N. P. Butch - University of Maryland

N. P. Butch
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N. P. Butch
University of Maryland
College Park
United States

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Pub Categories

Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (29)
Physics - Materials Science (18)
Physics - Superconductivity (12)
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (12)
Physics - Other (1)
Physics - Optics (1)
Physics - Statistical Mechanics (1)

Publications Authored By N. P. Butch

We report neutron scattering measurements on Er$_2$Pt$_2$O$_7$, a new addition to the XY family of frustrated pyrochlore magnets. Symmetry analysis of our elastic scattering data shows that Er$_2$Pt$_2$O$_7$ is the first XY pyrochlore to order into the $k=0$, $\Gamma_7$ magnetic structure (the Palmer-Chalker state), at $T_N = 0.38$ K. Read More

The behavior of matter near a quantum critical point (QCP) is one of the most exciting and challenging areas of physics research. Emergent phenomena such as high-temperature superconductivity are linked to the proximity to a QCP. Although significant progress has been made in understanding quantum critical behavior in some low dimensional magnetic insulators, the situation in metallic systems is much less clear. Read More

Magnons, the spin-wave quanta, are disturbances that embody a wave propagating through a background medium formed by ordered magnetic moments. In an isotropic Heisenberg system, these disturbances vary in a continuous manner around an ordered spin structure, thus requiring infinitesimal energy as a wavevector approaches a magnetic zone centre. However, competing anisotropic interactions arising from broken symmetry can favour a distinct static and dynamic spin state causing a shift of the minimum point of the magnon dispersion to a nonreciprocal wavevector. Read More

The XY pyrochlore antiferromagnet Er$_2$Ti$_2$O$_7$ exhibits a rare case of $Z_6$ discrete symmetry breaking in its $\psi_2$ magnetic ground state. Despite being well-studied theoretically, systems with high discrete symmetry breakings are uncommon in nature and, thus, Er$_2$Ti$_2$O$_7$ provides an experimental playground for the study of broken $Z_n$ symmetry, for $n>2$. A recent theoretical work examined the effect of a magnetic field on a pyrochlore lattice with broken $Z_6$ symmetry and applied it to Er$_2$Ti$_2$O$_7$. Read More

The perovskite Ba8CoNb6O24 comprises equilateral effective spin-1/2 Co2+ triangular layers separated by six non-magnetic layers. Susceptibility, specific heat and neutron scattering measurements combined with high-temperature series expansions and spin-wave calculations confirm that Ba8CoNb6O24 is basically a twodimensional (2D) magnet with no detectable spin anisotropy and no long-range magnetic ordering down to 0.06 K. Read More

In pulsed magnetic fields up to 65T and at temperatures below the N\'eel transition, our magnetization and magnetostriction measurements reveal a field-induced metamagnetic-like transition that is suggestive of an antiferromagnetic to polarized paramagnetic or ferrimagnetic ordering. Our data also suggests a change in the nature of this metamagnetic-like transition from second- to first-order-like near a tricritical point at T_{tc} ~145K and H_{c}~52T. At high fields for H>H_{c} we found a decreased magnetic moment roughly half of the moment reported in low field measurements. Read More

Below $T_N = 1.1$K, the XY pyrochlore Er$_2$Ti$_2$O$_7$ orders into a $k=0$ non-collinear, antiferromagnetic structure referred to as the $\psi_2$ state. The magnetic order in Er$_2$Ti$_2$O$_7$ is known to obey conventional three dimensional (3D) percolation in the presence of magnetic dilution, and in that sense is robust to disorder. Read More

We use neutron scattering to compare the magnetic excitations in the hidden order (HO) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) phases in URu2-xFexSi2 as a function of Fe concentration. The magnetic excitation spectra change significantly between x = 0.05 and x = 0. Read More

The kagome lattice -- a two-dimensional (2D) arrangement of corner-sharing triangles -- is at the forefront of the search for exotic states generated by magnetic frustration. Such states have been observed experimentally for Heisenberg and planar spins. In contrast, frustration of Ising spins on the kagome lattice has previously been restricted to nano-fabricated systems and spin-ice materials under applied magnetic field. Read More

Resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES) was used to determine the pressure dependence of the f-electron occupancy in the Kondo insulator SmB6. Applied pressure reduces the f-occupancy, but surprisingly, the material maintains a significant divalent character up to a pressure of at least 35 GPa. Thus, the closure of the resistive activation energy gap and onset of magnetic order are not driven by stabilization of an integer valent state. Read More

The ytterbium pyrochlore magnets, Yb2B2O7 (B = Sn, Ti, Ge) are well described by S_eff = 1/2 quantum spins decorating a network of corner-sharing tetrahedra and interacting via anisotropic exchange. Structurally, only the non-magnetic B-site cation, and hence, primarily the lattice parameter, is changing across the series. Nonetheless, a range of magnetic behaviors are observed: the low temperature magnetism in Yb2Ti2O7 and Yb2Sn2O7 has ferromagnetic character, while Yb2Ge2O7 displays an antiferromagnetically ordered Neel state at low temperatures. Read More

The ground state of the quantum spin ice candidate magnet Yb2Ti2O7 is known to be sensitive to weak disorder at the 1 percent level which occurs in single crystals grown from the melt. Powders produced by solid state synthesis tend to be stoichiometric and display large and sharp heat capacity anomalies at relatively high temperatures, with Tc about 0.26 K. Read More

Since the discovery of spin glasses in dilute magnetic systems, their study has been largely focused on understanding randomness and defects as the driving mechanism. The same paradigm has also been applied to explain glassy states found in dense frustrated systems. Recently, however, it has been theoretically suggested that different mechanisms, such as quantum fluctuations and topological features, may induce glassy states in defect-free spin systems, far from the conventional dilute limit. Read More

Inelastic neutron scattering is employed to study transverse spin correlations of a Heisenberg $S=1/2$ chain compound in a magnetic field of 7.5 T. The target compound is the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg $S=1/2$ chain material 2(1,4-Dioxane)$\cdot$2(H$_2$O)$\cdot$CuCl$_2$, or CuDCl for short. Read More

The low temperature hidden order state of URu$_2$Si$_2$ has long been a subject of intense speculation, and is thought to represent an as yet undetermined many-body quantum state not realized by other known materials. Here, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and high resolution resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) are used to observe electronic excitation spectra of URu$_2$Si$_2$, as a means to identify the degrees of freedom available to constitute the hidden order wavefunction. Excitations are shown to have symmetries that derive from a correlated $5f^2$ atomic multiplet basis that is modified by itinerancy. Read More

We measure gate-tuned thermoelectric power of mechanically exfoliated Bi2Se3 thin films in the topological insulator regime. The sign of the thermoelectric power changes across the charge neutrality point as the majority carrier type switches from electron to hole, consistent with the ambipolar electric field effect observed in conductivity and Hall effect measurements. Near charge neutrality point and at low temperatures, the gate dependent thermoelectric power follows the semiclassical Mott relation using the expected surface state density of states, but is larger than expected at high electron doping, possibly reflecting a large density of states in the bulk gap. Read More

Using non-resonant Fe K-beta x-ray emission spectroscopy, we reveal that Sr-doping of CaFe2As2 decouples the Fe moment from the volume collapse transition, yielding a collapsed-tetragonal, paramagnetic normal state out of which superconductivity develops. X-ray diffraction measurements implicate the c-axis lattice parameter as the controlling criterion for the Fe moment, promoting a generic description for the appearance of pressure-induced superconductivity in the alkaline-earth-based 122 ferropnictides (AFe2As2). The evolution of the superconducting critical temperature with pressure lends support to theories for superconductivity involving unconventional pairing mediated by magnetic fluctuations. Read More

