Naoki Isobe - ISAS/JAXA

Naoki Isobe
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Naoki Isobe

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High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (28)
Astrophysics (10)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (6)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (6)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (6)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (2)
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (1)
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (1)

Publications Authored By Naoki Isobe

We conducted systematic observations of the HI Br-alpha line (4.05 micron) and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature (3.3 micron) in 50 nearby (z<0. Read More

23 giant flares from 13 active stars (eight RS CVn systems, one Algol system, three dMe stars and one YSO) were detected during the first two years of our all-sky X-ray monitoring with the gas propotional counters (GSC) of the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI). The observed parameters of all of these MAXI/GSC flares are found to be at the upper ends for stellar flares with the luminosity of 10^(31-34) ergs s-1 in the 2-20 keV band, the emission measure of 10^(54-57) cm-3, the e-folding time of 1 hour to 1.5 days, and the total radiative energy released during the flare of 10^(34-39) ergs. Read More

Nearby active galactic nuclei were diagnosed in the X-ray and mid-to-far infrared wavelengths, with Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) and the Japanese infrared observatory AKARI, respectively. Among the X-ray sources listed in the second release of the MAXI all-sky X-ray source catalog, 100 ones are currently identified as a non-blazar-type active galactic nucleus. These include 95 Seyfert galaxies and 5 quasars, and they are composed of 73 type-1 and 27 type-2 objects. Read More

The Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (aLIGO) has detected direct signals of gravitational waves (GWs) from GW150914. The event was a merger of binary black holes whose masses are $36^{+5}_{-4}M_{\odot}$ and $29^{+4}_{-4}M_{\odot}$. Such binary systems are expected to be directly evolved from stellar binary systems or formed by dynamical interactions of black holes in dense stellar environments. Read More

X-ray emission associated with the west lobe of the giant radio galaxy, 3C 236, was investigated with the Suzaku observatory, to evaluate the energetics in the lobe. After removing contamination from X-ray sources detected with Chandra and subtracting the X-ray and non-X-ray backgrounds, the Suzaku spectrum from the lobe was reproduced by a power-low model with a photon index of $\Gamma = 2.23_{-0. Read More

Since August 2009, MAXI experiment on the ISS has been performing all-sky X-ray monitoring. With MAXI, we detected flaring activities of some blazers, including Mrk 421, Mrk 501, and 3C 273. Recently, new X-ray flaring activities were detected from two blazers, MAXI J1930+093 = 2FGL J1931. Read More

The archetypical very-high-energy gamma-ray blazar Mrk 421 was monitored for more than 3 years with the Gas Slit Camera onboard Monitor of All Sky X-ray Image (MAXI), and its longterm X-ray variability was investigated. The MAXI lightcurve in the 3 -- 10 keV range was transformed to the periodogram in the frequency range $f = 1 \times 10^{-8}$ -- $2 \times 10^{-6}$ Hz. The artifacts on the periodogram, resulting from data gaps in the observed lightcurve, were extensively simulated for variations with a power-law like Power Spectrum Density (PSD). Read More

In this work, we investigate the dependence of the covering factor (CF) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) (i) on the mid-infrared (MIR) luminosity and (ii) on the redshift. We constructed 12- and 22-micron luminosity functions (LFs) at 0.006 < z < 0. Read More

We made simultaneous single-dish and very long baseline interferometer (VLBI) observations of a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLS1) 1H 0323+342, showing gamma-ray activity revealed by Fermi/LAT observations. We found significant variation of the total flux density at 8 GHz on the time scale of one month by the single-dish monitoring. The total flux density varied by 5. Read More

We present the catalog of high Galactic-latitude ($|b|>10^{\circ}$) X-ray sources detected in the first 37-month data of Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) / Gas Slit Camera (GSC). To achieve the best sensitivity, we develop a background model of the GSC that well reproduces the data based on the detailed on-board calibration. Source detection is performed through image fit with the Poisson likelihood algorithm. Read More

