# Naoki Yamamoto

## Contact Details

NameNaoki Yamamoto |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesQuantum Physics (21) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (20) High Energy Physics - Theory (20) Nuclear Theory (13) High Energy Physics - Lattice (11) Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (8) High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (5) Mathematics - Optimization and Control (4) Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (2) Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (2) Mathematical Physics (2) Physics - Materials Science (1) Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (1) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (1) Physics - Other (1) Physics - Optics (1) |

## Publications Authored By Naoki Yamamoto

We study chemical-potential dependence of confinement and mass gap in QCD with adjoint fermions in spacetime with one spatial compact direction. By calculating the one-loop effective potential for the Wilson line in the presence of chemical potential, we show that a center-symmetric phase and a center-broken phase alternate when the chemical potential in unit of the compactification scale is increased. In the center-symmetric phase we use semiclassical methods to show that photons in the magnetic bion plasma acquire a mass gap that grows with the chemical potential as a result of anisotropic interactions between monopole-instantons. Read More

Circularly polarized photons have the Berry curvature in the semiclassical regime. Based on the kinetic equation for such chiral photons, we derive the (non)equilibrium expression of the photon current in the direction of the vorticity. We briefly discuss the relevance of this "photonic chiral vortical effect" in pulsars and rotating massive stars and its possible realization in semiconductors. Read More

A quantum memory is a system that enables transfer, storage, and retrieval of optical quantum states by ON/OFF switching of the control signal in each stages of the memory. In particular, it is known that, for perfect transfer of a single-photon state, appropriate shaping of the input pulse is required. However, in general, such a desirable pulse shape has a complicated form, which would be hard to generate in practice. Read More

The conventional neutrino transport theory for core-collapse supernovae misses one key property of neutrinos: the left-handedness. The chirality of neutrinos modifies the hydrodynamic behavior at the macroscopic scale and leads to topological transport phenomena. We argue that such transport phenomena should play important roles in the evolution of core-collapse supernovae, and, in particular, lead to a tendency toward the inverse energy cascade from small to larger scales, which may be relevant to the origin of the supernova explosion. Read More

We study the preparation of entangled pure Gaussian states via reservoir engineering. In particular, we consider a chain consisting of $(2\aleph+1)$ quantum harmonic oscillators where the central oscillator of the chain is coupled to a single reservoir. We then completely parametrize the class of $(2\aleph+1)$-mode pure Gaussian states that can be prepared by this type of quantum harmonic oscillator chain. Read More

The low-energy effective theories for gapped insulators are classified by three parameters: permittivity $\epsilon$, permeability $\mu$, and theta angle $\theta$. Crystals with periodic $\epsilon$ are known as photonic crystals. We here study the band structure of photons in a new type of crystals with periodic $\theta$ (modulo $2\pi$) in space, which we call the axion crystals. Read More

We study the dynamic critical phenomena near the possible high-density QCD critical point inside the superfluid phase of nuclear and quark matter. We find that this critical point belongs to a new dynamic universality class beyond the conventional classification by Hohenberg and Halperin. We show that the speed of the superfluid phonon vanishes at the critical point and that the dynamic critical index is $z \approx 2$. Read More

We study the shock waves in relativistic chiral matter. We argue that the conventional Rankine-Hugoinot relations are modified due to the presence of chiral transport phenomena. We show that the entropy discontinuity in a weak shock wave is quadratic in the pressure discontinuity when the effect of chiral transport becomes sufficiently large. Read More

We derive the explicit analytical form of the time-dependent coupling parameter to an external field for perfect absorption of traveling single photon fields with arbitrary temporal profiles by a tunable single input-output open quantum system, which can be realized as either a single qubit or single resonator system. However, the time-dependent coupling parameter for perfect absorption has a singularity at $t=0$ and constraints on real systems prohibit a faithful physical realization of the perfect absorber. A numerical example is included to illustrate the absorber's performance under practical limitations on the coupling strength. Read More