By a combined angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theory study, we discover that the surface metallicity is polarity-driven in SmB$_6$. Two surface states, not accounted for by the bulk band structure, are reproduced by slab calculations for coexisting B$_6$ and Sm surface terminations. Our analysis reveals that a metallic surface state stems from an unusual property, generic to the (001) termination of all hexaborides: the presence of boron $2p$ dangling bonds, on a polar surface. Read More

Simultaneous low-temperature electrical resistivity and Hall effect measurements were performed on single-crystalline Bi2Se3 under applied pressures up to 50 GPa. As a function of pressure, superconductivity is observed to onset above 11 GPa with a transition temperature Tc and upper critical field Hc2 that both increase with pressure up to 30 GPa, where they reach maximum values of 7 K and 4 T, respectively. Upon further pressure increase, Tc remains anomalously constant up to the highest achieved pressure. Read More

We experimentally investigate the symmetry in the Hidden Order (HO) phase of intermetallic URu2Si2 by mapping the lattice and magnetic excitations via inelastic neutron and x-ray scattering measurements in the HO and high-temperature paramagnetic phases. At all temperatures the excitations respect the zone edges of the body-centered tetragonal paramagnetic phase, showing no signs of reduced spatial symmetry, even in the HO phase. The magnetic excitations originate from transitions between hybridized bands and track the Fermi surface, whose feature are corroborated by the phonon measurements. Read More

We study Bi2Se3 by polarization-dependent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and density-functional theory slab calculations. We find that the surface state Dirac fermions are characterized by a layer-dependent entangled spin-orbital texture, which becomes apparent through quantum interference effects. This explains the discrepancy between the spin polarization from spin-resovled ARPES - ranging from 20 to 85% - and the 100% value assumed in phenomenological models. Read More

The two-dimensional (2D) surface state of the three-dimensional strong topological insulator (STI) is fundamentally distinct from other 2D electron systems in that the Fermi arc encircles an odd number of Dirac points. The TI surface is in the symplectic universality class and uniquely among 2D systems remains metallic and cannot be localized by (time-reversal symmetric) disorder. However, in finite-size samples inter-surface coupling can destroy the topological protection. Read More

We present the experimental evidence for the presence of spinodal decomposition of the magnetic ions in the Ge/1-x-y/Cr/x/Eu/y/Te samples with chemical composition varying in the range of 0.015 < x < 0.057 and 0. Read More

As an exemplary Kondo insulator, SmB6 has been studied for several decades; however, direct evidence for the development of the Kondo coherent state and the evolution of the electronic structure in the material has not been obtained due to the rather complicated electronic and thermal transport behavior. Recently, these open questions attracted increasing attention as the emergence of a time-reversal invariant topological surface state in the Kondo insulator has been suggested. Here, we use point-contact spectroscopy to reveal the temperature dependence of the electronic states in SmB6. Read More

We report inelastic neutron scattering measurements in the hidden order state of URu$_{2-x}$Re$_x$Si$_2$ with $x$ = 0.10. We observe that towards the ferromagnetic quantum critical point induced by the negative chemical pressure of Re-doping, the gapped incommensurate fluctuations are robust and comparable in intensity to the parent material. Read More

We present a study of entropy transport in Bi2Se3 at low temperatures and high magnetic fields. In the zero-temperature limit, the magnitude of the Seebeck coefficient quantitatively tracks the Fermi temperature of the 3D Fermi surface at \Gamma-point as the carrier concentration changes by two orders of magnitude (10$^{17}$ to 10$^{19}$cm$^{-3}$). In high magnetic fields, the Nernst response displays giant quantum oscillations indicating that this feature is not exclusive to compensated semi-metals. Read More

We measure the temperature-dependent carrier density and resistivity of the topological surface state of thin exfoliated Bi2Se3 in the absence of bulk conduction. When the gate-tuned chemical potential is near or below the Dirac point the carrier density is strongly temperature dependent reflecting thermal activation from the nearby bulk valence band, while above the Dirac point, unipolar n-type surface conduction is observed with negligible thermal activation of bulk carriers. In this regime linear resistivity vs. Read More