In order to elucidate the emission properties of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) during their power-law (PL) state, we examined long-term X-ray spectral data of IC342 X-1 during its PL state by using our own Suzaku data and the archival data by XMM-Newton, Chandra, and Swift observations. The PL state of this source seems to be classified into two sub-states in terms of the X-ray luminosities in 0.5-10 keV: the low luminosity PL state with 4-6*10^{39} erg/s and the high luminosity one with 1. Read More

Affiliations: 1ISAS/JAXA, 2Shibaura Institute of Technology, 3Shibaura Institute of Technology, 4Hiroshima University

The X-ray spectrum of the nearest ultraluminous X-ray source, M33 X-8, obtained by Suzaku during 2010 January 11 -- 13, was closely analyzed to examine its nature. It is, by far, the only data with the highest signal statistic in 0.4 -- 10 keV range. Read More

We combine data from two all-sky surveys in order to study the connection between the infrared and hard X-ray (>10keV) properties for local active galactic nuclei (AGN). The Swift/Burst Alert Telescope all-sky survey provides an unbiased, flux-limited selection of hard X-ray detected AGN. Cross-correlating the 22-month hard X-ray survey with the AKARI all-sky survey, we studied 158 AGN detected by the AKARI instruments. Read More

We present the results of monitoring the Galactic black hole candidate GX 339-4 with the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) / Gas Slit Camera (GSC) in the high/soft state during the outburst in 2010. All the spectra throughout the 8-month period are well reproduced with a model consisting of multi-color disk (MCD) emission and its Comptonization component, whose fraction is <= 25% in the total flux. In spite of the flux variability over a factor of 3, the innermost disk radius is constant at R_in = 61 +/- 2 km for the inclination angle of i = 46 deg and the distance of d=8 kpc. Read More

We present a large X-ray flare from a nearby weak-lined T Tauri star TWA-7 detected with the Gas Slit Camera (GSC) on the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI). The GSC captured X-ray flaring from TWA-7 with a flux of $3\times10^{-9}$ ergs cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ in 2--20 keV band during the scan transit starting at UT 2010-09-07 18:24:30.The estimated X-ray luminosity at the scan in the energy band is 3$\times10^{32}$ ergs s$^{-1}$,indicating that the event is among the largest X-ray flares fromT Tauri stars. Read More

We present the first unbiased source catalog of the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) mission at high Galactic latitudes ($|b| > 10^{\circ}$), produced from the first 7-month data (2009 September 1 to 2010 March 31) of the Gas Slit Camera in the 4--10 keV band. We develop an analysis procedure to detect faint sources from the MAXI data, utilizing a maximum likelihood image fitting method, where the image response, background, and detailed observational conditions are taken into account. The catalog consists of 143 X-ray sources above 7 sigma significance level with a limiting sensitivity of $\sim1. Read More

The monitor of all-sky X-ray image (MAXI) Gas Slit Camera (GSC) on the International Space Station (ISS) detected a gamma-ray burst (GRB) on 2009, September 26, GRB\,090926B. This GRB had extremely hard spectra in the X-ray energy range. Joint spectral fitting with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope shows that this burst has peculiarly narrow spectral energy distribution and is represented by Comptonized blackbody model. Read More

A careful analysis of the Suzaku data of the giant radio galaxy DA 240, of which the size is 1.48 Mpc, revealed diffuse X-ray emission associated with its east lobe. The diffuse X-ray spectrum was described with a simple power-law model with a photon index of 1. Read More

The Gas Slit Camera (GSC) is an X-ray instrument on the MAXI (Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image) mission on the International Space Station. It is designed to scan the entire sky every 92-minute orbital period in the 2--30 keV band and to achieve the highest sensitivity among the X-ray all-sky monitors ever flown so far. The GSC employs large-area position-sensitive proportional counters with the total detector area of 5350 cm$^2$. Read More

We report the in-orbit performance of the Gas Slit Camera (GSC) on the MAXI (Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image) mission carried on the International Space Station (ISS). Its commissioning operation started on August 8, 2009, confirmed the basic performances of the effective area in the energy band of 2--30 keV, the spatial resolution of the slit-and-slat collimator and detector with 1.5 degree FWHM, the source visibility of 40-150 seconds for each scan cycle, and the sky coverage of 85% per 92-minute orbital period and 95% per day. Read More

