion ground-based imaging of SN 2010jl. Read More

Type Ibn supernovae are a small yet intriguing class of explosions whose spectra are characterized by low-velocity helium emission lines with little to no evidence for hydrogen. The prevailing theory has been that these are the core-collapse explosions of very massive stars embedded in helium-rich circumstellar material. We report optical observations of six new Type Ibn supernovae: PTF11rfh, PTF12ldy, iPTF14aki, iPTF15ul, SN 2015G, and iPTF15akq. Read More

We present multi-epoch mid-infrared (IR) photometry and the optical discovery observations of the "impostor" supernova (SN) 2010da in NGC 300 using new and archival Spitzer Space Telescope images and ground-based observatories. The mid-IR counterpart of SN 2010da was detected as SPIRITS 14bme in the SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transient Survey (SPIRITS), an ongoing systematic search for IR transients. A sharp increase in the 3. Read More

SN 2013df is a nearby Type IIb supernova that seems to be the spectroscopic twin of the well-known SN 1993J. Previous studies revealed many, but not all interesting properties of this event. Our goal was to add new understanding of both the early and late-time phases of SN 2013df. Read More

Ultraviolet (UV) observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) probe the outermost layers of the explosion, and UV spectra of SNe Ia are expected to be extremely sensitive to differences in progenitor composition and the details of the explosion. Here we present the first study of a sample of high signal-to-noise ratio SN Ia spectra that extend blueward of 2900 A. We focus on spectra taken within 5 days of maximum brightness. Read More

We present a systematic study of mid-infrared (mid-IR) emission from 141 nearby supernovae (SNe) observed with the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on Spitzer.These SNe reside in one of the 190 galaxies within 20 Mpc drawn from the ongoing SPIRITS program. We detect 8 Type Ia SNe and 36 core-collapse SNe. Read More

2015Oct
Affiliations: 1STScI, 2Weizmann, 3Caltech, 4Steward, 5Boulder, 6STScI/Penn State, 7Maryland/CRESST, 8Minnesota, 9Caltech, 10FSU, 11IPAC, 12Indian Institute of Astrophysics, 13Steward, 14Caltech, 15IPAC

Supernovae Type Iax (SNe Iax) are less energetic and less luminous than typical thermonuclear explosions. A suggested explanation for the observed characteristics of this subclass is a binary progenitor system consisting of a CO white dwarf primary accreting from a helium star companion. A single-degenerate explosion channel might be expected to result in a dense circumstellar medium (CSM), although no evidence for such a CSM has yet been observed for this subclass. Read More

We present our extensive observational campaign on the Swift-discovered GRB141121A, al- most ten years after its launch. Our observations covers radio through X-rays, and extends for more than 30 days after discovery. The prompt phase of GRB 141121A lasted 1410 s and, at the derived redshift of z = 1. Read More

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous explosions in the universe, yet the nature and physical properties of their energy sources are far from understood. Very important clues, however, can be inferred by studying the afterglows of these events. We present optical and X-ray observations of GRB 130831A obtained by Swift, Chandra, Skynet, RATIR, Maidanak, ISON, NOT, LT and GTC. Read More

2015Sep
Affiliations: 1UC Berkeley, 2Steward, 3Lawrence Livermore, 4Steward, 5UC Davis, 6NASA Goddard/UMD, 7LSU, 8NASA Goddard, 9UC Berkeley, 10University of Cincinnati, 11UC Berkeley, 12UC Berkeley, 13Caltech, 14IPAC

SN 2006gy was the most luminous SN ever observed at the time of its discovery and the first of the newly defined class of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe). The extraordinary energetics of SN 2006gy and all SLSNe (>10^51 erg) require either atypically large explosion energies (e.g. Read More

We present photometric observations from the {\it Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)} at 11.1 $\mu$m of the Type IIn supernova (SN IIn) 2010jl. The SN is undetected by {\it SOFIA}, but the upper limits obtained, combined with new and archival detections from {\it Spitzer} at 3. Read More

SN 2013dy is a Type Ia supernova for which we have compiled an extraordinary dataset spanning from 0.1 to ~ 500 days after explosion. We present 10 epochs of ultraviolet (UV) through near-infrared (NIR) spectra with HST/STIS, 47 epochs of optical spectra (15 of them having high resolution), and more than 500 photometric observations in the BVrRiIZYJH bands. Read More

We present medium resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectra, covering 1.1 to 3.4 microns, of the normal Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) SN 2014J in M82 obtained with the FLITECAM instrument aboard SOFIA approximately 17-25 days after maximum B light. Read More

We present optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometry of 28 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the \textit{Swift} satellite and rapidly observed by the Reionization and Transients Infrared/Optical (RATIR) camera. We compare the optical flux at fiducial times of 5.5 and 11 hours after the high-energy trigger to that in the X-ray regime to quantify optical darkness. Read More

