Naoki Yoshida - Tokyo University

Naoki Yoshida
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Naoki Yoshida
Tokyo University

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Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (41)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (17)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (8)
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (7)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (3)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (3)
Physics - Optics (2)
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (1)
Physics - Data Analysis; Statistics and Probability (1)
Computer Science - Cryptography and Security (1)
Physics - Computational Physics (1)

Publications Authored By Naoki Yoshida

We study the formation of massive black holes in the first star clusters. We first locate star-forming gas clouds in proto-galactic halos of $\gtrsim10^7~M_{\odot}$ in cosmological hydrodynamics simulations and use them to generate the initial conditions for star clusters with masses of $\sim10^5~M_{\odot}$. We then perform a series of direct-tree hybrid $N$-body simulations to follow runaway stellar collisions in the dense star clusters. Read More

We develop new numerical schemes for Vlasov--Poisson equations with high-order accuracy. Our methods are based on a spatially monotonicity-preserving (MP) scheme, and are modified suitably so that positivity of the distribution function is also preserved. We adopt an efficient semi-Lagrangian time integration scheme which is more accurate and computationally less expensive than the three-stage TVD Runge-Kutta integration. Read More

We propose to use degree-scale angular clustering of fast radio bursts (FRBs) to identify their origin and the host galaxy population. We study the information content in autocorrelation of the angular positions and dispersion measures (DM) and in cross-correlation with galaxies. We show that the cross-correlation with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies will place stringent constraints on the mean physical quantities associated with FRBs. Read More

The formation of supermassive stars (SMSs) via rapid mass accretion and their direct collapse into black holes (BHs) is a promising pathway for sowing seeds of supermassive BHs in the early universe. We calculate the evolution of rapidly accreting SMSs by solving the stellar structure equations including nuclear burning as well as general relativistic (GR) effects up to the onset of the collapse. We find that such SMSs have less concentrated structure than fully-convective counterpart, which is often postulated for non-accreting ones. Read More

We present an application of machine-learning (ML) techniques to source selection in the optical transient survey data with Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) on the Subaru telescope. Our goal is to select real transient events accurately and in a timely manner out of a large number of false candidates, obtained with the standard difference-imaging method. We have developed the transient selector which is based on majority voting of three ML machines of AUC Boosting, Random Forest, and Deep Neural Network. Read More

We derive constraints on dark matter (DM) annihilation cross section and decay lifetime from cross-correlation analyses of the data from Fermi-LAT and weak lensing surveys that cover a wide area of $\sim660$ squared degrees in total. We improve upon our previous analyses by using an updated extragalactic $\gamma$-ray background data reprocessed with the Fermi Pass 8 pipeline, and by using well-calibrated shape measurements of about twelve million galaxies in the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) and Red-Cluster-Sequence Lensing Survey (RCSLenS). We generate a large set of full-sky mock catalogs from cosmological $N$-body simulations and use them to estimate statistical errors accurately. Read More

The physical properties and elemental abundances of the interstellar medium in galaxies during cosmic reionization are important for understanding the role of galaxies in this process. We report the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array detection of an oxygen emission line at a wavelength of 88 micrometers from a galaxy at an epoch about 700 million years after the Big Bang. The oxygen abundance of this galaxy is estimated at about one-tenth that of the Sun. Read More

Nano artifact metrics exploit unique physical attributes of nanostructured matter for authentication and clone resistance, which is vitally important in the age of Internet-of-Things where securing identities is critical. However, high-cost and huge experimental apparatuses, such as scanning electron microscopy, have been required in the former studies. Herein, we demonstrate an optical approach to characterise the nanoscale-precision signatures of silicon random structures towards realising low-cost and high-value information security technology. Read More

We examine the possibility that dark matter consists of charged massive particles (CHAMPs) in view of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. The evolution of cosmological perturbations of CHAMP with other components is followed in a self-consistent manner, without assuming that CHAMP and baryons are tightly coupled. We incorporate for the first time the "kinetic re-coupling" of the Coulomb scattering, which is characteristic of heavy CHAMPs. Read More