Solid-state Slit Camera (SSC) is an X-ray camera onboard the MAXI mission of the International Space Station. Two sets of SSC sensors view X-ray sky using charge-coupled devices (CCDs) in 0.5--12\,keV band. Read More

The Suzaku observation of a giant radio galaxy 3C 35 revealed faint extended X-ray emission, associated with its radio lobes and/or host galaxy. After careful subtraction of the X-ray and non-X-ray background and contaminating X-ray sources, the X-ray spectrum of the faint emission was reproduced by a sum of the power-law (PL) and soft thermal components. The soft component was attributed to the thermal plasma emission from the host galaxy. Read More

Authors: Tadayuki Takahashi, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Richard Kelley, Felix Aharonian, Fumie Akimoto, Steve Allen, Naohisa Anabuki, Lorella Angelini, Keith Arnaud, Hisamitsu Awaki, Aya Bamba, Nobutaka Bando, Mark Bautz, Roger Blandford, Kevin Boyce, Greg Brown, Maria Chernyakova, Paolo Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jean Cottam, John Crow, Jelle de Plaa, Cor de Vries, Jan-Willem den Herder, Michael DiPirro, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew Fabian, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Stefan Funk, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Poshak Gandhi, Keith Gendreau, Kirk Gilmore, Yoshito Haba, Kenji Hamaguchi, Isamu Hatsukade, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko Hiraga, Kazuyuki Hirose, Ann Hornschemeier, John Hughes, Una Hwang, Ryo Iizuka, Kazunori Ishibashi, Manabu Ishida, Kosei Ishimura, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Naoki Isobe, Masayuki Ito, Naoko Iwata, Jelle Kaastra, Timothy Kallman, Tuneyoshi Kamae, Hideaki Katagiri, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Madoka Kawaharada, Nobuyuki Kawai, Shigeo Kawasaki, Dmitry Khangaluyan, Caroline Kilbourne, Kenzo Kinugasa, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Tatsuro Kosaka, Taro Kotani, Katsuji Koyama, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, Francois Lebrun, Olivier Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox Long, Grzegorz Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan McCammon, Jon Miller, Shin Mineshige, Kenji Minesugi, Takuya Miyazawa, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Koji Mori, Hideyuki Mori, Koji Mukai, Hiroshi Murakami, Toshio Murakami, Richard Mushotzky, Yujin Nakagawa, Takao Nakagawa, Hiroshi Nakajima, Takeshi Nakamori, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Yoshiharu Namba, Masaharu Nomachi, Steve O' Dell, Hiroyuki Ogawa, Mina Ogawa, Keiji Ogi, Takaya Ohashi, Masanori Ohno, Masayuki Ohta, Takashi Okajima, Naomi Ota, Masanobu Ozaki, Frits Paerels, Stéphane Paltani, Arvind Parmer, Robert Petre, Martin Pohl, Scott Porter, Brian Ramsey, Christopher Reynolds, Shin-ichiro Sakai, Rita Sambruna, Goro Sato, Yoichi Sato, Peter Serlemitsos, Maki Shida, Takanobu Shimada, Keisuke Shinozaki, Peter Shirron, Randall Smith, Gary Sneiderman, Yang Soong, Lukasz Stawarz, Hiroyuki Sugita, Andrew Szymkowiak, Hiroyasu Tajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Yoh Takei, Toru Tamagawa, Takayuki Tamura, Keisuke Tamura, Takaaki Tanaka, Yasuo Tanaka, Yasuyuki Tanaka, Makoto Tashiro, Yuzuru Tawara, Yukikatsu Terada, Yuichi Terashima, Francesco Tombesi, Hiroshi Tomida, Miyako Tozuka, Yoko Tsuboi, Masahiro Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Tsunemi, Takeshi Tsuru, Hiroyuki Uchida, Yasunobu Uchiyama, Hideki Uchiyama, Yoshihiro Ueda, Shinichiro Uno, Meg Urry, Shin Watanabe, Nicholas White, Takahiro Yamada, Hiroya Yamaguchi, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Noriko Yamasaki, Makoto Yamauchi, Shigeo Yamauchi, Yoichi Yatsu, Daisuke Yonetoku, Atsumasa Yoshida