SN 2014J in M82 is the closest Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in decades. The proximity allows for detailed studies of supernova physics and provides insights into the circumstellar and interstellar environment. In this work we analyze Spitzer mid-IR data of SN 2014J in the 3. Read More

A growing subset of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) show evidence for unexpected interaction with a dense circumstellar medium (SNe Ia-CSM). The precise nature of the progenitor, however, remains debated owing to spectral ambiguities arising from a strong contribution from the CSM interaction. Late-time spectra offer potential insight if the post-shock cold, dense shell becomes sufficiently thin and/or the ejecta begin to cross the reverse shock. Read More

The well-studied Type IIn supernova (SN) 1998S is often dubbed the prototypical SN IIn, and it provides a unique opportunity to study its progenitor star from within as the SN lights up dense circumstellar material (CSM) launched from the progenitor. Here we present a Keck HIRES spectrum of SN 1998S taken within a few days after core collapse - both the earliest high-resolution ($\Delta\lambda < 1.0\,\AA$) spectrum published of a SN IIn and the earliest published spectrum of SN 1998S. Read More

The origin of dust in galaxies is still a mystery. The majority of the refractory elements are produced in supernova explosions but it is unclear how and where dust grains condense and grow, and how they avoid destruction in the harsh environments of star-forming galaxies. The recent detection of 0. Read More

2014May
Affiliations: 1UC Berkeley, 2STScI, 3Caltech, 4UC Berkeley, 5Stockholm University, 6NOAO, 7NASA Goddard, 8TIFA, 9Chicago, 10UC Berkeley, 11UC Berkeley, 12Steward

The Type IIb supernova (SN) 1993J is one of only a few stripped-envelope supernovae with a progenitor star identified in pre-explosion images. SN IIb models typically invoke H envelope stripping by mass transfer in a binary system. For the case of SN 1993J, the models suggest that the companion grew to 22 M_solar and became a source of ultraviolet (UV) excess. Read More

We present spectropolarimetry of SN 2009ip throughout the evolution of its 2012 explosion. During the initial 2012a phase, when the source spectrum exhibits broad P-Cygni lines, we measure a V-band polarization of P~0.9% at a position angle of ~166 deg, indicating substantial asphericity for the 2012a outflow. Read More

We constrain the properties of the progenitor system of the highly reddened Type Ia supernova (SN) 2014J in Messier 82 (M82; d ~ 3.5 Mpc). We determine the SN location using Keck-II K-band adaptive optics images, and we find no evidence for flux from a progenitor system in pre-explosion near-ultraviolet through near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. Read More

We present a template fitting algorithm for determining photometric redshifts, $z_{\rm phot}$, of candidate high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Using afterglow photometry, obtained by the Reionization And Transients InfraRed (RATIR) camera, this algorithm accounts for the intrinsic GRB afterglow spectral energy distribution (SED), host dust extinction and the effect of neutral hydrogen (local and cosmological) along the line of sight. We present the results obtained by this algorithm and RATIR photometry of GRB 130606A, finding a range of best fit solutions $5. Read More

We have obtained early-time photometry and spectroscopy of Supernova (SN) 2013df in NGC 4414. The SN is clearly of Type IIb, with notable similarities to SN 1993J. From its luminosity at secondary maximum light, it appears that less $^{56}$Ni ($\lesssim 0. Read More

We report the serendipitous discovery of a bright point source flare in the Abell cluster 1795 with archival EUVE and Chandra observations. Assuming the EUVE emission is associated with the Chandra source, the X-ray 0.5-7 keV flux declined by a factor of ~2300 over a time span of 6 years, following a power-law decay with index ~2. Read More

GRB 130702A is a nearby long-duration gamma-ray burst (LGRB) discovered by the Fermi satellite whose associated afterglow was detected by the Palomar Transient Factory. Subsequent photometric and spectroscopic monitoring has identified a coincident broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN), and nebular emission detected near the explosion site is consistent with a redshift of z=0.145. Read More

The Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) SN 2000cx was one of the most peculiar transients ever discovered, with a rise to maximum brightness typical of a SN Ia, but a slower decline and a higher photospheric temperature. Thirteen years later SN 2013bh (aka iPTF13abc), a near identical twin, was discovered and we obtained optical and near-IR photometry and low-resolution optical spectroscopy from discovery until about 1 month past r-band maximum brightness. The spectra of both objects show iron-group elements (Co II, Ni II, Fe II, Fe III, and high-velocity features [HVFs] of Ti II), intermediate-mass elements (Si II, Si III, and S II), and separate normal velocity features (~12000 km/s) and HVFs (~24000 km/s) of Ca II. Read More