Gravitational collapse of a massive primordial gas cloud is thought to be a promising path for the formation of supermassive blackholes in the early universe. We study conditions for the so-called direct collapse (DC) blackhole formation in a fully cosmological context. We combine a semianalytic model of early galaxy formation with halo merger trees constructed from dark matter $N$-body simulations. Read More

This paper demonstrates eigenanalysis to quantitatively reveal the diversity and capacity of identities offered by the morphological diversity in silicon nanostructures formed via random collapse of resist. The analysis suggests that approximately 10^115 possible identities are provided per 0.18-um^2 area of nanostructures, indicating that nanoscale morphological signatures will be extremely useful for future information security applications where securing identities is critical. Read More

Dark Matter (DM) models providing possible alternative solutions to the small- scale crisis of standard cosmology are nowadays of growing interest. We consider DM interacting with light hidden fermions via well motivated fundamental operators showing the resultant matter power spectrum is suppressed on subgalactic scales within a plausible parameter region. Our basic description of the evolution of cosmological perturbations relies on a fully consistent first principles derivation of a perturbed Fokker-Planck type equation, generalizing existing literature. Read More

Density inhomogeneity in the intergalactic medium (IGM) can boost the recombination rate of ionized gas substantially, affecting the growth of HII regions during reionization. Previous attempts to quantify this effect typically failed to resolve down to the Jeans scale in the pre-ionization IGM, which is important in establishing this effect, along with the hydrodynamical back-reaction of reionization on it. Towards that end, we perform a set of fully-coupled, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations from cosmological initial conditions, extending the mass resolution of previous work to the scale of minihalos. Read More

Light gravitinos of mass $\lesssim \mathcal{O} (10)$ eV are of particular interest in cosmology, offering various baryogenesis scenarios without suffering from the cosmological gravitino problem. The gravitino may contribute considerably to the total matter content of the Universe and affect structure formation from early to present epochs. After the gravitinos decouple from other particles in the early Universe, they free-stream and consequently suppress density fluctuations of (sub-)galactic length scales. Read More

We study gravitational collapse of low-metallicity gas clouds and the formation of protostars by three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. Grain growth, non-equilibrium chemistry, molecular cooling, and chemical heating are solved in a self-consistent manner for the first time. We employ the realistic initial conditions for the abundances of metal and dust, and the dust size distribution obtained from recent Population III supernova calculations. Read More

Measurements of the cross-correlation between the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) and large-scale structure provide a novel probe of dark matter on extragalactic scales. We focus on luminous red galaxies (LRGs) as optimal targets to search for the signal of dark matter annihilation. We measure the cross-correlation function of the EGB taken from the Fermi Large Area Telescope with the LRGs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Read More

The formation of SMSs is a potential pathway to seed SMBHs in the early universe. A critical issue for forming SMSs is stellar UV feedback, which may limit the stellar mass growth via accretion. In this paper we study the evolution of an accreting SMS and its UV emissivity under conditions of realistic variable accretion from a self-gravitating circumstellar disc. Read More

We present coupled stellar evolution (SE) and 3D radiation-hydrodynamic (RHD) simulations of the evolution of primordial protostars, their immediate environment, and the dynamic accretion history under the influence of stellar ionizing and dissociating UV feedback. Our coupled SE-RHD calculations result in a wide diversity of final stellar masses covering 10 Msun $\lesssim M_* \lesssim$ 1000 Msun. The formation of very massive ($\gtrsim$ 250 Msun) stars is possible under weak UV feedback, whereas ordinary massive (a few x 10 Msun) stars form when UV feedback can efficiently halt the accretion. Read More