The Chiral Soliton Lattice (CSL) is a state with a periodic array of topological solitons that spontaneously breaks parity and translational symmetries. Such a state is known to appear in chiral magnets. We show that CSL also appears as a ground state of quantum chromodynamics at nonzero chemical potential in a magnetic field. Read More

Engineering a sensor system for detecting an extremely tiny signal such as the gravitational-wave force is a very important subject in quantum physics. A major obstacle to this goal is that, in a simple detection setup, the measurement noise is lower bounded by the so-called standard quantum limit (SQL), which is originated from the intrinsic mechanical back-action noise. Hence, the sensor system has to be carefully engineered so that it evades the back-action noise and eventually beats the SQL. Read More

Effective state transfer is one of the most important problems in quantum information processing. Typically, a quantum information device is composed of many subsystems with multi-input ports. In this paper, we develop a general theory describing the condition for perfect state transfer from the multi-input ports to the internal system components, for general passive linear quantum systems. Read More

We investigate the problem of preparing a pure Gaussian state via reservoir engineering. In particular, we consider a linear quantum system with a passive Hamiltonian and with a single reservoir which acts only on a single site of the system. We then give a full parametrization of the pure Gaussian states that can be prepared by this type of quantum system. Read More

This paper presents two realizations of linear quantum systems for covariance assignment corresponding to pure Gaussian states. The first one is called a cascade realization; given any covariance matrix corresponding to a pure Gaussian state, we can construct a cascaded quantum system generating that state. The second one is called a locally dissipative realization; given a covariance matrix corresponding to a pure Gaussian state, if it satisfies certain conditions, we can construct a linear quantum system that has only local interactions with its environment and achieves the assigned covariance matrix. Read More

We study the turbulent regime of chiral (magneto)hydrodynamics for charged and neutral matter with chirality imbalance. We find that the chiral magnetohydrodynamics for charged plasmas possesses a unique scaling symmetry, only without fluid helicity under the local charge neutrality. We also find a different type of unique scaling symmetry in the chiral hydrodynamics for neutral matter with fluid helicity in the inertial range. Read More

We study the nonlinear responses of relativistic chiral matter to the external fields, such as the electric field ${\bf E}$, gradients of temperature and chemical potential, ${\bf \nabla} T$ and ${\bf \nabla} \mu$. Using the kinetic theory with Berry curvature corrections under the relaxation time approximation, we compute the transport coefficients of possible new electric currents that are forbidden in usual chirally symmetric matter, but are allowed in chirally asymmetric matter by parity. In particular, we find a new type of electric current proportional to ${\bf \nabla} \mu \times {\bf E}$ due to the interplay between the effects of the Berry curvature and collisions. Read More

We argue that the effective theory for electromagnetic fields in spatially varying meson condensations in dense nuclear and quark matter is given by the axion electrodynamics. We show that one of the helicity states of photons there has the nonrelativistic gapless dispersion relation $\omega \sim k^2$ at small momentum, while the other is gapped. This "nonrelativistic photon" may also be realized at the interface between topological and trivial insulators in condensed matter systems. Read More

We report on an exploratory lattice study on the phenomenon of chiral instabilities in non-Abelian gauge theories at high temperature. It is based on a recently constructed anomalous Langevin-type effective theory of classical soft gauge fields in the presence of a chiral number density $n_5=n_{\rm R}-n_{\rm L}$. Evaluated in thermal equilibrium using classical lattice techniques it reveals that the fluctuating soft fields indeed exhibit a rapid energy increase at early times and we observe a clear dependence of the diffusion rate of topological charge (sphaleron rate) on the the initial $n_5$, relevant in both early universe baryogenesis and relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Read More

Chirality of neutrinos modifies the conventional kinetic theory and hydrodynamics, leading to unusual chiral transport related to quantum anomalies in field theory. We argue that these corrections have new phenomenological consequences for hot and dense neutrino gases, especially in core-collapse supernovae. We find that the neutrino density can be converted to the fluid helicity through the chiral vortical effect. Read More

