Nikolaos E. Mavromatos - King's College London

Nikolaos E. Mavromatos
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Name
Nikolaos E. Mavromatos
Affiliation
King's College London
City
London
Country
United Kingdom

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High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (13)
 
High Energy Physics - Theory (11)
 
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (7)
 
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (4)
 
Astrophysics (3)
 
High Energy Physics - Experiment (3)
 
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (2)
 
Physics - Biological Physics (1)

Publications Authored By Nikolaos E. Mavromatos

The photon mass, $m_\gamma$, can in principle be constrained using measurements of the dispersion measures (DMs) of fast radio bursts (FRBs), once the FRB redshifts are known. The DM of the repeating FRB 121102 is known to $< 1$\%, a host galaxy has now been identified with high confidence,and its redshift, $z$, has now been determined with high accuracy: $z = 0.19273(8)$. Read More

The frequency-dependent time delays in fast radio bursts (FRBs) can be used to constrain the photon mass, if the FRB redshifts are known, but the similarity between the frequency dependences of dispersion due to plasma effects and a photon mass complicates the derivation of a limit on $m_\gamma$. The dispersion measure (DM) of FRB 150418 is known to $\sim 0.1$%, and there is a claim to have measured its redshift with an accuracy of $\sim 2$%, but the strength of the constraint on $m_\gamma$ is limited by uncertainties in the modelling of the host galaxy and the Milky Way, as well as possible inhomogeneities in the intergalactic medium (IGM). Read More

We discuss the prospects for improved upper limits on neutrino masses that may be provided by a core-collapse supernova explosion in our galaxy, if it exhibits time variations in the neutrino emissions on the scale of a few milliseconds as suggested by recent two-dimensional simulations. Analyzing simulations of such neutrino emissions using the wavelet technique adopted in [1], we find that an upper limit m_nu ~ 0.14 eV could be established at the 95% confidence level if the time variations in emissions were to be preserved during neutrino propagation to the Earth. Read More

Supernova explosions provide the most sensitive probes of neutrino propagation, such as the possibility that neutrino velocities might be affected by the foamy structure of space-time thought to be generated by quantum-gravitational (QG) effects. Recent two-dimensional simulations of the neutrino emissions from core-collapse supernovae suggest that they might exhibit variations in time on the scale of a few milliseconds. We analyze simulations of such neutrino emissions using a wavelet technique, and consider the limits that might be set on a linear or quadratic violation of Lorentz invariance in the group velocities of neutrinos of different energies, v/c = [1 \pm (E/M_{nuLV1})] or [1 \pm (E/M_{\nuLV2})^2], if variations on such short time scales were to be observed, where the mass scales M_{nuLVi} might appear in models of quantum gravity. Read More

It has been conjectured that four-dimensional N=8 supergravity may provide a suitable framework for a `Theory of Everything', if its composite SU(8) gauge fields become dynamical. We point out that supersymmetric three-dimensional coset field theories motivated by lattice models provide toy laboratories for aspects of this conjecture. They feature dynamical composite supermultiplets made of constituent holons and spinons. Read More

In this brief, and by no means complete, review I discuss situations in string theory, in which Lorentz Invariance Violation may occur in a way consistent with world-sheet conformal invariance, thereby leading to acceptable, in principle, string backgrounds. In particular, I first discuss spontaneous Lorentz violation in (non supersymmetric) open string field theory. Then, I move onto a discussion of gravity-induced modified dispersion relations in non-critical (Liouville) strings, in the sense of an induced Finsler-like geometry depending on both coordinates and momenta, for string propagation in non-trivial space times (such as D-particle ``foamy situations''). Read More

In these Lectures I review possible constraints on particle physics models, obtained by means of combining the results of collider measurements with astrophysical data. I emphasize the theoretical-model dependence of these results. I discuss supersymmetric dark matter constraints at colliders (mainly LHC) in various theoretical contexts: the standard Cosmological-Constant-Cold-Dark-Matter (Lambda-CDM) model, (super)string-inspired ones and non-equilibrium relaxation dark energy models. Read More