We have performed very large and high resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulations in order to investigate detectability of nebular lines in the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) to optical wavelength range from galaxies at $z > 7$. We find that the expected line fluxes are very well correlated with apparent UV magnitudes. The C IV $1549 \rm \AA$ and the C III] $1909 \rm \AA$ lines of galaxies brighter than $26~ \rm AB$ are detectable with current facilities such as the VLT/XShooter and the Keck/MOSFIRE. Read More

Ongoing and future wide-field galaxy surveys can be used to locate a number of clusters of galaxies with cosmic shear measurement alone. We study constraints on cosmological models using statistics of weak lensing selected galaxy clusters. We extend our previous theoretical framework to model the statistical properties of clusters in variants of cosmological models as well as in the standard $\Lambda$CDM model. Read More

We present a novel method for particle splitting in smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. Our method utilizes the Voronoi diagram for a given particle set to determine the position of fine daughter particles. We perform several test simulations to compare our method with a conventional splitting method in which the daughter particles are placed isotropically over the local smoothing length. Read More

We explore a variety of statistics of clusters selected with cosmic shear measurement by utilizing both analytic models and large numerical simulations. We first develop a halo model to predict the abundance and the clustering of weak lensing selected clusters. Observational effects such as galaxy shape noise are included in our model. Read More

While observations of large-scale structure and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide strong constraints on the amplitude of the primordial power spectrum (PPS) on scales larger than 10~Mpc, the amplitude of the power spectrum on sub-galactic length scales is much more poorly constrained. We study early structure formation in a cosmological model with a blue-tilted PPS. We assume that the standard scale-invariant PPS is modified at small length scales as $P(k) \sim k^{m_{\rm s}}$ with $m_{\rm s} > 1$. Read More

Recent observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and the distribution of galaxies, galaxy clusters, and the Lyman Alpha forest have constrained the shape of the power spectrum of matter fluctuations on large scales k < few h/Mpc. We explore a new technique to constrain the matter power spectrum on smaller scales, assuming the dark matter is a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) that annihilates at early epochs. Energy released by dark matter annihilation can modify the spectrum of CMB temperature fluctuations and thus CMB experiments such as Planck have been able to constrain the quantity f /m < 1/88 picobarn c / GeV, where f is the fraction of energy absorbed by gas, is the annihilation rate assumed constant, and m is the particle mass. Read More

We study the impact of baryonic physics on cosmological parameter estimation with weak lensing surveys. We run a set of cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with different galaxy formation models. We then perform ray-tracing simulations through the total matter density field to generate 100 independent convergence maps of 25 ${\rm deg}^2$ field-of-view, and use them to examine the ability of the following three lensing statistics as cosmological probes; power spectrum, peak counts, and Minkowski functionals. Read More

We perform a large set of cosmological simulations of early structure formation and follow the formation and evolution of 1540 star-forming gas clouds to derive the mass distribution of primordial stars. The star formation in our cosmological simulations is characterized by two distinct populations, the so-called Population III.1 stars and primordial stars formed under the influence of far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation (Population III. Read More

We investigate the condition for the formation of low-mass second-generation stars in the early universe. It has been proposed that gas cooling by dust thermal emission can trigger fragmentation of a low-metallicity star-forming gas cloud. In order to determine the critical condition in which dust cooling induces the formation of low-mass stars, we follow the thermal evolution of a collapsing cloud by a one-zone semi-analytic collapse model. Read More

We investigate the origin of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars starting from the recently discovered $\rm [Fe/H]<-7.1$ star SMSS J031300 (Keller et al. 2014). Read More

We present cosmological hydrodynamic simulations performed to study evolution of galaxy population. The simulations follow timed release of mass, energy, and metals by stellar evolution and employ phenomenological treatments of supernova feedback, pre-supernova feedback modeled as feedback by radiation pressure from massive stars, and quenching of gas cooling in large halos. We construct the fiducial model so that it reproduces the observationally estimated galaxy stellar mass functions and the relationships between the galaxy stellar mass and the host halo mass from $z = 4$ to 0. Read More