Quantum amplification is essential for various quantum technologies such as communication and weak-signal detection. However, its practical use is still limited due to inevitable device fragility that brings about distortion in the output signal or state. This paper presents a general theory that solves this critical issue. Read More

We derive some exact results concerning the anomalous U(1)$_A$ symmetry in the chirally symmetric phase of QCD at high temperature. We discuss the importance of topology and finite-volume effects on the U(1)$_A$ symmetry violation characterized by the difference of chiral susceptibilities. In particular, we present a reliable method to measure the anomaly strength in lattice simulations with fixed topology. Read More

We study the hydrodynamic regime of chiral plasmas at high temperature. We find a new type of gapless collective excitation induced by chiral effects in an external magnetic field. This is a transverse wave, and it is present even in incompressible fluids, unlike the chiral magnetic and chiral vortical waves. Read More

The great advantage of quantum metrology relies on the effective use of entanglement, which indeed allows us to achieve strictly better estimation performance over the so-called standard quantum limit. In this paper, we study an analogous strategy utilizing entanglement in a feedback control problem and show that, in the problem of cooling a nano-mechanical oscillator, it indeed can lower the control cost function below the limit attainable by the standard control method. Read More

Bloch theorem states the impossibility of persistent electric currents in the ground state of nonrelativistic fermion systems. We extend this theorem to generic systems based on the gauged particle number symmetry and study its consequences on the example of chiral transport phenomena. We show that the chiral magnetic effect can be understood as a generalization of the Bloch theorem to a nonequilibrium steady state, similarly to the integer quantum Hall effect. Read More

Making use of the operator product expansion, we derive a general class of sum rules for the imaginary part of the single-particle self-energy of the unitary Fermi gas. The sum rules are analyzed numerically with the help of the maximum entropy method, which allows us to extract the single-particle spectral density as a function of both energy and momentum. These spectral densities contain basic information on the properties of the unitary Fermi gas, such as the dispersion relation and the superfluid pairing gap, for which we obtain reasonable agreement with the available results based on quantum Monte-Carlo simulations. Read More

We show, without using semiclassical approximations, that, in high-temperature QCD with chiral symmetry restoration and U(1) axial symmetry breaking, the partition function for sufficiently light quarks can be expressed as an ensemble of noninteracting objects with topological charge that obey the Poisson statistics. We argue that the topological objects are "quasi-instantons" (rather than bare instantons) taking into account quantum effects. Our result is valid even close to the (pseudo)critical temperature of the chiral phase transition. Read More

This paper provides an alternative approach to the problem of preparing pure Gaussian states in a linear quantum system. It is shown that any pure Gaussian state can be generated by a cascade of one-dimensional open quantum harmonic oscillators, without any direct interaction Hamiltonians between these oscillators. This is physically advantageous from an experimental point of view. Read More

Electron injection from the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope into a p-type GaAs(110) surface have been used to induce luminescence in the bulk. Atomically-resolved photon maps revealed significant reduction of luminescence intensity at surface states localized near Ga atoms. Quantitative analysis based on the first principles calculation and a rate equation approach was performed to describe overall energy dissipation processes of the incident tunneling electrons. Read More

To control a quantum system via feedback, we generally have two options in choosing control scheme. One is the coherent feedback, which feeds the output field of the system, through a fully quantum device, back to manipulate the system without involving any measurement process. The other one is the measurement-based feedback, which measures the output field and performs a real-time manipulation on the system based on the measurement results. Read More

For theories with a sign problem there is no analog of the Banks-Casher relation. This is true in particular for QCD at nonzero quark chemical potential. However, for QCD-like theories without a sign problem the Banks-Casher relation can be extended to the case of complex Dirac eigenvalues. Read More

