N. D. Lemke - Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris Sud

N. D. Lemke
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N. D. Lemke
Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris Sud

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Physics - Atomic Physics (18)
Physics - Optics (8)
Physics - Disordered Systems and Neural Networks (4)
Quantum Physics (4)
Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors (3)
Physics - Soft Condensed Matter (2)
Physics - General Physics (2)
Nuclear Experiment (2)
Nonlinear Sciences - Chaotic Dynamics (1)
Quantitative Biology - Neurons and Cognition (1)
Physics - Biological Physics (1)
Physics - Other (1)
Physics - Statistical Mechanics (1)
Quantitative Biology - Genomics (1)

Publications Authored By N. D. Lemke

Background: Octupole-deformed nuclei, such as that of $^{225}$Ra, are expected to amplify observable atomic electric dipole moments (EDMs) that arise from time-reversal and parity-violating interactions in the nuclear medium. In 2015, we reported the first "proof-of-principle" measurement of the $^{225}$Ra atomic EDM. Purpose: This work reports on the first of several experimental upgrades to improve the statistical sensitivity of our $^{225}$Ra EDM measurements by orders of magnitude and evaluates systematic effects that contribute to current and future levels of experimental sensitivity. Read More

The radioactive radium-225 ($^{225}$Ra) atom is a favorable case to search for a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM). Due to its strong nuclear octupole deformation and large atomic mass, $^{225}$Ra is particularly sensitive to interactions in the nuclear medium that violate both time-reversal symmetry and parity. We have developed a cold-atom technique to study the spin precession of $^{225}$Ra atoms held in an optical dipole trap, and demonstrated the principle of this method by completing the first measurement of its atomic EDM, reaching an upper limit of $|$$d$($^{225}$Ra)$|$ $<$ $5. Read More

We report the first experimental determination of the hyperfine quenching rate of the $6s^2\ ^1\!S_0\ (F=1/2) - 6s6p\ ^3\!P_0\ (F=1/2)$ transition in $^{171}$Yb with nuclear spin $I=1/2$. This rate determines the natural linewidth and the Rabi frequency of the clock transition of a Yb optical frequency standard. Our technique involves spectrally resolved fluorescence decay measurements of the lowest lying $^3\!P_{0,1}$ levels of neutral Yb atoms embedded in a solid Ne matrix. Read More

We have measured the absolute frequency of the optical lattice clock based on $^{87}$Sr at PTB with an uncertainty of $3.9\times 10^{-16}$ using two caesium fountain clocks. This is close to the accuracy of today's best realizations of the SI second. Read More

We present a unifying theoretical framework that describes recently observed many-body effects during the interrogation of an optical lattice clock operated with thousands of fermionic alkaline earth atoms. The framework is based on a many-body master equation that accounts for the interplay between elastic and inelastic p-wave and s-wave interactions, finite temperature effects and excitation inhomogeneity during the quantum dynamics of the interrogated atoms. Solutions of the master equation in different parameter regimes are presented and compared. Read More

Atomic clocks have been transformational in science and technology, leading to innovations such as global positioning, advanced communications, and tests of fundamental constant variation. Next-generation optical atomic clocks can extend the capability of these timekeepers, where researchers have long aspired toward measurement precision at 1 part in $\bm{10^{18}}$. This milestone will enable a second revolution of new timing applications such as relativistic geodesy, enhanced Earth- and space-based navigation and telescopy, and new tests on physics beyond the Standard Model. Read More

The Stark shift of the ytterbium optical clock transition due to room temperature blackbody radiation is dominated by a static Stark effect, which was recently measured to high accuracy [J. A. Sherman et al. Read More

We present an optical-electronic approach to generating microwave signals with high spectral purity. By circumventing shot noise and operating near fundamental thermal limits, we demonstrate 10 GHz signals with an absolute timing jitter for a single hybrid oscillator of 420 attoseconds (1Hz - 5 GHz). Read More