One of the milestones in the cosmic history is the formation of the first luminous objects and Hydrogen reionization. The standard theory of cosmic structure formation predicts that the first generation of stars were born about a few hundred million years after the Big Bang. The dark Universe was then lit up once again, and eventually filled with ultraviolet photons emitted from stars, galaxies, and quasars. Read More

We present the first measurement of the cross-correlation of weak gravitational lensing and the extragalactic gamma-ray background emission using data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey and the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The cross-correlation is a powerful probe of signatures of dark matter annihilation, because both cosmic shear and gamma-ray emission originate directly from the same DM distribution in the universe, and it can be used to derive constraints on dark matter annihilation cross-section. We show that the measured lensing-gamma correlation is consistent with a null signal. Read More

Dust grains in low-metallicity star-forming regions may be responsible for the formation of the first low-mass stars. The minimal conditions to activate dust-induced fragmentation require the gas to be pre-enriched above a critical dust-to-gas mass ratio Dcr=[2.6--6. Read More

The measurement of cosmic shear using weak gravitational lensing is a challenging task that involves a number of complicated procedures. We study in detail the systematic errors in the measurement of weak lensing Minkowski Functionals (MFs). Specifically, we focus on systematics associated with galaxy shape measurements, photometric redshift errors, and shear calibration correction. Read More

Affiliations: 1Osaka Sangyo University, 2Osaka Sangyo University, 3University of Tokyo, 4NAOJ, 5Hokkaido University, 6University of Tokyo

We investigate the potential use of nebular emission lines in the rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) for determining spectroscopic redshift of z>8 galaxies with the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA). After making a line emissivity model as a function of metallicity, especially for the [O III] 88 micron line which is likely to be the strongest FIR line from H II regions, we predict the line fluxes from high-z galaxies based on a cosmological hydrodynamics simulation of galaxy formation. Since the metallicity of galaxies reaches at ~0. Read More

We explore the discovery potential of light gravitino mass m_{3/2} by combining future cosmology surveys and collider experiments. The former probe the imprint of light gravitinos in the cosmic matter density field, whereas the latter search signatures of a supersymmetry breaking mechanism. Free-streaming of light gravitinos suppresses the density fluctuations at galactic and sub-galactic length scales, where weak gravitational lensing can be used as a powerful probe. Read More

We have performed a large cosmological hydrodynamics simulation tailored to the deep survey with the Hubble Space Telescope made in 2012, the so-called UDF12 campaign. After making a light-cone output, we have applied the same color selection criteria as the UDF12 campaign to select galaxies from our simulation, and then, have examined the physical properties of them as a proxy of the real observed UDF12 galaxies at $z > 7$. As a result, we find that the halo mass is almost linearly proportional to the observed ultraviolet (UV) luminosity ($4 \times 10^{11}~{\rm M_{\odot}}$ at $M_{\rm UV} = -21$). Read More

Affiliations: 1Department of Astronomy, Kyoto Univ, 2Department of Astronomy, Kyoto Univ, 3Kavli IPMU, 4Faculty of Science and Technology, Hirosaki Univ, 5Kavli IPMU, 6Department of Astronomy, Kyoto Univ

Redshift space distortion (RSD) observed in galaxy redshift surveys is a powerful tool to test gravity theories on cosmological scales, but the systematic uncertainties must carefully be examined for future surveys with large statistics. Here we employ various analytic models of RSD and estimate the systematic errors on measurements of the structure growth-rate parameter, $f\sigma_8$, induced by non-linear effects and the halo bias with respect to the dark matter distribution, by using halo catalogues from 40 realisations of $3.4 \times 10^8$ comoving $h^{-3}$Mpc$^3$ cosmological N-body simulations. Read More