In this paper, we study a general linear networked system that contains a tunable memory subsystem; that is, it is decoupled from an optical field for state transportation during the storage process, while it couples to the field during the writing or reading process. The input is given by a single photon state or a coherent state in a pulsed light field. We then completely and explicitly characterize the condition required on the pulse shape achieving the perfect state transfer from the light field to the memory subsystem. Read More

We propose a possible new mechanism for a strong and stable magnetic field of compact stars due to an instability in the presence of a chirality imbalance of electrons---the chiral plasma instability. A large chirality imbalance of electrons inevitably occurs associated with the parity-violating weak process during core collapse of supernovae. We estimate the maximal magnetic field due to this instability to be of order 10^{18} G at the core. Read More

Charged plasmas with chirality imbalance are unstable and tend to reduce the imbalance. This chiral plasma instability is, however, not captured in (anomalous) hydrodynamics for high-temperature non-Abelian plasmas. We derive a Langevin-type classical effective theory with anomalous parity-violating effects for non-Abelian plasmas that describes the chiral plasma instability at the magnetic scale. Read More

We provide a general argument for the possible existence of a new critical point associated with a deconfinement phase transition in QCD at finite temperature $T$ and in a magnetic field $B$ with zero chemical potential. This is the first example of a QCD critical point in a physical external parameter region that can be studied using lattice QCD simulations without suffering from a sign problem. Read More

It is known that weak measurement can significantly amplify the mean of measurement results, sometimes out of the range limited in usual quantum measurement. This fact, as actively demonstrated recently in both theory and experiment, implies the possibility to estimate a very small parameter using the weak measurement technique. But does the weak measurement really bring about the increase of "information" for parameter estimation? This paper clarifies that, in a general situation, the answer is NO; more precisely, the weak measurement cannot further decrease the lower bound of the estimation error, i. Read More

For reliable and consistent quantum information processing carried out on a quantum network, the network structure must be fully known and a desired initial state must be accurately prepared on it. In this paper, for a class of spin networks with its single node only accessible, we provide two continuous-measurement-based methods to achieve the above requirements; the first one identifies the unknown network structure with high probability, based on continuous-time Bayesian update of the graph structure; the second one is, with the use of adaptive measurement technique, able to deterministically drive any mixed state to a spin coherent state for network initialization. Read More

System identification is a key enabling component for the implementation of quantum technologies, including quantum control. In this paper, we consider the class of passive linear input-output systems, and investigate several basic questions: (1) which parameters can be identified? (2) Given sufficient input-output data, how do we reconstruct the system parameters? (3) How can we optimize the estimation precision by preparing appropriate input states and performing measurements on the output? We show that minimal systems can be identified up to a unitary transformation on the modes, and systems satisfying a Hamiltonian connectivity condition called "infecting" are completely identifiable. We propose a frequency domain design based on a Fisher information criterion, for optimizing the estimation precision for coherent input state. Read More

We study the collective modes in relativistic electromagnetic or quark-gluon plasmas with an asymmetry between left- and right-handed chiral fermions, based on the recently formulated kinetic theory with Berry curvature corrections. We find that there exists an unstable mode, signaling the presence of a plasma instability. We argue the fate of this "chiral plasma instability" including the effect of collisions, and briefly discuss its relevance in heavy ion collisions and compact stars. Read More

At nonzero density the eigenvalues of the Dirac operator move into the complex plane, while its singular values remain real and nonnegative. In QCD-like theories, the singular-value spectrum carries information on the diquark (or pionic) condensate. We have constructed low-energy effective theories in different density regimes and derived a number of exact results for the Dirac singular values, including Banks-Casher-type relations for the diquark (or pionic) condensate, Smilga-Stern-type relations for the slope of the singular-value density, and Leutwyler-Smilga-type sum rules for the inverse singular values. Read More

