# Neal Bez

## Publications Authored By Neal Bez

We prove that $$ \|X(|u|^2)\|_{L^3_{t,\ell}}\leq C\|f\|_{L^2(\mathbb{R}^2)}^2, $$ where $u(x,t)$ is the solution to the linear time-dependent Schr\"odinger equation on $\mathbb{R}^2$ with initial datum $f$, and $X$ is the (spatial) X-ray transform on $\mathbb{R}^2$. In particular, we identify the best constant $C$ and show that a datum $f$ is an extremiser if and only if it is a gaussian. We also establish bounds of this type in higher dimensions $d$, where the X-ray transform is replaced by the $k$-plane transform for any $1\leq k\leq d-1$. Read More

We prove stable versions of trace theorems on the sphere in $L^2$ with optimal constants, thus obtaining rather precise information regarding near-extremisers. We also obtain stability for the trace theorem into $L^q$ for $q > 2$, by combining a refined Hardy-Littlewood-Sobolev inequality on the sphere with a duality-stability result proved very recently by Carlen. Finally, we extend a local version of Carlen's duality theorem to establish local stability of certain Strichartz estimates for the kinetic transport equation. Read More

We establish smoothing estimates in the framework of hyperbolic Sobolev spaces for the velocity averaging operator $\rho$ of the solution of the kinetic transport equation. If the velocity domain is either the unit sphere or the unit ball, then, for any exponents $q$ and $r$, we find a characterisation of the exponents $\beta_+$ and $\beta_-$, except possibly for an endpoint case, for which $D_+^{\beta_+}D_-^{\beta_-} \rho$ is bounded from space-velocity $L^2_{x,v}$ to space-time $L^q_tL^r_x$. Here, $D_+$ and $D_-$ are the classical and hyperbolic derivative operators, respectively. Read More

Recent progress in multilinear harmonic analysis naturally raises questions about the local behaviour of the best constant (or bound) in the general Brascamp--Lieb inequality as a function of the underlying linear transformations. In this paper we prove that this constant is continuous, but is not in general differentiable. Read More

The purpose of this article is to expose and further develop a simple yet surprisingly far-reaching framework for generating monotone quantities for positive solutions to linear heat equations in euclidean space. This framework is intimately connected to the existence of a rich variety of algebraic closure properties of families of sub/super-solutions, and more generally solutions of systems of differential inequalities capturing log-convexity properties such as the Li--Yau gradient estimate. Various applications are discussed, including connections with the general Brascamp--Lieb inequality and the Ornstein--Uhlenbeck semigroup. Read More

We prove that the best constant in the general Brascamp-Lieb inequality is a locally bounded function of the underlying linear transformations. As applications we deduce certain very general Fourier restriction, Kakeya-type, and nonlinear variants of the Brascamp-Lieb inequality which have arisen recently in harmonic analysis. Read More

We prove a family of sharp bilinear space-time estimates for the half-wave propagator. As a consequence, for radially symmetric initial data, we establish sharp estimates of this kind for a range of exponents beyond the classical range. Read More

For the solution of the free Schr\"odinger equation, we obtain the optimal constants and characterise extremisers for forward and reverse smoothing estimates which are global in space and time, contain a homogeneous and radial weight in the space variable, and incorporate a certain angular regularity. This will follow from a more general result which permits analogous sharp forward and reverse smoothing estimates and a characterisation of extremisers for the solution of the free Klein-Gordon and wave equations. The nature of extremisers is shown to be sensitive to both the dimension and the size of the smoothing index relative to the dimension. Read More

We find all extremisers for the trace theorem on the sphere. We also provide a sharp extension for functions belonging to certain Sobolev spaces with angular regularity. Read More

We calculate the the sharp constant and characterise the extremal initial data in $\dot{H}^{\frac{3}{4}}\times\dot{H}^{-\frac{1}{4}}$ for the $L^4$ Sobolev--Strichartz estimate for the wave equation in four space dimensions. Read More

We identify complete monotonicity properties underlying a variety of well-known sharp Strichartz inequalities in euclidean space. Read More

We provide a comprehensive analysis of sharp bilinear estimates of Ozawa-Tsutsumi type for solutions u of the free Schr\"odinger equation, which give sharp control on $|u|^2$ in classical Sobolev spaces. In particular, we provide a generalization of their estimates in such a way that provides a unification with some sharp bilinear estimates proved by Carneiro and Planchon-Vega, via entirely different methods, by seeing them all as special cases of a one parameter family of sharp estimates. We show that the extremal functions are solutions of the Maxwell-Boltzmann functional equation and provide a new proof that this equation admits only Gaussian solutions. Read More

We show that the endpoint Strichartz estimate for the kinetic transport equation is false in all dimensions. We also present a new approach to proving the non-endpoint cases using multilinear analysis. Read More

We establish new results concerning the existence of extremisers for a broad class of smoothing estimates of the form $\|\psi(|\nabla|) \exp(it\phi(|\nabla|)f \|_{L^2(w)} \leq C\|f\|_{L^2}$, where the weight $w$ is radial and depends only on the spatial variable; such a smoothing estimate is of course equivalent to the $L^2$-boundedness of a certain oscillatory integral operator $S$ depending on $(w,\psi,\phi)$. Furthermore, when $w$ is homogeneous, and for certain $(\psi,\phi)$, we provide an explicit spectral decomposition of $S^*S$ and consequently recover an explicit formula for the optimal constant $C$ and a characterisation of extremisers. In certain well-studied cases when $w$ is inhomogeneous, we obtain new expressions for the optimal constant. Read More

We prove a sharp bilinear estimate for the wave equation from which we obtain the sharp constant in the Strichartz estimate which controls the $L^4_{t,x}(\R^{5+1})$ norm of the solution in terms of the energy. We also characterise the maximisers. Read More

We use the method of induction-on-scales to prove certain diffeomorphism invariant nonlinear Brascamp--Lieb inequalities. We provide applications to multilinear convolution inequalities and the restriction theory for the Fourier transform, extending to higher dimensions recent work of Bejenaru--Herr--Tataru and Bennett--Carbery--Wright. Read More

Most notably we prove that for $d=1,2$ the classical Strichartz norm $$\|e^{i s\Delta}f\|_{L^{2+4/d}_{s,x}(\mathbb{R}\times\mathbb{R}^d)}$$ associated to the free Schr\"{o}dinger equation is nondecreasing as the initial datum $f$ evolves under a certain quadratic heat-flow. Read More

It is known that if $q$ is an even integer then the $L^q(\mathbb{R}^d)$ norm of the Fourier transform of a superposition of translates of a fixed gaussian is monotone increasing as their centres "simultaneously slide" to the origin. We provide explicit examples to show that this monotonicity property fails dramatically if $q > 2$ is not an even integer. These results are equivalent, upon rescaling, to similar statements involving solutions to heat equations. Read More

We prove that if $u_1,u_2 : (0,\infty) \times \R^d \to (0,\infty)$ are sufficiently well-behaved solutions to certain heat inequalities on $\R^d$ then the function $u: (0,\infty) \times \R^d \to (0,\infty)$ given by $u^{1/p}=u_1^{1/p_1} * u_2^{1/p_2}$ also satisfies a heat inequality of a similar type provided $\tfrac{1}{p_1} + \tfrac{1}{p_2} = 1 + \tfrac{1}{p}$. On iterating, this result leads to an analogous statement concerning $n$-fold convolutions. As a corollary, we give a direct heat-flow proof of the sharp $n$-fold Young convolution inequality and its reverse form. Read More