Starting from the geometrical concept of a 4-dimensional de-Sitter configuration of spheres in Euclidean 3-space and modelling voids in the Universe as spheres, we show that a uniform distribution over this configuration space implies a power-law for the void number density which is consistent with results from the excursion set formalism and with data, for an intermediate range of void volumes. The scaling dimension of the large scale structure can be estimated as well. We also discuss the effect of restricting the survey geometry on the void statistics. Read More

Supermassive stars (SMSs) forming via very rapid mass accretion (Mdot >~ 0.1 Msun/yr) could be precursors of supermassive black holes observed beyond redshift of about 6. Extending our previous work, we here study the evolution of primordial stars growing under such rapid mass accretion until the stellar mass reaches 10^{4 - 5} Msun. Read More

We perform a large set of radiation hydrodynamics simulations of primordial star formation in a fully cosmological context. Our statistical sample of 100 First Stars show that the first generation of stars have a wide mass distribution M_popIII = 10 ~ 1000 M_sun. We first run cosmological simulations to generate a set of primordial star-forming gas clouds. Read More

Observational identification of the first stars is one of the great challenges in the modern astronomy. Although a single first star is too faint to be detected, supernova explosions of the first stars can be bright enough. An important question is whether such supernovae can be detected in the limited observational area with realistic observational resources. Read More

Sky masking is unavoidable in wide-field weak lensing observations. We study how masks affect the measurement of statistics of matter distribution probed by weak gravitational lensing. We first use 1000 cosmological ray-tracing simulations to examine in detail the impact of masked regions on the weak lensing Minkowski Functionals (MFs). Read More

Structures in Warm Dark Matter (WDM) models are exponentially suppressed below a certain scale, characterized by the dark matter particle mass, $m_{\rm x}$. Since structures form hierarchically, the presence of collapsed objects at high-redshifts can set strong lower limits on $m_{\rm x}$. We place robust constraints on $m_{\rm x}$ using recent results from the {\it Swift} database of high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Read More

In a low-metallicity gas, rapid cooling by dust thermal emission is considered to induce cloud fragmentation and play a vital role in the formation of low-mass stars (<~ 1 M_sun) in metal-poor environments. We investigate how the growth of dust grains through accretion of heavy elements in the gas phase onto grain surfaces alters the thermal evolution and fragmentation properties of a collapsing gas cloud. We calculate directly grain growth and dust emission cooling in a self-consistent manner. Read More

We study the formation of non-linear structures in Warm Dark Matter (WDM) models and in a Long-Lived Charged Massive Particle (CHAMP) model. CHAMPs with a decay lifetime of about 1 yr induce characteristic suppression in the matter power spectrum at subgalactic scales through acoustic oscillations in the thermal background. We explore structure formation in such a model. Read More

We extend the subhalo abundance matching method to assign galaxy color to subhalos. We separate a luminosity-binned subhalo sample into two groups by a secondary subhalo property which is presumed to be correlated with galaxy color. The two subsamples then represent red and blue galaxy populations. Read More

We study the thermal evolution of primordial star-forming gas clouds using three-dimensional cosmological simulations. We critically examine how assumptions and approximations made in calculating radiative cooling rates affect the dynamics of the collapsing gas clouds. We consider two important molecular hydrogen cooling processes that operate in a dense primordial gas; H_2 line cooling and continuum cooling by H_2 collision-induced emission. Read More

The first stars in the universe ionized the ambient primordial gas through various feedback processes. "Second-generation" primordial stars potentially form from this disturbed gas after its recombination. In this Letter, we study the late formation stage of such second-generation stars, where a large amount of gas accretes onto the protostar and the final stellar mass is determined when the accretion terminates. Read More

We present the first 3D simulations to include the effects of dark matter annihilation feedback during the collapse of primordial mini-halos. We begin our simulations from cosmological initial conditions and account for dark matter annihilation in our treatment of the chemical and thermal evolution of the gas. The dark matter is modelled using an analytical density profile that responds to changes in the peak gas density. Read More