This paper shows that an arbitrary Gaussian pure state can be deterministically generated in a dissipative open system that has quasi-local interactions between the subsystems and couples to surrounding environment in a local manner. A quasi-local interaction, which means that the interaction occurs among only a few subsystems, is a crucial requirement for practical engineering of a dissipative system. The key idea is that, first, an auxiliary system having local interaction with environment is prepared, and then that auxiliary system is coupled to the underlying target system via a set of two-body Hamiltonians in such a way that a desired pure state is generated. Read More

We derive a new Banks-Casher-type relation which relates the density of complex Dirac eigenvalues at the origin to the BCS gap of quarks at high density. Our relation is applicable to QCD and QCD-like theories without a sign problem, such as two-color QCD and adjoint QCD with baryon chemical potential, and QCD with isospin chemical potential. It provides us with a method to measure the BCS gap through the Dirac spectrum on the lattice. Read More

We show, in a model-independent manner, that the QCD critical point can appear only inside the pion condensation phase of the phase-quenched QCD as long as the contribution of flavor-disconnected diagrams is negligible. The sign problem is known to be maximally severe in this region, implying that the QCD critical point is reachable by the present lattice QCD techniques only if there is an enhancement of the flavor-disconnected contribution at finite baryon chemical potential. Read More

A kinetic theory can be modified to incorporate triangle anomalies and the chiral magnetic effect by taking into account the Berry curvature flux through the Fermi surface. We show how such a kinetic theory can be derived from underlying quantum field theories. Using the new kinetic theory, we also compute the parity-odd correlation function that is found to be identical to the result in the perturbation theory in the next-to-leading order hard dense loop approximation. Read More

This paper provides a general theory for characterizing and constructing a decoherence-free (DF) subsystem for an infinite dimensional linear open quantum system. The main idea is that, based on the Heisenberg picture of the dynamics rather than the commonly-taken Schrodinger picture, the notions of controllability and observability in control theory are employed to characterize a DF subsystem. A particularly useful result is a general if and only if condition for a linear system to have a DF component; this condition is used to demonstrate how to actually construct a DF dynamics in some specific examples. Read More

Finite-density QCD is difficult to study numerically because of the sign problem. We prove that, in a certain region of the phase diagram, the phase quenched approximation is exact to O(Nf/Nc). It is true for any physical observables. Read More

This paper studies a scheme of two spatially distant oscillator systems that are connected by Gaussian fields and examines distributed entanglement generation between two continuous-mode output Gaussian fields that are radiated by the oscillators. It is demonstrated that using measurement-feedback control while a non-local effective entangling operation is on can help to enhance the Einstein-Podolski-Rosen (EPR)-like entanglement between the output fields. The effect of propagation delays and losses in the fields interconnecting the two oscillators, and the effect of other losses in the system, are also considered. Read More

This paper reconsiders the method of adaptive measurement for qubit state preparation developed by Jacobs and shows an alternative scheme that works even under unknown unitary evolution of the state. The key idea is that the measurement is adaptively changed so that one of the eigenstates of the measured observable is always set between the current and the target states at while that eigenstate converges to the target. The most significant feature of this scheme is that the measurement strength can be taken constant unlike Jacobs' one, which eventually provides fine robustness property of the controlled state against the uncertainty of the unitary evolution. Read More

The effect of the complex phase of the fermion determinant is a key question related to the sign problem in finite-density QCD. Recently it has been shown that ignoring the complex phase -- the phase quenching -- does not change physics in a certain region of the phase diagram when a number of colors N_c is large. In this paper we study the effect of the phase quenching within the frameworks of effective models and holographic models. Read More

In a three-dimensional Fermi liquid, quasiparticles near the Fermi surface may possess a Berry curvature. We show that if the Berry curvature has a nonvanishing flux through the Fermi surface, the particle number associated with this Fermi surface has a triangle anomaly in external electromagnetic fields. We show how Landau's Fermi liquid theory should be modified to take into account the Berry curvature. Read More

Recently the complete characterization of a general Gaussian dissipative system having a unique pure steady state was obtained in [Koga and Yamamoto 2012, Phys. Rev. A 85, 022103]. Read More