A scheme is proposed to electrically measure the spin-momentum coupling in the topological insulator surface state by injection of spin polarized electrons from silicon. As a first approach, devices were fabricated consisting of thin (<100nm) exfoliated crystals of Bi2Se3 on n-type silicon with independent electrical contacts to silicon and Bi2Se3. Analysis of the temperature dependence of thermionic emission in reverse bias indicates a barrier height of 0. Read More

We present the studies of magnetic properties of Ge/1-x/Cr/x/Te diluted magnetic semiconductor with changeable chemical composition 0.016 \leq x \leq 0.061. Read More

Structural and electronic characterization of (Ca0.67Sr0.33)Fe2As2 has been performed as a func- tion of pressure up to 12 GPa using conventional and designer diamond anvil cells. Read More

Resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, neutron scattering and x-ray crystallography measurements were used to study the evolution of magnetic order and crystallographic structure in single-crystal samples of the Ba1-xSrxFe2As2 and Sr1-yCayFe2As2 series. A non-monotonic dependence of the magnetic ordering temperature T0 on chemical pressure is compared to the progression of the antiferromagnetic staggered moment, characteristics of the ordering transition and structural parameters to reveal a distinct relationship between the magnetic energy scale and the tetrahedral bond angle, even far above T0. In Sr1-yCayFe2As2, an abrupt drop in T0 precisely at the Ca concentration where the tetrahedral structure approaches the ideal geometry indicates a strong coupling between the orbital bonding structure and the stabilization of magnetic order, providing strong constraints on the nature of magnetism in the iron-arsenide superconducting parent compounds. Read More

Ultrathin (~3 quintuple layer) field-effect transistors (FETs) of topological insulator Bi2Se3 are prepared by mechanical exfoliation on 300nm SiO2/Si susbtrates. Temperature- and gate-voltage dependent conductance measurements show that ultrathin Bi2Se3 FETs are n-type, and have a clear OFF state at negative gate voltage, with activated temperature-dependent conductance and energy barriers up to 250 meV. Read More

Thin (6-7 quintuple layer) topological insulator Bi2Se3 quantum dot devices are demonstrated using ultrathin (2~4 quintuple layer) Bi2Se3 regions to realize semiconducting barriers which may be tuned from Ohmic to tunneling conduction via gate voltage. Transport spectroscopy shows Coulomb blockade with large charging energy >5 meV, with additional features implying excited states. Read More

In the high temperature cuprate superconductors, the pervasiveness of anomalous electronic transport properties suggests that violation of conventional Fermi liquid behavior is closely tied to superconductivity. In other classes of unconventional superconductors, atypical transport is well correlated with proximity to a quantum critical point, but the relative importance of quantum criticality in the cuprates remains uncertain. Here we identify quantum critical scaling in the electron-doped cuprate material La2-xCexCuO4 with a line of quantum critical points that surrounds the superconducting phase as a function of magnetic field and charge doping. Read More

We report x-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity, and magnetoresistance measurements on Bi2Se3 under high pressure and low temperature conditions. Pressure induces profound changes in both the room temperature value of the electrical resistivity as well as the temperature dependence of the resistivity. Initially, pressure drives Bi2Se3 towards increasingly insulating behavior and then, at higher pressures, the sample appears to enter a fully metallic state coincident with a change in the crystal structure. Read More

The noncentrosymmetric Half Heusler compound YPtBi exhibits superconductivity below a critical temperature T_c = 0.77 K with a zero-temperature upper critical field H_c2(0) = 1.5 T. Read More

Although it is generally accepted that superconductivity (SC) is unconventional in the high- transition temperature copper oxides (high-Tc cuprates), the relative importance of phenomena such as spin and charge (stripe) order, SC fluctuations, proximity to a Mott insulator, a pseudogap phase, and quantum criticality are still a matter of great debate1. In electron-doped cuprates, the absence of an anomalous pseudogap phase in the underdoped region of the phase diagram2 and weaker electron correlations3,4, suggest that Mott physics and other unidentified competing orders are less relevant and that antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin fluctuations are the dominant feature. Here we demonstrate that a linear-temperature (T-linear) scattering rate - a key feature of the anomalous normal state properties of the cuprates - is correlated with the Cooper pairing (SC). Read More