The joint JAXA/NASA ASTRO-H mission is the sixth in a series of highly successful X-ray missions initiated by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). ASTRO-H will investigate the physics of the high-energy universe by performing high-resolution, high-throughput spectroscopy with moderate angular resolution. ASTRO-H covers very wide energy range from 0. Read More

Strong X-ray flares from the blazar Mrk 421 were detected in 2010 January and February through the 7 month monitoring with the MAXI GSC. The maximum 2 -- 10 keV flux in the January and February flares was measured as 120 +- 10 mCrab and 164 +- 17 mCrab respectively; the latter is the highest among those reported from the object. A comparison of the MAXI and Swift BAT data suggests a convex X-ray spectrum with an approximated photon index of about 2. Read More

We report the results from a deep Suzaku observation of 4C 50.55 (IGR J 21247+5058), the brightest broad-line radio galaxy in the hard X-ray (> 10 keV) sky. The simultaneous broad band spectra over 1-60 keV can be represented by a cut-off power law with two layers of absorption and a significant reflection component from cold matter with a solid angle of \Omega/2\pi \approx 0. Read More

We present the first results on the black hole candidate XTE J1752-223 from the Gas Slit Camera (GSC) on-board the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) on the International Space Station. Including the onset of the outburst reported by the Proportional Counter Array on-board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer on 2009 October 23, the MAXI/GSC has been monitoring this source approximately 10 times per day with a high sensitivity in the 2-20 keV band. XTE J1752-223 was initially in the low/hard state during the first 3 months. Read More

If the activity of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is predominantly induced by major galaxy mergers, then a significant fraction of AGNs should harbor binary massive black holes in their centers. We study the mass function of binary massive black holes in nearby AGNs based on the observed AGN black-hole mass function and theory of evolution of binary massive black holes interacting with a massive circumbinary disk in the framework of coevolution of massive black holes and their host galaxies. The circumbinary disk is assumed to be steady, axisymmetric, geometrically thin, self-regulated, self-gravitating but non-fragmenting with a fraction of Eddington accretion rate, which is typically one tenth of Eddington value. Read More

A Suzaku observation of a giant radio galaxy, 3C 326, which has a physical size of about 2 Mpc, was conducted on 2008 January 19 -- 21. In addition to several X-ray sources, diffuse emission was significantly detected associated with its west lobe, but the east lobe was contaminated by an unidentified X-ray source WARP J1552.4+2007. Read More

Affiliations: 1ISS Science Project Office, ISAS, JAXA, 2ISS Science Project Office, ISAS, JAXA, 3ISS Science Project Office, ISAS, JAXA, 4ISS Science Project Office, ISAS, JAXA, 5ISS Science Project Office, ISAS, JAXA, 6ISS Science Project Office, ISAS, JAXA, 7ISS Science Project Office, ISAS, JAXA, 8ISS Science Project Office, ISAS, JAXA, 9Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, RIKEN, 10Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, RIKEN, 11Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, RIKEN, 12Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, RIKEN, 13Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, 14Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, 15Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 16Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 17Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 18Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 19Department of Physics, Nihon University, 20Department of Physics, Nihon University, 21Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, 22Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, RIKEN, 23Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 24Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 25Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 26Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 27Department of Physics, Nihon University, 28Department of Physics, Nihon University, 29Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, 30Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, 31Earth Observation Research Center, JAXA, 32ISAS, JAXA

The MAXI (Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image) mission is the first astronomical payload to be installed on the Japanese Experiment Module-Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) on the ISS. It is scheduled for launch in the middle of 2009 to monitor all-sky X-ray objects on every ISS orbit. MAXI will be more powerful than any previous X-ray All Sky Monitor (ASM) payloads, being able to monitor hundreds of AGN. Read More

Suzaku observations of the blazar OJ 287 were performed in 2007 April 10--13 and November 7--9. They correspond to a quiescent and a flaring state, respectively. The X-ray spectra can be well described with single power-law models in both exposures. Read More

The Suzaku X-ray satellite observed the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 4258 for a total good exposure time of 100 ks. We present an analysis of the Suzaku XIS data, in which we confirm that the 0.5--2 keV spectra of the interstellar medium (ISM) are well-represented by a two-temperature model. Read More