We perform fits of unconventional dark energy models to the available data from high-redshift supernovae, distant galaxies and baryon oscillations. The models are based either on brane cosmologies or on Liouville strings in which a relaxation dark energy is provided by a rolling dilaton field (Q-cosmology). An interesting feature of such cosmologies is the possibility of effective four-dimensional negative-energy dust and/or exotic scaling of dark matter. Read More

In this review, I first discuss briefly some theoretical motivations for potential Lorentz Violation and deviation from ordinary quantum mechanical behavior (decoherence) of field theoretic systems in the background of some quantum gravity (QG) models. Both types of effects lead to CPT violation, but they can be disentangled experimentally. I, then, proceed to a description of precision tests of CPT symmetry using neutral and charged Kaons, which are of direct relevance to the main theme of this conference. Read More

Using a novel, non-perturbative, time-dependent string configuration derived in [1], we present here an argument which selects new critical dimensions for the target space time of a bosonic sigma model, with D=4 the lowest non trivial value. This argument is based on the properties of the partition function after a target space Wick rotation. Read More

In this review we first discuss the string theoretical motivations for induced decoherence and deviations from ordinary quantum-mechanical behaviour; this leads to intrinsic CPT violation in the context of an extended class of quantum-gravity models. We then proceed to a description ofprecision tests of CPT symmetry and quantum mechanics using mainly neutral kaons and neutrinos. We also emphasize the possibly unique role of neutral meson factories in providing specific tests of models where the quantum-mechanical CPT operator is not well-defined, leading to modifications of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen particle correlators. Read More

In this talk we review briefly the basic features of non-critical (dissipative) String Cosmologies, and we confront some of these models with supernova data. We pay particular attention to the off-shell and dilaton contributions to the dynamical evolution equations of the non-critical string Universe, as well as the Boltzmann equation for species abundances. The latter could have important consequences for the modification of astrophysical constraints on physically appealing particle physics models, such as supersymmetry. Read More

We apply to non-critical bosonic Liouville string models, characterized by a central-charge deficit Q, a new non-perturbative renormalization-group technique based on a functional method for controlling the quantum fluctuations. We demonstrate the existence of a renormalization-group fixed point of Liouville string theory as Q to 0, in which limit the target space-time is Minkowski and the dynamics of the Liouville field is trivial, as it neither propagates nor interacts. This calculation supports in a non-trival manner the identification of the zero mode of the Liouville field with the target time variable, up to a crucial minus sign. Read More

We formulate here a new world-sheet renormalization-group technique for the bosonic string, which is non-perturbative in the Regge slope alpha' and based on a functional method for controlling the quantum fluctuations, whose magnitudes are scaled by the value of alpha'. Using this technique we exhibit, in addition to the well-known linear-dilaton cosmology, a new, non-perturbative time-dependent background solution. Using the reparametrization invariance of the string S-matrix, we demonstrate that this solution is conformally invariant to alpha', and we give a heuristic inductive argument that conformal invariance can be maintained to all orders in alpha'. Read More

It has become increasingly evident that fabrication of novel biomaterials through molecular self-assembly is going to play a significant role in material science and possibly the information technology of the future. Tubulin, microtubules (MTs) and the cytoskeleton are dynamic, self-assembling systems and we asked whether their structure and function contain the clues on how to fabricate biomolecular information processing devices. Here we review our neurobiological studies of transgenic Drosophila that strongly suggest the microtubular cytoskeleton is near the 'front lines' of intracellular information manipulation and storage. Read More

We study a supersymmetric model of space-time foam with two stacks each of eight D8-branes with equal string tensions, separated by a single bulk dimension containing D0-brane particles that represent quantum fluctuations. The ground-state configuration with static D-branes has zero vacuum energy, but, when they move, the interactions among the D-branes and D-particles due to the exchanges of strings result in a non-trivial, positive vacuum energy. We calculate its explicit form in the limits of small velocities and large or small separations between the D-branes and/or the D-particles. Read More

We present a supersymmetric model of space-time foam with two stacks of eight D8-branes with equal string tensions, separated by a single bulk dimension containing D0-brane particles that represent quantum fluctuations in the space-time foam. The ground state configuration with static D-branes has zero vacuum energy. However, gravitons and other closed-string states propagating through the bulk may interact with the D0-particles, causing them to recoil and the vacuum energy to become non zero. Read More