The electronic structure of Bi2Se3 is studied by angle-resolved photoemission and density functional theory. We show that the instability of the surface electronic properties, observed even in ultra-high-vacuum conditions, can be overcome via in-situ potassium deposition. In addition to accurately setting the carrier concentration, new Rashba-like spin-polarized states are induced, with a tunable, reversible, and highly stable spin splitting. Read More

Aliovalent rare earth substitution into the alkaline earth site of CaFe2As2 single-crystals is used to fine-tune structural, magnetic and electronic properties of this iron-based superconducting system. Neutron and single crystal x-ray scattering experiments indicate that an isostructural collapse of the tetragonal unit cell can be controllably induced at ambient pressures by choice of substituent ion size. This instability is driven by the interlayer As-As anion separation, resulting in an unprecedented thermal expansion coefficient of $180\times 10^{-6}$ K$^{-1}$. Read More

The newly-discovered three-dimensional strong topological insulators (STIs) exhibit topologically-protected Dirac surface states. While the STI surface state has been studied spectroscopically by e.g. Read More

Carrier and phonon dynamics in Bi2Se3 crystals are studied by a spatially resolved ultrafast pump-probe technique. Pronounced oscillations in differential reflection are observed with two distinct frequencies, and are attributed to coherent optical and acoustic phonons, respectively. The rising time of the signal indicates that the thermalization and energy relaxation of hot carriers are both sub-ps in this material. Read More

Nitrogen gas accidentally sealed in a sample container produces various spurious effects in elastic neutron scattering measurements. These effects are systematically investigated and the details of the spurious scattering are presented. Read More

We present the magnetic structure of the itinerant monoarsenide, FeAs, with the B31 structure. Powder neutron diffraction confirms incommensurate modulated magnetism with wavevector $\mathbf{q} = (0.395\pm0. Read More

Unlike the ferropnictide superconductors, which crystallize in a tetragonal crystal structure, binary FeAs forms in an orthorhombic crystal structure, where the local atomic environment resembles a highly distorted variant of the FeAs4 tetrahdedral building block of the ferropnictide superconductors. However, like the parent compounds of the ferropnictide superconductors, FeAs undergoes magnetic ordering at low temperatures, with no evidence favoring a superconducting ground state at ambient pressure. We employ pressure-dependent electrical transport and x-ray diffraction measurements using diamond anvil cells to characterize the magnetic state and the structure as a function of pressure. Read More

The superconducting series, Fe(Te,Se), has a complex structural and magnetic phase diagram that is dependent on composition and occupancy of a secondary interstitial Fe site. In this letter, we show that superconductivity in Fe1+xTe0.7Se0. Read More

Superconductivity, magnetic order, and quadrupolar order have been investigated in the filled skutterudite system Pr$_{1-x}$Nd$_{x}$Os$_4$Sb$_{12}$ as a function of composition $x$ in magnetic fields up to 9 tesla and at temperatures between 50 mK and 10 K. Electrical resistivity measurements indicate that the high field ordered phase (HFOP), which has been identified with antiferroquadruoplar order, persists to $x$ $\sim$ 0.5. Read More

We report the first terahertz Kerr measurements on bulk crystals of the topological insulator Bi2Se3. At T=10K and fields up to 8T, the real and imaginary Kerr angle and reflectance measurements utilizing both linearly and circularly polarized incident radiation were measured at a frequency of 5.24meV. Read More

The onset of antiferromagnetic order in URu2Si2 has been studied via neutron diffraction in a helium pressure medium, which most closely approximates hydrostatic conditions. The antiferromagnetic critical pressure is 0.80 GPa, considerably higher than values previously reported. Read More