Despite being a canonical example of quantum mechanical perturbation theory, as well as one of the earliest observed spectroscopic shifts, the Stark effect contributes the largest source of uncertainty in a modern optical atomic clock through blackbody radiation. By employing an ultracold, trapped atomic ensemble and high stability optical clock, we characterize the quadratic Stark effect with unprecedented precision. We report the ytterbium optical clock's sensitivity to electric fields (such as blackbody radiation) as the differential static polarizability of the ground and excited clock levels: 36. Read More

Recently, p-wave cold collisions were shown to dominate the density-dependent shift of the clock transition frequency in a 171Yb optical lattice clock. Here we demonstrate that by operating such a system at the proper excitation fraction, the cold collision shift is canceled below the 5x10^{-18} fractional frequency level. We report inelastic two-body loss rates for 3P0-3P0 and 1S0-3P0 scattering. Read More

Diffusion on a diluted hypercube has been proposed as a model for glassy relaxation and is an example of the more general class of stochastic processes on graphs. In this article we determine numerically through large scale simulations the eigenvalue spectra for this stochastic process and calculate explicitly the time evolution for the autocorrelation function and for the return probability, all at criticality, with hypercube dimensions $N$ up to N=28. We show that at long times both relaxation functions can be described by stretched exponentials with exponent 1/3 and a characteristic relaxation time which grows exponentially with dimension $N$. Read More

We study ultracold collisions in fermionic ytterbium by precisely measuring the energy shifts they impart on the atom's internal clock states. Exploiting Fermi statistics, we uncover p-wave collisions, in both weakly and strongly interacting regimes. With the higher density afforded by two-dimensional lattice confinement, we demonstrate that strong interactions can lead to a novel suppression of this collision shift. Read More

We present an optical frequency divider based on a 200 MHz repetition rate Er:fiber mode-locked laser that, when locked to a stable optical frequency reference, generates microwave signals with absolute phase noise that is equal to or better than cryogenic microwave oscillators. At 1 Hz offset from a 10 GHz carrier, the phase noise is below -100 dBc/Hz, limited by the optical reference. For offset frequencies > 10 kHz, the phase noise is shot noise limited at -145 dBc/Hz. Read More

There has been increased interest in the use and manipulation of optical fields to address challenging problems that have traditionally been approached with microwave electronics. Some examples that benefit from the low transmission loss, agile modulation and large bandwidths accessible with coherent optical systems include signal distribution, arbitrary waveform generation, and novel imaging. We extend these advantages to demonstrate a microwave generator based on a high-Q optical resonator and a frequency comb functioning as an optical-to-microwave divider. Read More

The superb precision of an atomic clock is derived from its stability. Atomic clocks based on optical (rather than microwave) frequencies are attractive because of their potential for high stability, which scales with operational frequency. Nevertheless, optical clocks have not yet realized this vast potential, due in large part to limitations of the laser used to excite the atomic resonance. Read More

We present non-standard optical Ramsey schemes that use pulses individually tailored in duration, phase, and frequency to cancel spurious frequency shifts related to the excitation itself. In particular, the field shifts and their uncertainties of Ramsey fringes can be radically suppressed (by 2-4 orders of magnitude) in comparison with the usual Ramsey method (using two equal pulses) as well as with single-pulse Rabi spectroscopy. Atom interferometers and optical clocks based on two-photon transitions, heavily forbidden transitions, or magnetically induced spectroscopy could significantly benefit from this method. Read More

We experimentally investigate an optical clock based on $^{171}$Yb ($I=1/2$) atoms confined in an optical lattice. We have evaluated all known frequency shifts to the clock transition, including a density-dependent collision shift, with a fractional uncertainty of $3.4 \times 10^{-16}$, limited principally by uncertainty in the blackbody radiation Stark shift. Read More

We have extended Ramsey spectroscopy by stepping the probe frequency during the two Ramsey excitation pulses to compensate frequency shifts induced by the excitation itself. This makes precision Ramsey spectroscopy applicable even for transitions that have Stark and Zeeman shifts comparable to the spectroscopic resolution. The method enables a new way to evaluate and compensate key frequency shifts, which benefits in particular, optical clocks based on magnetic field-induced, spectroscopy, two-photon transitions, or heavily forbidden transitions. Read More

