# N. Sapir

## Publications Authored By N. Sapir

**Authors:**O. Yaron, D. A. Perley, A. Gal-Yam, J. H. Groh, A. Horesh, E. O. Ofek, S. R. Kulkarni, J. Sollerman, C. Fransson, A. Rubin, P. Szabo, N. Sapir, F. Taddia, S. B. Cenko, S. Valenti, I. Arcavi, D. A. Howell, M. M. Kasliwal, P. M. Vreeswijk, D. Khazov, O. D. Fox, Y. Cao, O. Gnat, P. L. Kelly, P. E. Nugent, A. V. Filippenko, R. R. Laher, P. R. Wozniak, W. H. Lee, U. D. Rebbapragada, K. Maguire, M. Sullivan, M. T. Soumagnac

**Category:**High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena

With the advent of new wide-field, high-cadence optical transient surveys, our understanding of the diversity of core-collapse supernovae has grown tremendously in the last decade. However, the pre-supernova evolution of massive stars, that sets the physical backdrop to these violent events, is theoretically not well understood and difficult to probe observationally. Here we report the discovery of the supernova iPTF13dqy = SN 2013fs, a mere ~3 hr after explosion. Read More

The early part of a supernova (SN) light-curve is dominated by radiation escaping from the expanding shock-heated progenitor envelope. For polytropic Hydrogen envelopes, the properties of the emitted radiation are described by simple analytic expressions and are nearly independent of the polytropic index, $n$. This analytic description holds at early time, $t<$~few days, during which radiation escapes from shells initially lying near the stellar surface. Read More

We present here an efficient numerical scheme for solving the non-relativistic 1D radiation-hydrodynamics equations including inelastic Compton scattering, which is not included in most codes and is crucial for solving problems such as shock breakout. The devised code is applied to the problems of a steady-state planar radiation mediated shock (RMS) and RMS breakout from a stellar envelope. The results are in agreement with those of a previous work on shock breakout \citep{Sapir13}, in which Compton equilibrium between matter and radiation was assumed and the "effective photon" approximation was used to describe the radiation spectrum. Read More

The spectrum of radiation emitted following shock breakout from a star's surface with a power-law density profile $\rho \propto x^n$ is investigated. Assuming planar geometry, local Compton equilibrium and bremsstrahlung emission as the dominant photon production mechanism, numerical solutions are obtained for the photon number density and temperature profiles as a function of time, for hydrogen-helium envelopes. The temperature solutions are determined by the breakout shock velocity $v_0$ and the pre-shock breakout density $\rho_0$, and depend weakly on the value of n. Read More

We show that a collisionless shock necessarily forms during the shock breakout of a supernova (SN) surrounded by an optically thick wind. An intense non-thermal flash of <~ MeV gamma rays, hard X-rays and multi-TeV neutrinos is produced simultaneously with and following the soft X-ray breakout emission, carrying similar or larger energy than the soft emission. The non-thermal flash is detectable by current X-ray telescopes and may be detectable out to 10's of Mpc by km-scale neutrino telescopes. Read More

Exact bolometric light curves of supernova shock breakouts are derived based on the universal, non relativistic, planar breakout solutions (Sapir et al. 2011), assuming spherical symmetry, constant Thomson scattering opacity, \kappa, and angular intensity corresponding to the steady state planar limit. These approximations are accurate for progenitors with a scale height much smaller than the radius. Read More

The problem of a non-steady planar radiation mediated shock (RMS) breaking out from a surface with a power-law density profile, \rho\propto x^n, is numerically solved in the approximation of diffusion with constant opacity. For an appropriate choice of time, length and energy scales, determined by the breakout opacity, velocity and density, the solution is universal, i.e. Read More

We study the heartbeat activity of healthy individuals at rest and during exercise. We focus on correlation properties of the intervals formed by successive peaks in the pulse wave and find significant scaling differences between rest and exercise. For exercise the interval series is anticorrelated at short time scales and correlated at intermediate time scales, while for rest we observe the opposite crossover pattern -- from strong correlations in the short-time regime to weaker correlations at larger scales. Read More