2013May
Affiliations: 1Spitzer Science Center/Caltech, 2UC Berkeley, 3UC Berkeley, 4UC Berkeley, 5UC Berkeley, 6University of Arizona, 7UC Berkeley, 8UC Berkeley, 9UC Berkeley, 10Lawrence Berkeley National Lab

We conducted Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Snapshot observations of the Type IIb Supernova (SN) 2011dh in M51 at an age of ~641 days with the Wide Field Camera 3. We find that the yellow supergiant star, clearly detected in pre-SN HST images, has disappeared, implying that this star was almost certainly the progenitor of the SN. Interpretation of the early-time SN data which led to the inference of a compact nature for the progenitor, and to the expected survival of this yellow supergiant, is now clearly incorrect. Read More

A growing number of observations reveal a subset of Type Ia supernovae undergoing circumstellar interaction (SNe Ia-CSM). We present unpublished archival Spitzer Space Telescope data on SNe Ia-CSM 2002ic and 2005gj obtained > 1300 and 500 days post-discovery, respectively. Both SNe show evidence for late-time mid-infrared (mid-IR) emission from warm dust. Read More

Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn) are a rare (< 10%) subclass of core-collapse SNe that exhibit relatively narrow emission lines from a dense, pre-existing circumstellar medium (CSM). In 2009, a warm Spitzer survey observed 30 SNe IIn discovered in 2003 - 2008 and detected 10 SNe at distances out to 175 Mpc with unreported late-time infrared emission, in some cases more than 5 years post-discovery. For this single epoch of data, the warm-dust parameters suggest the presence of a radiative heating source consisting of optical/X-ray emission continuously generated by ongoing CSM interaction. Read More

We present 65 optical spectra of the Type Ia supernova SN 2012fr, of which 33 were obtained before maximum light. At early times SN 2012fr shows clear evidence of a high-velocity feature (HVF) in the Si II 6355 line which can be cleanly decoupled from the lower velocity "photospheric" component. This Si II 6355 HVF fades by phase -5; subsequently, the photospheric component exhibits a very narrow velocity width and remains at a nearly constant velocity of v~12,000 km/s until at least 5 weeks after maximum brightness. Read More

We present an observational study of the Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn) 2005ip and 2006jd. Broad-band UV, optical and near-IR photometry, and visual-wavelength spectroscopy of SN 2005ip complement and extend upon published observations to 6.5 years past discovery. Read More

2011Apr
Affiliations: 1NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2UVA, 3UVA, 4Harvard-CfA, 5UC Berkeley, 6UC Berkeley, 7UC Berkeley, 8UC Berkeley, 9UC Berkeley

Recent observations suggest that Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn) may exhibit late-time (>100 days) infrared (IR) emission from warm dust more than other types of core-collapse SNe. Mid-IR observations, which span the peak of the thermal spectral energy distribution, provide useful constraints on the properties of the dust and, ultimately, the circumstellar environment, explosion mechanism, and progenitor system. Due to the low SN IIn rate (<10% of all core-collapse SNe), few IR observations exist for this subclass. Read More

This paper presents late-time near-infrared and {\it Spitzer} mid-infrared photometric and spectroscopic observations of warm dust in the Type IIn SN 2005ip in NGC 2906. The spectra show evidence for two dust components with different temperatures. Spanning the peak of the thermal emission, these observations provide strong constraints on the dust mass, temperature, and luminosity, which serve as critical diagnostics for disentangling the origin and heating mechanism of each component. Read More

Despite both being outbursts of luminous blue variables (LBVs), SN 2009ip and UGC 2773 OT2009-1 have very different progenitors, spectra, circumstellar environments, and possibly physical mechanisms that generated the outbursts. From pre-eruption HST images, we determine that SN 2009ip and UGC 2773 OT2009-1 have initial masses of >60 and >25 M_sun, respectively. Optical spectroscopy shows that at peak SN 2009ip had a 10,000 K photosphere and its spectrum was dominated by narrow H Balmer emission, similar to classical LBV giant outbursts, also known as "supernova impostors. Read More

Long duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) mark the explosive death of some massive stars and are a rare sub-class of Type Ibc supernovae (SNe Ibc). They are distinguished by the production of an energetic and collimated relativistic outflow powered by a central engine (an accreting black hole or neutron star). Observationally, this outflow is manifested in the pulse of gamma-rays and a long-lived radio afterglow. Read More

We investigate the environment of the nearby (d ~ 40Mpc) broad-lined Type Ic supernova SN 2009bb. This event was observed to produce a relativistic outflow likely powered by a central accreting compact object. While such a phenomenon was previously observed only in long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs), no LGRB was detected in association with SN 2009bb. Read More