At ultracold temperatures, the Pauli exclusion principle suppresses collisions between identical fermions. This has motivated the development of atomic clocks using fermionic isotopes. However, by probing an optical clock transition with thousands of lattice-confined, ultracold fermionic Sr atoms, we have observed density-dependent collisional frequency shifts. Read More

We report an uncertainty evaluation of an optical lattice clock based on the $^1S_0\leftrightarrow^3P_0$ transition in the bosonic isotope $^{174}$Yb by use of magnetically induced spectroscopy. The absolute frequency of the $^1S_0\leftrightarrow^3P_0$ transition has been determined through comparisons with optical and microwave standards at NIST. The weighted mean of the evaluations is $\nu$($^{174}$Yb)=518 294 025 309 217. Read More

We present an experimental study of the lattice induced light shifts on the 1S_0-3P_0 optical clock transition (v_clock~518 THz) in neutral ytterbium. The ``magic'' frequency, v_magic, for the 174Yb isotope was determined to be 394 799 475(35)MHz, which leads to a first order light shift uncertainty of 0.38 Hz on the 518 THz clock transition. Read More

Optical atomic clocks promise timekeeping at the highest precision and accuracy, owing to their high operating frequencies. Rigorous evaluations of these clocks require direct comparisons between them. We have realized a high-performance remote comparison of optical clocks over km-scale urban distances, a key step for development, dissemination, and application of these optical standards. Read More

The identification of genes essential for survival is important for the understanding of the minimal requirements for cellular life and for drug design. As experimental studies with the purpose of building a catalog of essential genes for a given organism are time-consuming and laborious, a computational approach which could predict gene essentiality with high accuracy would be of great value. We present here a novel computational approach, called NTPGE (Network Topology-based Prediction of Gene Essentiality), that relies on network topology features of a gene to estimate its essentiality. Read More

We present a simple model to study micellization of amphiphiles condensed on a rodlike polyion. Although the mean field theory leads to a first order micellization transition for sufficiently strong hydrophobic interactions, the simulations show that no such thermodynamic phase transition exists. Instead, the correlations between the condensed amphiphiles can result in a structure formation very similar to micelles. Read More

We study random walks on the dilute hypercube using an exact enumeration Master equation technique, which is much more efficient than Monte Carlo methods for this problem. For each dilution $p$ the form of the relaxation of the memory function $q(t)$ can be accurately parametrized by a stretched exponential $q(t)=\exp(-(t/\tau)^\beta)$ over several orders of magnitude in $q(t)$. As the critical dilution for percolation $p_c$ is approached, the time constant $\tau(p)$ tends to diverge and the stretching exponent $\beta(p)$ drops towards 1/3. Read More

We show using extensive simulation results and physical arguments that an Ising system on a two dimensional square lattice, having interactions of random sign between first neighbors and ferromagnetic interactions between second neighbors, presents a phase transition at a non-zero temperature. Read More

Affiliations: 1Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris Sud, 2Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris Sud, 3Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris Sud, 4Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris Sud, 5Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica, 6Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica

Numerical simulations on Ising Spin Glasses show that spin glass transitions do not obey the usual universality rules which hold at canonical second order transitions. On the other hand the dynamics at the approach to the transition appear to take up a universal form for all spin glasses. The implications for the fundamental physics of transitions in complex systems are addressed. Read More

We demonstrate numerically that for Ising spins on square lattices with ferromagnetic second neighbour interactions and random near neighbour interactions, two dimensional Ising spin glass order with a non-zero freezing temperature can occur. We compare some of the physical properties of these spin glasses with those of standard spin glasses in higher dimensions. Read More

The dynamics of an extremely diluted neural network with high order synapses acting as corrections to the Hopfield model is investigated. As in the fully connected case, the high order terms may strongly improve the storage capacity of the system. The dynamics displays a very rich behavior, and in particular a new chaotic phase emerges depending on the weight of the high order connections $\epsilon$, the noise level $T$ and the network load defined as the rate between the number of stored patterns and the mean connectivity per neuron $\alpha =P/C$. Read More