Suzaku Hard X-ray Detector (HXD) achieved the lowest background level than any other previously or currently operational missions sensitive in the energy range of 10--600 keV, by utilizing PIN photodiodes and GSO scintillators mounted in the BGO active shields to reject particle background and Compton-scattered events as much as possible. Because it does not have imaging capability nor rocking mode for the background monitor, the sensitivity is limited by the reproducibility of the non X-ray background (NXB) model. We modeled the HXD NXB, which varies with time as well as other satellites with a low-earth orbit, by utilizing several parameters, including particle monitor counts and satellite orbital/attitude information. Read More

Suzaku observation of an ultraluminous X-ray source, NGC 2403 Source 3, performed on 2006 March 16--17, is reported. The Suzaku XIS spectrum of Source 3 was described with a multi-color black-body-like emission from an optically thick accretion disk. The innermost temperature and radius of the accretion disk was measured to be $T_{\rm in} = 1. Read More

An observation of the West lobe of radio galaxy Fornax A (NGC 1316) with Suzaku is reported. Since Feigelson et al. (1995) and Kaneda et al. Read More

Clusters of galaxies are among the best candidates for particle acceleration sources in the universe, a signature of which is non-thermal hard X-ray emission from the accelerated relativistic particles. We present early results on Suzaku observations of non-thermal emission from Abell 3376, which is a nearby on-going merger cluster. Suzaku observed the cluster twice, focusing on the cluster center containing the diffuse radio emission to the east, and cluster peripheral region to the west. Read More

We present results of 120 ks observation of a compact group of galaxies HCG~62 ($z=0.0145$) with Suzaku XIS and HXD-PIN\@. The XIS spectra for four annular regions were fitted with two temperature {\it vapec} model with variable abundance, combined with the foreground Galactic component. Read More

Affiliations: 1Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, RIKEN, 2Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, RIKEN, 3Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, RIKEN, 4Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, RIKEN, 5Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 6Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 7Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 8Department of Physics, Hiroshima University
Category: Astrophysics

This paper reports the discovery of a bright X-ray transient source, Suzaku J1305-4913, in the south-west arm of the nearby Seyfert II galaxy NGC 4945. It was detected at a 0.5 -- 10 keV flux of $2. Read More

Suzaku observed a nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC4945, which hosts one of the brightest active galactic nuclei above 20 keV. Combining data from the X-ray CCD camera (XIS) and the Hard X-ray Detector (HXD), the AGN intrinsic nuclear emission and its reprocessed signals were observed simultaneously. The intrinsic emission is highly obscured with an absorbing column of $\sim 5 \times 10^{24}$ cm$^{-2}$, and was detectable only above $\sim 10$ keV. Read More

We obtained a wide-band spectrum of the Compton-thick Seyfert 2 galaxy Mrk 3 with Suzaku. The observed spectrum was clearly resolved into weak, soft power-law emission, a heavily absorbed power-law component, cold reflection, and many emission lines. The heavily absorbed component, absorbed by gas with a column density of 1. Read More

Broad line radio galaxies (BLRGs) are a rare type of radio-loud AGN, in which the broad optical permitted emission lines have been detected in addition to the extended jet emission. Here we report on deep (40ksec x4) observations of the bright BLRG 3C~120 using Suzaku. The observations were spaced a week apart, and sample a range of continuum fluxes. Read More

From the group of galaxies HCG62, we detected an excess hard X-ray emission in energies above $\sim 4$ keV with \A SCA. The excess emission is spatially extended up to $\sim10'$ from the group center, and somewhat enhanced toward north. Its spectrum can be represented by either a power-law of photon index 0. Read More

Affiliations: 1University of Tokyo, 2Saitama University, 3University of Tokyo, 4University of Tokyo
Category: Astrophysics

X-ray properties of the BL Lacertae object OJ 287, observed with ASCA on 1997 April 26 and November 17, are reported. The 0.5 -- 10 keV flux was lower than those obtained in previous X-ray observations, and no evidence of intensity variations was found during each observation. Read More